Browsing by Subject "Life course"

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  • Grundström, Jenna; Konttinen, Hanna; Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli (2021)
    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between relationship status and mental well-being in four different phases during the life course, and to identify whether relationship quality moderated these associations. We used a broader concept of relationship status (instead of marital status) and also included the positive dimension of mental health. Participants in a Finnish cohort study were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1,656), 32 (N = 1,471), 42 (N = 1,334), and 52 (N = 1,159). Measures in all study panels covered relationship status (marriage, cohabitation, dating, single and divorced/widowed), Short Beck Depression Inventory (S-BDI), self-esteem (seven items) and relationship quality (six items). Analyses were carried out using linear regression. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were associated with depressive symptoms at every age in men. For women, in turn, being single - but not being divorced/widowed - was associated with depressive symptoms. Among men, being single or being divorced/widowed were also associated with lower self-esteem at age 32, 42 and 52, but in women, only one association between lower self-esteem and being single was found at age 32. Of the age stages, the age 32 is highlighted in men, at which point all relationship statuses were risk factors compared to marriage. There were only few indications of the moderating role of the relationship quality. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were quite consistently associated with poorer mental well-being during the life course, especially among men. For dating and cohabiting the associations were more fragmented depending on age and gender; particularly among women, these relationship statuses tended not to differ from marriage in terms of mental well-being. These observations on mental well-being across five relationship statuses are important in our contemporary society, where the number of marriages is decreasing, and other forms of relationships are becoming more common.
  • Urtamo, Annele; Huohvanainen, Emmi; Pitkälä, Kaisu H.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2019)
    BackgroundActive and healthy aging (AHA) is an important phenomenon in aging societies.AimsOur aim was to investigate midlife predictors of AHA in a socioeconomically homogenous male cohort.MethodsIn 2010, AHA was defined in the Helsinki Businessmen Study (men born in 1919-1934) with six criteria: (1) being alive, (2) responding to the mailed survey, (3) no reported cognitive problems, (4) feeling of happiness, (5) no difficulties in activities of daily living (ADL), and (6) no significant chronic diseases. Midlife factors were assessed in 1974 (n=1759, mean age 47years). Of the survivors in 2010 (n=839), 10.0% (n=84) fulfilled all AHA criteria, whilst 13.7% (n=115) had chronic diseases but fulfilled other five criteria. Midlife predictors of AHA were analyzed with logistic models.ResultsOf the midlife factors, smoking [Odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.77], higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 0.75, 0.59-0.96), andhigher total cholesterol (OR 0.76, 0.60-0.97)prevented significantly full AHA criteria, whereas higher self-rated health (SRH) (OR 1.73, 1.07-2.80) predicted significantly offulfilling all AHA criteria. Midlife smoking (OR 0.87, 0.84-0.91), higher BMI (OR 0.73, 0.61-0.86), andhigher alcohol consumption (OR 0.73, 0.60-0.90)prevented significantly of fulfilling the five AHA criteria with chronic diseases, and higher SRH (OR 1.90, 1.37-2.63) predictedsignificantly thefive AHA criteria (chronic diseases present).DiscussionOur study suggests that midlife factors, especially good SRH and low levels of cardiovascular risk factors, are associated with AHA.ConclusionsThe study emphasizes the importance of life-course predictors of healthy aging.
  • LifeCycle Project Grp; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Felix, Janine F.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Duijts, Liesbeth (2020)
    Early life is an important window of opportunity to improve health across the full lifecycle. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that exposure to adverse stressors during early life leads to developmental adaptations, which subsequently affect disease risk in later life. Also, geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic differences are related to health inequalities from early life onwards. To address these important public health challenges, many European pregnancy and childhood cohorts have been established over the last 30 years. The enormous wealth of data of these cohorts has led to important new biological insights and important impact for health from early life onwards. The impact of these cohorts and their data could be further increased by combining data from different cohorts. Combining data will lead to the possibility of identifying smaller effect estimates, and the opportunity to better identify risk groups and risk factors leading to disease across the lifecycle across countries. Also, it enables research on better causal understanding and modelling of life course health trajectories. The EU Child Cohort Network, established by the Horizon2020-funded LifeCycle Project, brings together nineteen pregnancy and childhood cohorts, together including more than 250,000 children and their parents. A large set of variables has been harmonised and standardized across these cohorts. The harmonized data are kept within each institution and can be accessed by external researchers through a shared federated data analysis platform using the R-based platform DataSHIELD, which takes relevant national and international data regulations into account. The EU Child Cohort Network has an open character. All protocols for data harmonization and setting up the data analysis platform are available online. The EU Child Cohort Network creates great opportunities for researchers to use data from different cohorts, during and beyond the LifeCycle Project duration. It also provides a novel model for collaborative research in large research infrastructures with individual-level data. The LifeCycle Project will translate results from research using the EU Child Cohort Network into recommendations for targeted prevention strategies to improve health trajectories for current and future generations by optimizing their earliest phases of life.
  • von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Haanpaa, Maija; Salonen, Minna; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G. (2018)
    Aims Early exit from the workforce has been proposed to be one of the unfavorable consequences of diabetes. We examined whether early exit from the workforce differed between persons who were and were not diagnosed with diabetes during their work career. Methods The cohort included 12,726 individuals of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born between 1934 and 1944. Using data from nationwide registers, the cohort was followed up from early adulthood until they transitioned into retirement or died. Work- loss years were estimated using the restricted mean work years method. Results During a follow-up of 382,328 person-years for men and 349 894 for women, 36.8% transitioned into old age pension and 63.2% exited workforce early. Among men, 40.5% of those with and 32.8% of those without diabetes transitioned into old age pension (p=0.003). The corresponding numbers for women were 48.6% and 40.4% (p = 0.013), respectively. Mean age at exit from the workforce was 60.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.6 to 60.7) years among men with diabetes and 57.6 (95% CI, 57.2 to 58.0) years among men without diabetes (p = 0.016). Among women, corresponding ages were 61.4 (95% CI, 60.8 to 61.9) years for those with diabetes and 59.5 (95% CI, 59.3 to 59.7) years for those without diabetes (p <0.001). The difference in mean restricted work-loss years according to diabetes was 2.5 (95% CI 0.5 to 4.6) for men and 1.9 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8) for women. Among individuals followed up throughout their work career, those with a diabetes diagnosis exited the workforce approximately two years later compared to those without diabetes.
  • Lorenti, Angelo; Dudel, Christian; Hale, Jo Mhairi; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    The ability to work at older ages depends on health and education. Both accumulate starting very early in life. We assess how childhood disadvantages combine with education to affect working and health trajectories. Applying multistate period life tables to data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for the period 2008–2014, we estimate how the residual life expectancy at age 50 is distributed in number of years of work and disability, by number of childhood disadvantages, gender, and race/ethnicity. Our findings indicate that number of childhood disadvantages is negatively associated with work and positively with disability, irrespective of gender and race/ethnicity. Childhood disadvantages intersect with low education resulting in shorter lives, and redistributing life years from work to disability. Among the highly educated, health and work differences between groups of childhood disadvantage are small. Combining multistate models and inverse probability weighting, we show that the return of high education is greater among the most disadvantaged.