Browsing by Subject "Logopaedics"

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  • Kanerva, Henna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objective. The previous studies have focused mainly on deviant linguistic processing regarding dyslexia, while people's experiences and contextual factors have received less attention. This study gives voice to the dyslexic students who can tell about their own experiences about dyslexia. Additionally, the objective of this study is to examine what kind of difficulties the students face while studying and which strengths they have. This study can bring a new perspective and decrease prejudices towards dyslexia. Method. Focused interview was used as a method of this study. The interviews consisted of questions inspired by the previous literature. Eight students were interviewed, six of them were studying at the university and two of them were studying at the university of applied sciences. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The transcriptions were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusion. On the basis of the analysis the interviews included several positive aspects. Many of the participants told they were quite open about their own dyslexia. They were also used to observe their learning and they had found several useful ways to learn. Many of them used deep learning as their learning method. They had also coped several difficulties and they believed in themselves. Especially organizing big amount of information, learning foreign languages and organizing different studying was challenging for them. Several participants reported that their learning was quite slow. In this study dyslexia was a phenomenon, not only a limitation. All the students have their strengths and limitations, regardless if they have a dyslexia or not.
  • Järvinen, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects social interaction, communication and behavior. Since effective communication and interaction is a prerequisite for learning, the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) methods has been considered necessary in study environments. The education professionals' perspectives and attitudes towards the use of AAC methods have been linked to the extent to which they support the development of communication skills of their pupils using communication aids. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of autism classroom teachers and classroom assistants in the use of AAC methods. This topic is examined based on the benefits and challenges that autism education professionals associate with the use of communication aids, the number of factors contributing to the successful use of the AAC methods as well as the development of the students' communication skills. In this study nine education professionals who worked in autism education classrooms and school's afternoon activities in Helsinki were interviewed. The interviews were conducted as semi-structured individual interviews, which discussed the use of AAC methods for students with ASD. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by using inductive thematic analysis approach. Finally, the themes of each research question were compared with each other. Based on the results of this study, AAC methods are particularly useful not only for communication between students and education professionals, but also for the students' ability to express themselves, to develop better social skills and to become more independent in their everyday lives. The challenges of using AAC methods related to usability factors, students' developmental abnormalities, education professionals' practices and various resource issues. Professional co-operation, motivation, favorable usability factors of the AAC methods, and factors related to the activities and roles of education professionals were seen to influence the successful use of the AAC methods and to improve the students' communication skills. In addition, the interviewees strongly emphasized the importance of students' spontaneous communication and speech development in the motivation and work satisfaction of education professionals. The autism classroom teachers' and classroom assistants' experiences in the use of AAC methods emphasize the importance of training and multiprofessional co-operation in support of the use of communication aids and development of students' communication skills. Based on the results of this study, the speech therapists' counseling activities can be regarded as significant for the development and maintenance of the education professionals' AAC skills and for constituting positive attitudes related to the use of AAC methods. This study highlights the importance of further research focusing particularly on more specific identification of challenges related to the use of AAC methods in autism classroom education.
  • Heino, Wilma (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objective. Preterm birth can cause challenges for early interaction between parent and infant. Early interaction is the basis for language and cognitive development, so parents play an essential part in supporting the development of their preterm child. Very little research of early interaction has been made from the fathers' point of view. The aim of this study was to depict fathers' experiences of early interaction with their prematurely born infants and examine the effect premature birth has on fatherhood. Participants and methods. The participants were four fathers of prematurely born infants and eight fathers of full-term infants. The prematurely born children were born between 30+4–33+6 weeks of gestation and weighed between 1 400–2 900 grams at birth. At the time of the study the premature infants were between 2–7 months of corrected age. The full-term children were between 1–6 months of age at the time of the study. The method of this study was semi-structured interview. The themes were composed for this study, based on previous research on premature birth, parenthood and early interaction. A pilot interview was carried out prior to the research interviews. The research interviews were conducted in autumn 2016. A theory-based content analysis and theme identification was carried out. Results and conclusions. The fathers described feelings of stress and anxiety, but felt that most of the support available for parents of premature children was focused on the mothers. The fathers' experiences differed most with the time spent in the hospital, the perceived fragility and passivity of the child, the concern over the well-being of the mother and the strain of childcare. Similar types of play were used in both groups. The premature infants had more variation in sleep and eye-contact. The results indicate there should be more support available for the fathers of prematurely born children.
  • Rantanen, Eveliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. Assessment of language development and differential diagnosis between typical bilingual language development and developmental language disorders in bilingual children is difficult due to lack of appropriate diagnostic tools and norms. Dynamic assessment has been proposed as a complementary method in which learning potential is assessed instead of current language skills. Graduated prompting as dynamic assessment method involves helping children with the tasks by presenting graduated prompts. The aim of the study was to add information about the dynamic assessment of language skills in preschool-age children acquiring Finnish as their second language and its applicability in the differential diagnosis. Methods. A dynamic assessment method was translated and adapted into Finnish and piloted with eight bilingual children aged between 4 to 6 years whose home language was not Finnish, Swedish or Sami language. Half of the children were typically developing bilinguals and half were bilinguals with diagnosed or suspected developmental language impairment. Children's language skills and learning of receptive and expressive vocabulary as well as sentence production were assessed. Test scores were analyzed quantitatively and compared between groups and matched pairs. The usefulness of the prompts was analyzed qualitatively. In addition, the usability and the suitability of the method for the assessment of bilingual children were examined. Results and conclusions. The typically developing children scored slightly higher in the dynamic measures of vocabulary. In the static pre- or post measures of vocabulary or in the measures of sentence production no such difference was found. The results of the vocabulary assessment were in line with previous studies stating dynamic assessment having potential as a differential diagnostic tool. Score differences were minor and the sample was small, thus the results cannot be generalized. The assessment method is short enough to be carried out in single assessment session but complicated to use and rate. The used tasks need be improved further. However, new dynamic assessment methods in Finnish can be developed based on the information gathered in the study.
  • Rantakangas, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. Verbal apraxia might occur with aphasia. Apraxia may impact on person`s ability to be in talk-in-interaction with. Little is known about how apraxia of speech might influence talk-in-interaction and a person`s use of gestures. Even the less is known how these communication strategies will change by time. In addition, a person with apraxia must find new communication strategies. To help a person with apraxia of speech to communicate better with their significant others there is a need for information: how one can support a person with verbal apraxia the most effective way. The aim of this study is to explore how the sequential organization of conversation is constructed with a person with apraxia of speech and non-fluent aphasia and a speech therapist and how gestures are used by person with verbal apraxia for one year. Methods. The participant was a 78-year-old woman who had a verbal apraxia and aphasia. The qualitive data consisted of 3 videotaped conversations with person with apraxia and non-fluent aphasia and a speech therapist (58 minutes, 50 seconds of raw data). The data was collected for one year. Focus of the analysis was on changes in the conversation organization and the use of semiotic resources in conversation for one year. The method of conversation analysis is utilized in this study. Results and conclusions. The qualitive analysis in this study showed that conversation between the speakers were typically consisted of `hint and guess` sequences. The first data (videotaped 3 weeks after the stroke) revealed that the participant was almost speechless and her use of gestures was fussy. The lack of speech and fussy gesturing made her utterances difficult to understand and conversation consisted of long negotiation turns. After six months, the participant`s utterances and the use of gestures were more detailed and she showed more active role in interaction. After one year, the participant`s utterances and gestures were even more detailed. According to these improvements, the length of negotiation turns decreased and conversation started to go along more fluent. The way how the participant used iconic gestures and pantomime were different when comparing to other studies. One potential hypothesis is that the apraxia might influence negatively one's ability to use gestures for compensatory strategies. According to these results, it is important to research more about apraxia and talk-in-interaction.
  • Karhu, Anu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aim: An undiagnosed language learning disability, such as SLI (specific language impairment), may play a role in an adult immigrant's learning problems. There is no previous research in Finland on referrals to assessment or the assessment process of adult immigrants based on symptoms of SLI. The purpose of this study was to find out how SLI symptoms are recognized in adult immigrants, how are referrals for assessment being made and what kind of specific issues are related to these assessments. Methods: The methods in this study are a short email survey and semi-structured interviews. The survey and the interviews were carried out between March 2016 and Ferbruary 2017. The survey area covered the whole country, but all but one of the interviews were carried out in three regions of Southern Finland. The research material consists of the email responses from 27 health care professionals and one teacher as well as the interviews of two L2 teachers, two adult immigrants, two SLTs and one neurologist. The material was analyzed with theory-bound content analysis. Results and conclusions: The results show that adult immigrants are rarely referred to assessment based on symptoms of SLI. There is no uniform practice in referring adult immigrants to an SLP. Health care professionals see diagnosing an SLI in adult immigrants as problematic, since a person's learning abilities may be affected by a number of other background factors besides an SLI. L2 teachers have a crucial role in recognizing verbal learning disabilities in adult immigrants as well as in referring them to assessment. Special knowledge gained on learning disabilities helps them in recognizing verbal learning disabilities. However, recognizing the problem and referring a person to assessment may be delayed due to lack of background information, lack of information about assessment opportunities and immigrants not being open about their learning difficulties. The composition of the team involved in the assessment process may vary, and there is no harmonised assessing protocol to follow. The use of assessment methods is largely based on the clinicians' own clinical experience. A clinical interview is an important assessment method. An interpreter also plays a vital role in the assessment, but the use of an interpreter involves challenges of its own.
  • Parkkinen, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to examine if the Alzheimer's disease's (AD's) advancement affects the vocabulary used in diaries. This is achieved by concentrating on use of parts of speech. The changes caused by AD in written Finnish language have not been studied thoroughly, unlike the changes in spoken language. Also internationally, research on the current topic is sparse and in the existing studies, the main focus has been on spoken language and specific parts of speech. For example, the studies have concentrated solely on verbs, nouns or pronouns. Thus, there is need for a study, taking all parts of speech into account. The data used in this research are the diaries of an AD patient written during years from 1986 to 2012. From this data, the entries written on June of 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 were examined. The selected diary entries were handled using quantitative methods with a custom made Python program. This approach allowed to effectively calculate and compare the use of parts of speech between the examined years. By examining the results, it was noticed that the division of written words between the parts of speech remained almost the same on every year examined. The most common part of speech was nouns, followed by verbs, adverbs, particles, adpositions. The number of diary entries and their lengths decreased from year 1986 to year 2012. The relative fractions of parts of speech remained stable, except for pronouns. The fraction of pronouns increased with the advancement of the disease. This supports the results of previous studies about the usage of pronouns by AD patients. This study is a part of a larger research project, and one of the first case studies handling the written language and AD in Finland. Further investigation in Finnish improves the knowledge on AD, advances the detection methods of AD and allows the use of new methods in rehabilitation.
  • Jauhiainen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia in Finland. Very early on, it can impair the linguistic and cognitive abilities. Dysgraphia, the disorder in writing, is a common symptom in Alzheimer’s disease. There has been little research on dysgraphia and texts written by people suffering from dementia in Finland, and presumably no research has been done previously regarding the cohesion of written texts. The aim of this study is to examine, if the number of cohesive devices, the linguistic devices creating cohesion, changes in the diary entries written by a person with Alzheimer’s disease as the disease progresses, and if it is possible to see the outset of the possible changes. The data of this study were the diaries written by a person with Alzheimer’s disease during the years 1967–2012. The diary entries written in June 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012 were selected for the analysis. The number of grammatical and lexical cohesive devices as well as the number of exophoric pronouns or the pronouns referring to the extralinguistic situation in the diary entries was counted. The IBM SPSS Statistics 24 program was used for the quantitative analysis of the data. A scatter diagram of the number of the cohesive devices was created, and a line of best fit was added to the diagram in order to demonstrate the temporal changes. The correlation between the number of cohesive devices and years was measured with Spearman’s rho or Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The study showed that the number of all grammatical cohesive devices, exophora, anaphora or the expression that depends upon an antecedent expression and reiteration seemed to have increased as time passed by. The number of all lexical cohesive devices, collocation or the semantically related words and ellipsis or the omission of words seemed to have decreased. The results were not statistically significant. The changes seemed to have begun year 2001, but the result was inaccurate, because the data varied considerably. The writing style of the person with Alzheimer’s disease resembled note taking, which influenced the occurrence of cohesive devices. Examining the spontaneously written texts by people with dementia provides more knowledge of the effects of dementia on the linguistic abilities and the possibility to develop diagnostic tools for the speech-language pathologists.
  • Koivunen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Aim. There are specific characteristics that are representative of augmentative and alternative communication. The communication partner has two roles; as an independent participant and as an assistant that helps to construct the aided speaker’s utterances. The conversation is often described as co-constructive. The aim of this study is to illustrate the interaction by means of a dynamic communication book and the role of a communication partner and the communication aid. Method. This study is based on the Conversation analysis. The interaction is described in detail using concepts such as adjacency pair and sequence. There were one aided participant and two unaided speakers in the study. Interaction was studied in aided speaker-unaided speaker dyads. Results. The conversation and the interaction are constructed by means of dynamic communication book. As an assistant the communication partner interprets the aided speaker’s one symbol gestures and helps to co-construct whole utterances. Partner uses aided AAC modelling together with speech and helps the navigation process by speaking out loud. The typical adjacency pair in this kind of conversation seems to be one symbol gesture and the following interpretation. Typical sequences consist of these adjacency pairs and whole utterance constructions. Conclusion. The asymmetric interaction pattern seems to be conventional in this kind of atypical interaction. Both participants seem to have chosen the pattern as their main communication strategy. The communicative competence of the participants is important when solving communication breakdowns.
  • Sepänmäki, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The Objective. According to many studies, social isolation, decreased quality of life and psychosocial problems such as depression are some of the most difficult consequences of aphasia. The aim of this study was to explore the amount and the quality of aphasic peoples' social participation. The questions of the study were how much and what kind of social events did the participants have and also how happy they were with the quality of the participation. In addition, one aim of this study was to find out what kind of thoughts did the participants have about the impact of aphasia on their social life. The further goal was to survey the importance of aphasia groups. Data and Methods. Four chronically aphasic people were included in the study. They all took part in an aphasia group in an adult education center. The participants kept a diary for two weeks, marked all of their social occasions and gave a satisfaction-score for each of them. Later the participants took part in a semi-structured interview where their views and experiences on social life were examined. In addition, the participants filled the Communication Activity Log to evaluate the amount and the quality of their daily communication Results. The participants participated in different social events every day despite of the severity of the aphasia. The quality of the communication did not seem to have effect on the amount of the communication. The satisfaction in social events was reasonably high with only a few exceptions. Overall, the participants thought that they had succeed to adapt to live with aphasia. Despite the difficulties in communication, they felt that they could participate in social life although they had some limitations. They all avoided occasions with a lot of people because they felt that it was difficult to participate in conversations. All of the participants took regularly part in activities that were targeted for aphasic people because they felt that such occasions were easy to participate in. All of the participants had lost friends after the stroke, and hoped they could participate more in social occasions. Severe solitude or social isolation wasn't, however reported. All of the participants had regular contact with the people that were important for them. The participants felt that the general knowledge about aphasia was quite low, which made it more difficult to communicate with strangers. It was easier to communicate with familiar people, but even the closest family members didn't always understand the consequences of aphasia.
  • Husu, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims and Objectives. Devices for treating stuttering have become more common in the last decades. One of these is an anti-stuttering device based on Altered Auditory Feedback (AAF). The auditory feedback of speech can be altered so that the speaker hears their voice either with a delay (DAF, Delayed Auditory Feedback) from a different frequence (FAF, Frequency Altered Feedback) or utilizing both of these settings simultaneously. The Hospital Districts of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Foniatrics Unit launched an anti-stuttering device trial in 2008. The aim of this study is to provide information on that anti-stuttering device trial, the use of the device and the effects it has on speech. The aim is to discover the occasions when the device can be useful, on what occasions it cannot be used, and what kind of issues the use has caused. There is no former Finnish study on the use of anti-stuttering devices, but internationally the topic has been widely researched. Methods. The research method in this thesis was a survey sent by post. The survey was sent to patients who had participated in the anti-stuttering device trial, and it included two different forms, A and B. Form A was for patients who were still using the device and form B for those who had either returned the device or were not using it. The forms comprise of both open and closed questions. The responses to the open questions were analysed qualitatively by categorizing and sorting into themes, and then coding them to the same data along with the closed question responses. The quantitative analysis of the final data was made with an SPSS-program by calculating frequencies and relative frequencies and by cross-tabulating the dependencies between the variables. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the experiences of the trial participants varied greatly. A majority of the respondents had returned the device, yet almost half of all those who answered the survey had found the device useful. The most common finding was that the anti-stuttering device cannot be utilized in background noise. There had also been technical difficulties with the devices, concerning the settings and battery life. Those who answered form A, i.e. device-users, found it useful on singular occasions, e.g. while speaking on the phone or face to face with another person, or in all communication situations in general. Majority of the respondents had received positive feedback on their speech while using the anti-stuttering device. The most frequent feedback was that the speech of the stutterer was slower and clearer. All those who had received positive feedback would have recommended the anti-stuttering device to stutterers. Opinions on the use of the device are mixed, but based on individual positive experiences testing the device can be recommended when deciding on rehabilitation and therapy methods.
  • Luukkanen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. Specific language impairment (SLI) is a heterogeneous disorder varying in both symptom profile and severity and it often involves a variety of co-morbid problems. Language problems seem to be somewhat persistent until adolescence and adulthood but there is still little known about the wider long-term effects of the disorder. Information could help, for instance, in early identification and prevention of potential problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the childhood diagnosis of SLI on self-perceived quality of life and well-being of young adults aged 20–22 years. The focus was on the subjects' self-perceived health-related quality of life and their own views on the effects of the SLI diagnosis on their lives. The study is part of a larger research project, which examines symptom profiles and longitudinal effects of childhood SLI. Methods. The study was carried out as a survey. The study sample consisted of persons who had received at Lastenlinna, the children's hospital of Helsinki University Central Hospital, a primary diagnosis of specific language impairment (F80.1 expressive and/or F80.2 receptive language disorder) in 1998 or 1999. The survey consisted of a 15D questionnaire measuring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and a separate SLI questionnaire which gathered other information relevant for the study. A total of 74 subjects answered the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 38,5 percent. The data of the multiple-choice questions of the 15D and SLI questionnaires were analysed quantitatively by computing frequencies, averages, standard deviations and percentages of the answers and examining correlations between different variables. Answers of the open question were analysed using qualitative content analysis which brought forth some descriptive themes. Results and conclusions. The subjects perceived their HRQoL (15D) to be significantly worse off compared with age- and gender-matched control population which was apparent in the total 15D score and in several dimensions (hearing, sleeping, speech, usual activities, mental function, depression, distress and vitality). Subjects' views on the effects of the SLI diagnosis on their lives were individual and varied, which reflects the heterogeneous nature of the disorder also from the perspective of the long-term effects. The effects of the SLI diagnosis extended to several areas of life, but the results included also positive effects and mitigation of problems. In the future additional research will be needed to, for instance, identify factors predicting long-term effects of SLI. The acquired information could help to focus the preventive supportive actions, rehabilitation and follow-up on children at greatest risk of negative long-term effects.
  • Vinberg, Martta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to find out how speech and language pathologists use musical methods in speech therapy in Finland. The purpose of the survey was to gather experiences and opinions about this subject. The data was collected in spring 2016. Methods. The survey was made with web-based survey-tool provided by Helsinki University. It was sent to 1209 members of Finnish association of Speech Therapists. The questionnaire was answered by 122 responders (response rate was 10%). There were 25 questions in the survey, with open, closed and combined question types. Open questions were analysed with qualitative methods: answers were categorized and sorted into themes. Closed questions were analysed by quantitative methods by calculating means and frequencies with SPSS-program. Combined questions types were analysed with both methods. Results and conclusions. The responders who had direct speech therapy as part of their job description (N=112) did use diverse musical methods as part of the therapy, but the amount of utilization varied considerably. The methods were used all around Finland, by therapists from different kind of backgrounds concerning the age and the graduate university. Musical methods were used in many patient groups. According to the answers, these methods were especially important if the patient didn't have any kind of speaking ability to use. The most common musical method mentioned was MIT (melodic intonation therapy) which was used by 32% of the responders who did direct speech therapy. The MIT was also the most popular method from which responders would like to have more education of. In the whole sample (N=122), musical methods were used widely in the part of so called indirect or consultative speech therapy, meaning that the speech and language therapists gave recommendations of using music as part of the rehabilitation process at homes, during day care and in the rehabilitation centres. Some responders utilized musical methods also as part of the speech-language assessments. In addition, based on answers the collaboration between speech therapists and music therapists is almost non-existent in Finland. Collaboration with music therapists was hoped. Many responders were interested in the practical education of this subject.
  • Haikarainen, Sanni-Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Medical Sciences Laitos - Institution – Department Department of psychology and logopedics Tekijä - Författare - Author Sanni-Liisa Haikarainen Työn nimi - Arbetets titel Title Verbalizing the chances of nonverbal interaction using the intensive interaction outcomes table Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Logopedics Työn laji/ Ohjaaja - Arbetets art/Handledare – Level/Instructor Master’s Thesis/Kaisa Launonen Aika - Datum - Month and year 01/2018 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 43 pp. + 3 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate how the users of intensive interaction outcomes table estimate the feasibility of it. I was especially interested whether the outcomes table makes it easier to observe and verbalize the changes in a client’s way to use nonverbal interaction. I also wanted to know how the users of intensive interaction outcomes table evaluate the need of improving it. Methods: The data of this study were collected with a questionnaire. The participants were found from the intensive interaction group in Facebook and from the email list of Tikoteekki’s specialist Kaisa Martikainen. The answers were classified thematically with the help of graphic symbols. Results: According to the findings of this study it seems that the intensive interaction outcomes table supports professionals in recognising changes in their client’s ways to use nonverbal interaction. It also helps them in verbalizing the recongized changes. The participants would develop the form by shorting it. It would make it easier to be used in everyday work. Avainsanat - Nyckelord Keywords Intensive interaction, intensive interaction outcomes table, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual impairment, nonverbal interaction Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited Helsinki University Library – Helda / E-thesis (opinnäytteet) Muita tietoja - Övriga uppgifter - Additional information
  • Seppälä, Metti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims. Bilingual language development can have positive or negative effects on phonological development. Children with specific language impairment can have difficulties in phonological skills. This study aimed to compare the paradigmatic and phonotactic skills of sequential bilingual children with SLI to the skills of monolingual children with SLI in the Finnish language. The connection between paradigmatic and phonotactic skills was studied. The effect of bilingual language impaired children's age, sex and duration of Finnish acquisition and the effect of monolingual language impaired children's age and sex on their phonotactic skills was researched. Methods. The participants were sequentially bilingual language impaired children (N = 46) aged 3;5– 5;10 and monolingual language impaired children (N = 46) aged 3;5–5;9. The participants had been recruited to Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study in 2013–2015. The evaluation method was Finnish Test of Phonology (Fonologiatesti). The paradigmatic and phonotactic skills of the two groups were compared using statistical methods. The connection between paradigmatic and phonotactic skills was studied in both groups. A linear regression model was conducted for each group. In both models the dependent variable was phonotactic skills. In the bilingual language impaired group the explanatory variables were age, sex and duration of Finnish acquisition. In the monolingual language impaired group the explanatory variables were age and sex. Results and conclusions. Bilingual children with SLI had better paradigmatic and phonotactic skills compared to monolingual children with SLI. Paradigmatic and phonotactic skills correlated strongly in both groups. The correlations in the monolingual language impaired group were statistically more significant. Age was a statistically significant explanatory variable for phonotactic skills in both groups. The duration of language acquisition of bilingual children with SLI was not a statistically significant explanatory variable for phonotactic skills. Bilingual children with SLI may have more articulate speech than monolingual children with SLI. Bilingualism may function as a protective factor in phonological difficulties associated with SLI.
  • Leinonen, Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tavoitteet. Pikkukeskosina syntyneillä lapsilla on kohonnut riski kielenkehityksen häiriöihin verrattuna täysiaikaisina syntyneisiin lapsiin. Pikkukeskosten lukivalmiustaidoista ja varhaisen kielenkehityksen yhteydestä niihin on kuitenkin vain vähän tietoa. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää pikkukeskosina syntyneiden lasten kahden vuoden iän sanaston koon ja koostumuksen mahdollista yhteyttä lukivalmiustaitoihin viisivuotiaana. Menetelmät. Tutkittavana oli 103 pikkukeskosena syntynyttä lasta ja 119 täysiaikaisena syntynyttä verrokkia. Keskoset ja verrokit olivat osa isompaa Pienipainoisten riskilasten käyttäytyminen ja toimintakyky –tutkimusta. Pikkukeskosten ja verrokkien ilmaistun sanaston koko ja koostumus kaksivuotiaana arvioitiin Varhaisen kommunikaation ja kielen kehityksen arviointimenetelmällä. Lukivalmiustaidot (fonologinen prosessointi ja kiirehditty nimeäminen Nepsy II –testillä, nimeäminen Bostonin nimentätestillä, kirjaintuntemus sekä sanojen ja lauseiden lukeminen) arvioitiin viiden vuoden iässä. Aineisto analysoitiin tilastollisin menetelmin. Sanaston koon, sanakategorioissa olevien sanojen määrän ja sanakategorioiden suhteellisten osuuksien yhteyttä lukivalmiustaitoihin tarkasteltiin Spearmanin korrelaatiokertoimen avulla. Sanaston koon ja koostumuksen selitysastetta hyviin lukivalmiustaitoihin tutkittiin kahden logistisen regressiomallin avulla erikseen keskos- ja verrokkiaineistossa. Ensimmäisessä mallissa selittävät muuttujat olivat sanaston koko, raskauden kesto ja äidin koulutustausta. Toisessa mallissa selittävät muuttujat olivat verbien ja sulkeisen luokan sanojen yhteismäärä, raskauden kesto ja äidin koulutustausta. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Pikkukeskosina ja täysiaikaisina syntyneiden lasten sanaston koko, sanaluokkakategorioiden sanamäärät ja niiden suhteelliset osuudet olivat yhteydessä moniin lukivalmiustaitoihin. Kuitenkin keskosaineistossa korrelaatiot olivat hieman suurempia ja sanaston koon sekä verbien ja sulkeisen luokan sanojen selitysaste hyviin lukivalmiustaitoihin hieman vahvempi kuin verrokkiaineistossa. Tulokset vahvistavat näkemystä pikkukeskosten varhaisen sanaston koon ja koostumuksen yhteydestä myöhempiin kielellisiin taitoihin. Tulosten perusteella keskosten varhaista kielenkehitystä tulisi seurata ja tukea lukivalmiustaitojen parantamiseksi.
  • Rajakaski, Rosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. Early interaction skills are the base for later language development. Very low birth weight (VLBW) children are at a higher risk for developing language difficulties. Earlier studies have shown that both gaze behaviours and early gestures develop differently among VLBW children compared with children born full-term. The assessment of early gestures may provide help in finding at least some of the children who are at risk for later language difficulties. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of gaze behaviours and gestures in VLBW children at the age of one, comparing the results with a control group. We also compared gestures analyzed with the Finnish version of Communicative Development Inventories (FinCDI) to gestures analyzed from video data to examine the possible connection between these different types of assessment tools. Methods. The participants of this study consisted of 10 VLBW children and 10 full-term children (N=20). The same group was also a part of a bigger study, titled Development and functioning of very low birth weight children. In this study, gaze behaviours and gestures were analyzed from video data, divided into four different types of gaze behaviours and five different types of gestures. The possible connection between gaze behaviours and gestures in and between groups was analyzed by using Spearman`s correlation. In addition, Mann Whitney`s U-test was used to analyze the possible differences between these groups. Spearman`s correlation was also used to examine the possible correlation among the two different assessment tools. Results and conclusions. The types of gaze behaviours and gestures used most often by children in both groups were eye contact between mother and child, deictic gestures and gestures with objects. VLBW children had less eye contact, deictic gestures and gestures with objects compared with the full-term group. A significant difference between VLBW children and the control group was found in deictic gestures. It was also found that there was a significant correlation between the two assessment tools when comparing the two groups together (N=20). The results are similar to the findings of earlier studies and indicate that VLBW children use less eye contact and early gestures compared to the control group.
  • Kaasalainen, Iina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aim. Neurogenic stuttering typically starts after brain injury. In previous research the variation of neurogenic stuttering between different tasks has been contradictory. There is a lack of domestic research on neurogenic stuttering and foreign material is similarly limited. Also, consistent practices between investigations are absent from the literature. The purpose of this study is to provide new information on neurogenic stuttering and other aspects of fluency in patients who have brain injuries.Methods. Five people with a brain injury and diagnosis of neurogenic stuttering after injury took part in this research. The control group consisted of five participants with a brain injury but without neurogenic stuttering. Speech tasks included cartoon narration and spontaneous speech. The data was analyzed by calculating speech and articulation rates, the total amount of pauses, non-fluent pauses, pause durations and pause types most commonly occurring for each task. In addition, quantitative and qualitative characteristics of stuttering were evaluated by calculating percentages and average duration of stuttering and by classifying different types of stuttering. Results and conclusions. The speech and articulation rate were slower in cartoon narration task in comparison to spontaneous speech. The durations of pauses were longer and more non-fluent pauses existed in cartoon narration task than spontaneous speech. In both tasks the most common type was the dysrytmic pause. In cartoon narration task, there was more stuttering whereas in spontaneous speech the durations of stuttering were longer in comparison to cartoon narration task. In this research speech task had influence on the variation of quantitative and qualitative characters of speech fluency on neurogenic stutterers.
  • Tappura, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aim: Due to the plasticity of the brain of a child under three years old early intervention can be very effective and affect the growth and development of the child extensively. As a concept early intervention is as yet unestablished within our healthcare system. The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of experiences Finnish speech-language therapists (SLTs) have about the assessment and the rehabilitation of children under three years old and the readiness of SLTs to work with these small children. The study also aimed to find out the reasons why small children are being sent to speech-language therapists. Methods: This study was done by a questionnaire and the material was gathered using an electrical survey with the E-lomake -program of the University of Helsinki between April and May 2016. The questionnaire was delivered to Finnish SLTs via the Finnish Assocation of Speech Therapists and four corporations that employ SLTs. The data was analysed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 24 -program using nonparameterized statistical tests and qualitative grouping. Results and conclusions: The questionnaire was answered by 194 SLTs out of which 111 worked regulary and 73 occasionally with children under three. The SLTs’ know-how about working with small children was mostly based on work experience. The professional capabilities were maintained and developed by additional trainings and literature. A degree in logopedics was considered to provide only minor capabilities toward working with small children. The results indicate that small children are sent to SLTs mostly because of disabilities and delayed speech development. The most popular assessment methods were tests, free observation and interviewing the child’s parents. AAC methods and playing were popular methods of rehabilitation. The practices in rehabilitating small children were varying and based on the available resources. According to the SLTs other healthcare professionals are not aware of what an SLT does and therefore their know-how is not utilized to it’s full extent.
  • Laapotti, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Abstract Study aims: For many, working is a significant part of their daily life and thus well-being at work is considered important. Well-being at work consists of finding one's job meaningful and rewarding. In previous studies, work-counselling has been shown to be an effective method in supporting people's personal growth and ability to function in their professional lives as well as improving their well-being at work. Work-counselling aims to assist people in improving as employees and addressing problematic situations and experiences related to their work by means of reflective conversation. Work-counselling has been discovered to be particularly meaningful with employees within the healthcare sector. Very little research data on the experiences of speech and language therapists (SLT) with work-counselling exists in Finland or globally. The aim of this thesis was to find out how common work-counselling is with SLTs in Finland and how its impact on e.g. well-being at work are perceived by the SLTs. Additionally, the contents and guidelines of work-counselling as well as the goals and desires of SLTs relating to work-counselling were examined. Methods: The study was carried out in survey form via a web questionnaire by the University of Helsinki. The target group of the study were the members of the Finnish Association of Speech Therapists. The web questionnaire was sent to the 1222 members of the association in December of 2016. 330 SLTs participated in the survey, resulting in a response rate of 27%. The survey data was analyzed quantitatively using the IBM SPSS Statistics 24-software, with which means, frequencies, and percentages were calculated from answers to the survey’s multiple-choice questions. The open-ended answers in the survey were analyzed qualitatively by means of content analysis, classification, and grouping of the responses. Results and conclusions: 91% of the respondents reported having received work-counselling and close to half of them had received at least six work-counselling periods. The decision to seek work-counselling was in most cases initiated by the SLT. In most cases, the expenses of the latest work-counselling period were covered by the SLT's employer, and 32% of the respondents reported having paid for their own work-counselling. 84% of the respondents that had received work-counselling perceived it as beneficial and 15% reported having experienced varying benefits. The respondents expressed wishes to receive support in matters relating to occupational safety and their professional skills, including dealing with their professional roles, reviewing practical working methods, exchanging experiences, and professional tips and ideas. Reviewing difficult case studies was also a common desire. Matters relating to occupational safety, such as well-being at work, improving the functionality of the working community, and interaction were also mentioned as desired topics in work-counselling. The results of this thesis increase the understanding of SLTs' experiences with work-counselling. Considering the results presented in this thesis it can be concluded that SLTs experienced work-counselling as an important part of their professional activity that plays a significant role in securing their well-being at work.