Browsing by Subject "Lithuania"

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  • Kazlauskaite, Ruta (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The Master’s thesis examines historical memory of the Polish minority members in Lithuania with regard to how their interpretation of the common Polish-Lithuanian history reiterates or differs from the official Polish and Lithuanian narratives conveyed by the school textbooks. History teaching in high schools carries a crucial state-supported role of 'identity building policies' – it maintains a national narrative of memory, which might be exclusive to minorities and their peculiar understanding of history. Lithuanians Poles, in this regard, represent a national minority, which is exposed to two conflicting national narratives of the common past – Polish and Lithuanian. As members of the Polish nation, their understanding of the common Polish-Lithuanian history is conditioned by the Polish historical narrative, acquired as part of the collective memory of the family and/or different minority organizations. On the other hand, they encounter Lithuanian historical narrative of the Polish-Lithuanian past throughout the secondary school history education, where the curriculum, even if taught in Polish, largely represents the Lithuanian point of view. The concept of collective memory is utilized to refer to collective representations of national memory (i.e. publicly articulated narratives and images of collective past in history textbooks) as well as to socially framed individual memories (i.e. historical memory of minority members, where individual remembering is framed by the social context of their identity). The thesis compares the official national historical narratives in Lithuania and Poland, as conveyed by the Polish and Lithuanian history textbooks. The consequent analysis of qualitative interviews with the Polish minority members in Lithuania offers insights into historical memory of Lithuanian Poles and its relation to the official Polish and Lithuanian national narratives of the common past. Qualitative content analysis is applied in both parts of the analysis. The narratives which emerge from the interview data could be broadly grouped into two segments. First, a more pronounced view on the past combines the following elements: i) emphasis on the value of multicultural and diverse past of Lithuania, ii) contestation of 'Lithuanocentricity' of the Lithuanian narrative and iii) rejection of the term 'occupation', based on the cultural presuppositions – the dominant position of Polish culture and language in the Vilnius region, symbolic belonging and 'Lithuanianness' of the local Poles. While the opposition to the term of 'occupation' is in accord with the official Polish narrative conveyed by the textbooks, the former two elements do not neatly adhere to either Polish or Lithuanian textbook narratives. They should rather be considered as an expression of claims for inclusion of plural pasts into Lithuanian collective memory and hence as claims for symbolic enfranchisement into the Lithuanian 'imagined community'. The second strand of views, on the other hand, does not exclude assertions about the historically dominant position of Polish culture in Lithuania, but at the same time places more emphasis on the political and historical continuity of the Lithuanian state and highlights a long-standing symbolic connectedness of Vilnius and Lithuania, thus, striking a middle way between the Polish and Lithuanian interpretations of the past.
  • Tubys, Lukrecijus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Lithuanian neo-pagan community “Romuva” approached the Lithuanian parliament to grant it state’s recognition. According to the Ministry of Justice, the religious community met all necessary requirements – it has been registered for 25 years, its customs and creeds do not contradict law and morals, and it has support in the society. However, the Lithuanian parliament voted against granting the new status. This thesis aims on how was the legal recognition of the “Romuva” argued for and against in the public media and the Lithuanian parliament and what kind of understanding of neo-paganism in particular and religion in general was constructed in these arguments. To achieve the goal two sets of data were analyzed: all articles related with “Romuva” recognition appeared on the most popular as well as pro-christian and pro-romuvian media sites from 2018-2020. Also public records from the Lithuanian parliament during submission and consideration phases, letters to parliamentarians. The data was also structured in a timeline to track the development of arguments. Findings show that even though the question for recognition is legal, during the debate historical and political arguments were dominating. Many of them did not relate with requirements for the recognition officially set by the Ministry of Justice. The biggest involvement in the question was demonstrated by pro-christian community’s members – politicians, scholars. The recognition for neo-pagans was strongly resisted by the dominant religion in Lithuania Christian Church
  • Marcinkute, Audrone; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Moks, Epp; Saarma, Urmas; Jokelainen, Pikka; Bagrade, Guna; Laivacuma, Sniedze; Strupas, Kestutis; Sokolovas, Vitalijus; Deplazes, Peter (2015)
    In the Baltic countries, the two zoonotic diseases, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis, and cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus, are of increasing public health concern. Observations from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania indicate that the distribution of both parasites is wider in the Baltics than previously expected. In this paper, we review and discuss the available data, regarding both parasitoses in animals and humans, from the Baltic countries and selected adjacent regions. The data are not easily comparable but reveal a worrisome situation as the number of human AE and CE cases is increasing. Despite improvements in diagnostics and treatment, AE has a high morbidity and mortality in the Baltic region. For the control of both zoonoses, monitoring transmission patterns and timely diagnosis in humans as well as the development of local control programs present major challenges. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Knuuttila, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 38/2015
    The report describes the results of pilot project aimed at improving the quality of data on transboundary nutrient loads, in particular, in the rivers Daugava and Nemunas. Two sampling rounds (in May and November 2013) were organised and executed by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) in close cooperation with representatives from the participating countries, one laboratory from Latvia, two from Lithuania, three from Belarus and one from Finland. The results from the total nitrogen analyses of the different laboratories were in general comparable, while the total phosphorus results varied between the laboratories. One explanation might be that the analytical methods applied were not fully comparable; for example, the filtration of the samples before analysis of total phosphorus may have affected the results. Highest concentrations were observed at the Belarusian border. Both absolutely and relatively high concentrations of dissolved phosphorus in the rivers give an indication of a clear anthropogenic influence. A key finding of the project was that a reasonably good consensus and comparability has been reached on the phosphorus and nitrogen loads originating in the upstream catchment area and flowing into Latvia and Lithuania – even if the results were produced through separate data sets and by partly different methods. This is a good starting point for the efforts to further estimate the retention in the lower reaches in the Latvian and Lithuanian territories of the two rivers and the percentage of the transboundary nutrient loads which finally enter into the Baltic Sea. An equally important result of the project is the ability to now present – in connection with the data on the total riverine loads measured at the mouth of the rivers Daugava and Nemunas – complete data sets on nutrient loads at the border between Latvia or Lithuania and Belarus. This data also sup-ports the assessment of transboundary nutrient loads originating in the territory of Belarus (and Russia) in the catchment area of these two rivers.
  • Koivisto, Satu; Perttola, Wesa; Latvakoski, Niko (2018)
    The huge scientific and interpretive value of wetland archaeological sites has been well demonstrated in several studies. The management of the archaeological resource of wetland landscapes is problematic, however, and there is an urgent need for noninvasive techniques to detect waterlogged organic archaeological remains. Stationary wooden fishing structures associated with fishing sites constitute an important wetland archaeological resource in northern Europe. In Finland, similar wooden constructions have been used for fishing from prehistory to the early modern era. The discovery of sites has been accidental, because the waterlogged organic remains have been considered invisible to conventional geoprospection techniques. Because of this, a small project was launched at Lamminoja, northwest Finland, in order to investigate whether it would be possible to improve our chances to detect fishery sites in demanding wetland habitats. New information was obtained through geophysical prospection, trial excavations, and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating. Geophysical testing was hampered by several factors, including complex sediments affected by modern drainage. New information was obtained, however, on the composition, age, and spatial distribution of the wooden fishing structures preserved in peat over 5000 years.
  • Ilmjärv, Magnus (2004)
    Until the present time the foreign policy of the Baltic states between-the-wars period has not been sufficiently researched. Therefore the work at hand attempts to determine among other issues the nature of relations between the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian presidents – Konstantin Päts, Kārlis Ulmanis and Antanas Smetona respectively – and the Soviet Union. Specifically it also tries to provide answers to the following questions: first, what prevented the Baltic states from cooperating politically and militarily; second, what kind of relations existed between the Baltic states and the Great Powers – Great Britain, Germany, the Soviet Union and Poland; third, what was implied by the policy of neutrality, declared in the second half of 1930-s. The author of the work at hand attempts to answer the question why in the fall of 1939 the Baltic states were not able to collaborate politically and militarily, and why, unlike Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania chose the path of unconditional surrender. The work at hand observes the relations between the Baltic states in the context of the foreign policies and international relationships of both the Soviet Union and Germany. Furthermore a close attention is paid to the influence wielded to the foreign policies of the Baltic states by the economic policies of the Soviet Union and Germany. As for the domestic policies of the Baltic states, only their influence on foreign policies of these states is being dealt with. All in all the main emphasis is placed on the foreign policy of Estonia, whereas the foreign policies of Latvia and Lithuania are treated to a lesser extent. The simultaneous utilization of archives from both the former Soviet Union and the Western states has disclosed many hitherto unknown facts and thus has helped to paint a more correct picture of characters involved, events taken place and has depicted the general flow of history in a somewhat different light than recognized in earlier times. Also the use of a wide base of source materials has helped the author to present a clearer picture of all factors leading to the loss of independence of three Baltic states in 1940.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.