Browsing by Subject "Levant"

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  • Mammola, Stefano; Aharon, Shlomi; Seifan, Merav; Lubin, Yael; Gavish-Regev, Efrat (2019)
    Caves are excellent model systems to study the effects of abiotic factors on species distributions due to their selective conditions. Different ecological factors have been shown to affect species distribution depending on the scale of analysis, whether regional or local. The interplay between local and regional factors in explaining the spatial distribution of cave-dwelling organisms is poorly understood. Using the troglophilic subterranean spider Artema nephilit (Araneae: Pholcidae) as a model organism, we investigated whether similar environmental predictors drive the species distribution at these two spatial scales. At the local scale, we monitored the abundance of the spiders and measured relevant environmental features in 33 caves along the Jordan Rift Valley. We then extended the analysis to a regional scale, investigating the drivers of the distribution using species distribution models. We found that similar ecological factors determined the distribution at both local and regional scales for A. nephilit. At a local scale, the species was found to preferentially occupy the outermost, illuminated, and warmer sectors of caves. Similarly, mean annual temperature, annual temperature range, and solar radiation were the most important drivers of its regional distribution. By investigating these two spatial scales simultaneously, we showed that it was possible to achieve an in-depth understanding of the environmental conditions that governs subterranean species distribution.
  • Hyvärinen-Hellberg, Eija (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Eksegeettisen tutkimuksen kohteena ovat Ugaritin tekstien Baal ja Anat -kertomussikermä ja Vanhan testamentin psalmit 74 ja 77. Tekstien sisältämiä viittauksia kaaokseen, jonka epiteettinä ovat meri, lohikäärme, Leviatan tai Lotan, joet ja virrat sekä suuret vedet, analysoidaan laaja-alaisen synkronisen tutkimuksen, narratiivisen ja ikonografisen menetelmän keinoin. Tekstit analysoidaan historialliskriittisin, diakronisin menetelmin. Analyysin tuloksia peilataan Levantin, muinaisen Orinetin kulttuureiden kuva-aineistoon pronssi- ja rautakauden ajalta. Merkityksiä peilataan myös sosio-ekonomiseen ympäristöön. Mesopotamian valtakuntien sinettien ja sylintereiden kuvakieltä samoin, kuin arkeologisten yksittäisten esineiden kantamia merkityksiä liitetään tekstiin. Kuvallisena aineistona on Frankfortin sinettejä käsittelevä tutkimus ja Keelin teostensisältämä kuva-analyysi. Tutkimuksen fokus on kysymyksessä, avaako kuvakieli tekstin merkityksiä ja luoko se uusia tutkimusnäkökulmia. Ras Shamran mytologisten, Baalia ja Anatia käsittelevien tekstien tutkimuksen fokus on meren jumaluuteen Yammiin personifioitu kaaos, elämää tuhoava voima. Hänen suhdettaan peilataan luojajumala Eliin ja myrskyn ja hedelmällisyyden jumalaan Baaliin. Esille tulee arkaaisen ihmisen maailmankuva ja kognitiivinen prosessi sellaisena kuin se kuvissa ilmenee. Tekstien merkityksen löytämiseksi niiden sisältöön sovelletaan Dumezilin sosiaalista teoriaa. Teorian sovellus nojaa Langin siitä tekemään tulkintaan. Hän luokittaa jumaluuden ilmenemismuodot hierarkiseksi, kolmiportaiseksi pantheoniksi, joka peilaa yhteiskunnan eriytynyttä sosiaalirakennetta. Tutkimus etsii Ugaritin mytologisten tekstien ja psalmitekstien” sitz im lebeniä”. Onko psalmien tekstikohdissa kaikuja Ugaritin tekstien mytologisista hahmoista nhr, lotan, seitsenpäinen lohikäärme ja kiemurtava käärme? Työ esittelee Løgstrupin analyysin ihmisenä olemisen alkukantaisista ilmaisuista, jotka ilmenevät myötätunnon, nöyryyden, rakkauden, surun ja toivon ilmauksina. Se tarkastelee kaaoksen ilmenemisen muotoja vihaa, kateutta ja mustasukkaisuutta. Psalmien kyyhkyskuvan ja tekstien pyhän kohtaamisen kuvauksissa tutkin, mitä ne merkitsevät yksilölle ja yhteisölle. Lyhyesti voi Ugaritin tekstien fokuksen olevan jumaluuksien maailmassa ja kultissa, kun taas psalmeissa fokus on inhimillisen ja jumalallisen dialogissa. Kohtaamisen merkitys todentuu elämää kannatteleven voimien ilmaisussa trauman kokeneessa yhteisössä.
  • Lundmark, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In this study I look ahead into the immediate postwar future in Syria. The purpose of my study is to review political processes that could break the pattern of recurring violence and support long-term stabilization. It seems to me that peace processes and the international discussion surrounding them have become what could perhaps be called ‘pacifitized’ – too charged with assumptions and contest to yield substantial results. Actors and conflict parties spend more time on blaming each other than discussing tangible solutions. This has been too scarcely noted in previous conflict resolution literature. Postwar issues need to become the intrinsic focus of peace negotiations. To bring this development about, the discussion around peace needs to become less charged with antagonizing communication. I utilize a combination of several political theory approaches for this study. Power political decisions are suited by a realist view, whereas cooperative communal projects benefit of a liberal perspective. These approaches are supplemented with additions from poststructuralism and postcolonialism. The Syrian scene is a complex conflict matrix that cannot sufficiently be analyzed with one theory alone. I also review experience from previous sectarian conflicts to find cases the Syrian situation can be compared to. Past experiences from similar conflict structures can be revisited to avoid making the same miscalculations that were made before. Processes resulting in a positive outcome in one setting, combined with the knowledge on another specific local, can be adjusted and applied in a new context. Syria seems to again have become a proxy battle ground for great power interests. Regardless of where the power ultimately settles, the governing party will have a shortage on legitimacy. The Syrian political sphere needs to open up and adequate postwar stabilization efforts commence. Introduction of inclusive societal elements can further be one of the most effective ways to combat spoilers. The task of building an inclusive society and countering antagonization is arduous and costly. Funding for retribution and rebuilding could perhaps be collected into a global fund established for this cause. Changes will take time, and they need to take place on all societal levels. For the aim of ensuring local support, the peace process needs to be rooted in the local from the start. This will also limit the amount of issues that parties can use for objects of pacifitization. To summarize, the processes set into motion need to be ones that firstly, the local community agrees with and secondly, ones that can plausibly be considered to become self-sustainable in the future. This requires sturdy planning from trials to funding of the process, preferably already before an international intervention into the conflict is conducted. International support for peace processes will continuously be called for, but for the previously mentioned reasons, the local should be the uncontested focus of all peace processes.
  • Kletter, Raz (2018)