Browsing by Subject "Long-term outcome"

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  • Hirvonen, Tuomas; Siironen, Jari; Marjamaa, Johan; Niemelä, Mika; Koski-Palkén, Anniina (2020)
    Background Context Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures is thought to lead to accelerated degeneration of the adjacent cervical discs and in some cases can be symptomatic (adjacent segment disease, or ASD). The occurrence of ASD is of particular interest when treating young individuals, as the cumulative disease burden may become increasingly significant during their expectedly long lifetime. However, the overall impact of a surgical intervention on the lifetime prognosis of ASD remains unclear. Purpose Our goal was to study the long-term outcomes of ACDF surgery among those members of the young adult population who have been operated on between the ages of 18 and 40. Study design Retrospective study. Patient Sample All patients between 18 and 40 years of age at the time of surgery who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disorders at Helsinki University Hospital between the years of 1990 and 2005 (476 patients). Outcome Measures Cervical reoperation rate, satisfaction with the surgery, employment status, Neck Disability Index (NDI) Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all patients between 18 and 40 years of age at the time of surgery who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disorders at Helsinki University Hospital between the years of 1990 and 2005. We sent questionnaires to all available patients at the end of the follow-up (median 17.5 years) to assess their current neck symptoms, general situations, and levels of satisfaction with the surgery. Furthermore, we compared the results for different types of ACDF surgeries (i.e., discectomy only versus synthetic cage or bone autograft implantation for fusion) in propensity-score-matched groups. Results Of the 476 patients who were included in the study, surgery was performed in 72% of the cases due to intervertebral disc herniation and in 28% due to spondylotic changes. The total reoperation rate during the entire follow-up (median 17.5 years) was 24%, and 19.5% if early reoperations (
  • Shimoni, Avichai; Labopin, Myriam; Savani, Bipin; Byrne, Michael; Volin, Liisa; Finke, Jurgen; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ehninger, Gerhard; Blaise, Didier; Beelen, Dietrich; Tabrizi, Reza; Sengeloev, Henrik; Ganser, Arnold; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2019)
    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is potentially curative therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Marked improvement has been achieved with SCT from matched unrelated donors (MUDS) in recent years. However, there are limited data comparing the long-term outcomes (beyond 10 years) after SCT from sibling donors and MUDs in older patients with AML. We analyzed these outcomes in a large cohort of patients with AML (n = 1134), age >= 50 years, who were alive and leukemia-free 2 years after SCT from matched siblings (n = 848) or MUDs (n = 286), with a median follow-up of 8.9 years. The median age was 56 and 58 years after SCT from siblings and MUDs, respectively (P=.005). In the sibling group, 77%, 12%, and 11% were in first complete remission (CR1), second complete remission (CR2), and active leukemia at SCT compared with 50%, 25%, and 25% in the MUD group, respectively (P
  • Rask, Gunilla; Nazemroaya, Anoosheh; Jansson, Malin; Wadsten, Charlotta; Nilsson, Greger; Blomqvist, Carl; Holmberg, Lars; Warnberg, Fredrik; Sund, Malin (2022)
    Purpose To investigate if molecular subtype is associated with outcome in stage 1 breast cancer (BC). Methods Tissue samples from 445 women with node-negative BC
  • Lillemäe, Kadri; Luostarinen, Teemu; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Laitio, Ruut; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Niemi, Tomi; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Raj, Rahul (2022)
    Background Coagulopathy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor prognosis. Purpose To assess the prevalence and association with outcomes of early thrombocytopenia in patients with TBI treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods This is a retrospective multicenter study of adult TBI patients admitted to ICUs during 2003-2019. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L during the first day. The association between thrombocytopenia and hospital and 12-month mortality was tested using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for markers of injury severity. Results Of 4419 patients, 530 (12%) had early thrombocytopenia. In patients with thrombocytopenia, hospital and 12-month mortality were 26% and 48%, respectively; in patients with a platelet count > 100 x 10(9)/L, they were 9% and 22%, respectively. After adjusting for injury severity, a higher platelet count was associated with decreased odds of hospital mortality (OR 0.998 per unit, 95% CI 0.996-0.999) and 12-month mortality (OR 0.998 per unit, 95% CI 0.997-0.999) in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. Compared to patients with a normal platelet count, patients with thrombocytopenia not receiving platelet transfusion had an increased risk of 12-month mortality (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.6-3.0), whereas patients with thrombocytopenia receiving platelet transfusion did not (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.7). Conclusion Early thrombocytopenia occurs in approximately one-tenth of patients with TBI treated in the ICU, and it is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with moderate-to-severe TBI. Further research is necessary to determine whether this is modifiable by platelet transfusion.
  • Korkalainen, Noora; Partanen, Lea; Räsänen, Juha; Yliherva, Anneli; Mäkikallio, Kaarin (2019)
    Aim: Long-term follow-up studies on children born with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have revealed a specific profile of neurocognitive difficulties, including problems with speech, language and literacy skills. We hypothesized that problems with communication skills, including language use and literacy skills of FGR children at primary school age are associated with prenatal circulatory changes. Methods: Ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental hemodynamics was performed prenatally in 77 fetuses. After a follow-up period of 8-10 years, assessment of reading and spelling skills using standardized tests and the Children's Communication Questionnaire (CCC-2) was performed to measure different language skills in 37 FGR children and 31 appropriately grown (AGA) controls, matched for gestational age. Results: Increased blood flow resistance in the umbilical artery (UA PI > 2 SD) during fetal life showed odds ratios of 3.5-19.1 for poor literacy and communication skills and need for speech and language therapy. Furthermore, FGR children with prenatal cerebral vasodilatation (cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) <-2 SD) had significantly poorer literacy and communication skills, at primary school age compared to the AGA controls. Abnormal CPR demonstrated odds ratios of 4.2-28.1 for poor literacy and communication skills and need for speech and language therapy. Conclusion: Increased blood flow resistance in the umbilical artery and cerebral vasodilatation are associated with poor communication, language, and literacy skills at early school age in children born with FGR. These findings indicate the need for continuous follow-up of this group and timely targeted support to ensure optimal academic outcomes.
  • Berdal, Elias Kjolseth; Wollum, Arnt Erik Karlsen; Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Iversen, Johanne Marie; Kajantie, Eero; Evensen, Kari Anne I. (2022)
    Background Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < 1500 g) is associated with health problems later in life. How VLBW individuals perceive their physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important to understand their putative burden of disease. Previous studies have shown mixed results, and longitudinal studies into adulthood have been requested. This study aimed to investigate differences in HRQoL between preterm VLBW and term born individuals at 32 years of age, and to study changes in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years. Methods In a geographically based longitudinal study, 45 VLBW and 68 term born control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at 32 years of age. Data from three previous timepoints was also available (20, 23 and 28 years of age). The SF-36 yields eight domain scores as well as a physical and a mental component summary. Between-group differences in these variables were investigated. We also performed subgroup analyses excluding individuals with disabilities, i.e., cerebral palsy and/or low estimated intelligence quotient. Results At 32 years of age, the physical component summary was 5.1 points lower (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6 to 1.6), and the mental component summary 4.1 points lower (95% CI: 8.4 to - 0.3) in the VLBW group compared with the control group. For both physical and mental component summaries there was an overall decline in HRQoL from 20 to 32 years of age in the VLBW group. When we excluded individuals with disabilities (n = 10), group differences in domain scores at 32 years were reduced, but physical functioning, bodily pain, general health, and role-emotional scores remained lower in the VLBW subgroup without disabilities compared with the control group. Conclusion We found that VLBW individuals reported lower HRQoL than term born controls at 32 years of age, and that HRQoL declined in the VLBW group from 20 to 32 years of age. This was in part, but not exclusively explained by VLBW individuals with disabilities.
  • Mehl, Cathrin Vano; Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Iversen, Johanne Marie; Lydersen, Stian; Mork, Paul Jarle; Kajantie, Eero; Evensen, Kari Anne (2022)
    Background Individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of several adverse health outcomes, but their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across young adulthood has yet to be studied. The main aim of this study was to investigate if being born SGA at term is associated with poor HRQoL at 32 years of age. A second aim was to explore longitudinal changes in HRQoL from age 20 to 32 years. Methods In the prospective NTNU Low Birth Weight in a Lifetime Perspective study, 56 participants born SGA and 68 non-SGA control participants completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) at age 32 years to assess HRQoL. The SF-36 was also administrated at age 20 and 28 years. Longitudinal changes in the eight SF-36 domains and the two component summaries from 20 to 32 years were analyzed by linear mixed models. In total, 82 adults born SGA and 98 controls participated at least once and were included in the longitudinal analyses. Results At age 32 years the participants born SGA scored 14.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 25.3) points lower in the SF-36 role-physical domain compared with the control group, i.e. more problems with work or other daily activities due to physical health problems. The longitudinal analyses showed significant group differences from 20 to 32 years in the role-emotional domain, and in the physical and mental component summaries. Among participants born SGA, the physical component summary decreased from age 20 to 28 years (-3.2, 95% CI -5.0 to -1.8), while the mental component summary (6.0, 95% CI 2.9 to 8.6) and role-emotional domain score (19.3, 95% CI 9.9 to 30.3) increased, but there were no further changes from 28 to 32 years. There were no longitudinal changes in the control group from 20 to 32 years. Conclusion Overall, individuals born SGA at term reported similar HRQoL at age 32 years compared with non-SGA controls. Self-perceived mental health improved during young adulthood among individuals born SGA, while self-perceived physical health deteriorated. The latter findings warrant further investigation.
  • Ollila, Henriikka; Pihlaja, Riikka; Koskinen, Sanna; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Salmela, Viljami; Tiainen, Marjaana; Hokkanen, Laura; Hästbacka, Johanna (2022)
    Background: Cognitive impairment has emerged as a common post-acute sequela of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We hypothesised that cognitive impairment exists in patients after COVID-19 and that it is most severe in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: This prospective controlled cohort study of 213 participants performed at the Helsinki University Hospital and the University of Helsinki, Finland, comprised three groups of patients—ICU-treated (n = 72), ward-treated (n = 49), and home-isolated (n = 44)—with confirmed COVID-19 between March 13 and December 31, 2020, participating in a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation six months after the acute phase. Our study included a control group with no history of COVID-19 (n = 48). Medical and demographic data were collected from electronic patient records and interviews carried out four months after the acute phase. Questionnaires filled six months after the acute phase provided information about change in cognitive functioning observed by a close informant, as well as the presence of self-reported depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. Results: The groups differed (effect size η2p = 0.065, p = 0.004) in the total cognitive score, calculated from neuropsychological measures in three domains (attention, executive functions, and memory). Both ICU-treated (p = 0.011) and ward-treated patients (p = 0.005) performed worse than home-isolated patients. Among those with more than 12 years of education, ICU-treated patients performed worse in the attention domain than ward-treated patients (p = 0.021) or non-COVID controls (p = 0.045); ICU-treated male patients, in particular, were impaired in executive functions (p = 0.037). Conclusions: ICU-treated COVID-19 patients, compared to patients with less severe acute COVID-19 or non-COVID controls, showed more severe long-term cognitive impairment. Among those with more than 12 years of education, impairment existed particularly in the domains of attention and for men, of executive functions. Trial registration number: NCT04864938, retrospectively registered February 9, 2021.
  • Pekkarinen, Tuula; Mustonen, Harri; Sane, Timo; Jaser, Nabil; Juuti, Anne; Leivonen , Marja (2016)
    Few studies have examined weight loss sustainability after sleeve gastrectomy (SG). The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome after SG and gastric bypass (GBP) and learn whether preoperative weight loss and binge eating behavior can be used to predict outcome. Together, 257 patients (64 % women) were operated, 163 by GBP and 94 by SG. Binge eating was assessed by binge eating scale (BES) and preoperative weight loss was advised to all, including very low-calorie diet for 5 weeks. Postoperative visits took place at 1 and 2 years, and long-term outcome was at median 5 years (range 2.29-6.85). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to predict outcome at 2-year and long-term control. Median age was 48 years, weight 141.1 kg, and BMI 48.2 kg/m(2). Preoperative weight loss was median 4.9 % before GBP and 3.8 % before SG, P = 0.04. Total weight loss at year one was 24.1 % in GBP and 23.7 % in SG (P = 0.40), at year two 24.4 and 23.4 % (P = 0.26), and at long-term control 23.0 and 20.2 % (P = 0.006), respectively. Weight was analyzed in 93, 88, and 89 % of those alive, respectively. BES did not predict weight outcome, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss at 2 years. On long term, weight loss was better maintained after GBP compared with SG. Binge eating behavior was not a significant predictor, but larger preoperative weight loss predicted less postoperative weight loss for the next 2 years.
  • Hiltunen, Sini; Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2016)
    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) affects mainly working-aged individuals. Functional recovery after CVT is generally considered good with about 3/4 of patients achieving short-term independence. However, vascular events, long-term functional outcome, and employment after CVT remain poorly investigated. We identified consecutive adult CVT patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital (1987-2013) and invited them to a follow-up visit. Each clinical examination was combined with interview. We also recorded recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) and hemorrhagic events during follow-up and antithrombotic medication use. A modified Rankin Scale (mRS) served to assess functional outcome. Logistic regression served to identify independent factors associated with unemployment and functional recovery. Of the 195 patients identified, 21 died, 9 declined to participate, and 4 were excluded from the study. Thus, 161 patients (106 women) underwent an examination after a median of 39 months (interquartile range 14-95). VTE (one of which was CVT) occurred in 9 (6 %) patients, and severe hemorrhagic events in 10 (6 %). Functional outcome was good, with 84 % scoring 0-1 on the mRS; 42 % reported residual symptoms. Altogether, 91 (57 %) patients were employed. After adjusting for age and sex, a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score > 2 at admission and low education level, associated with both unfavorable functional outcome and unemployment. Long-term functional outcome after CVT may appear good if measured with mRS, but patients often have residual symptoms and are frequently unable to return to their previous work.
  • Shimoni, Avichai; Labopin, Myriam; Savani, Bipin; Volin, Liisa; Ehninger, Gerhard; Kuball, Jurgen; Bunjes, Donald; Schaap, Nicolaas; Vigouroux, Stephane; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Veelken, Hendrik; Sierra, Jorge; Eder, Matthias; Niederwieser, Dietger; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2016)
    Background: Myeloablative (MAC) and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) are established approaches for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Most deaths after MAC occur within the first 2 years after SCT, while patients surviving leukemia-free for 2 years can expect a favorable long-term outcome. However, there is paucity of data on the long-term outcome (beyond 10 years) and the pattern of late events following RIC due to the relative recent introduction of this approach. Methods: We analyzed long-term outcomes in a cohort of 1423 AML patients, age >= 50 years, after SCT from HLA-matched siblings, during the years 1997-2005, median follow-up 8.3 years (0.1-17). Results: The 10-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 31 % (95CI, 27-35) and 32 % (28-35) after MAC and RIC, respectively (P = 0.57). The 10-year GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS), a surrogate for quality of life was 22 % (18-25) and 21 % (18-24), respectively (P = 0.79). The 10-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) was higher and relapse rate was lower after MAC, throughout the early and late post-transplant course. The 10-year LFS among 584 patients surviving leukemia-free 2 years after SCT was 71 % (65-76) and 73 % (67-78) after MAC and RIC, respectively (P = 0.76). Advanced leukemia at SCT was the major predictor of LFS subsequent to the 2-year landmark. Relapse was the major cause of late death after both regimens; however, NRM and in particular chronic graft-versus-host disease and second cancers were more common causes of late death after MAC. Conclusions: Long-term LFS and GRFS are similar after RIC and MAC. Most events after RIC or MAC occur within the first 2 years after SCT. Patients who are leukemia-free 2 years after SCT can expect similar good subsequent outcome after both approaches.
  • Choque-Velasquez, J; Resendiz-Nieves, J; Colasanti, R; Hernesniemi, J (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Different treatment options have been proposed for obstructive hydrocephalus associated with pineal lesions. We discuss the obstructive hydrocephalus management associated with pineal region tumors and cysts in Helsinki Neurosurgery. METHODS: In this article, hydrocephalus treatment by tumor-cyst removal (n = 40), shunt surgery (n = 25), and endoscopic ventriculostomies (n = 3) is evaluated in 68 patients with obstructive hydrocephalus among 136 patients with pineal region tumor and cyst. Multivariate statistical analysis was followed by univariate and multivariate regression models of last functional status, last tumor-free imaging, and disease-specific mortality of the study population. RESULTS: Preoperative hydrocephalus was linked to higher World Health Organization tumor grades, poor functional status, higher mortality, and incomplete resection of pineal region cysts and tumors. Preoperative hydrocephalus remained a predictor of poor last functional status after multivariate regression. Pineal lesion removal with the posterior third ventricle opening as primary hydrocephalus treatment resulted in better last functional status, fewer postoperative shunts, fewer hydrocephalus related procedures, and fewer postoperative infections than in the shunt-treatment group. Multivariate regression analysis linked higher World Health Organization tumor & nbsp;grade, poor immediate functional status, postoperative complications, and incomplete surgical resection as independent predictors of disease mortality in patients with hydrocephalus. Same variables (except immediate modified Rankin Scale score) and higher number of shunt surgeries became independent predictors of poor last functional status at multivariate analysis. Incomplete resection was the only independent predictor of tumor-free magnetic resonance imaging at the last evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Direct removal of pineal lesions with the opening of the posterior third ventricle could represent effective and reliable management of the associated obstructive hydrocephalus. Further research is required to generalize our inferences.
  • Efendijev, Ilmar; Folger, Daniel; Raj, Rahul; Reinikainen, Matti; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Background: Despite the significant socioeconomic burden associated with cardiac arrest (CA), data on CA patients' long-term outcome and healthcare-associated costs are limited. The aim of this study was to determine one-year survival, neurological outcome and healthcare-associated costs for ICU-treated CA patients. Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study on adult CA patients treated in Finnish tertiary hospital's ICUs between 2005 and 2013. Patients' personal identification number was used to crosslink data between several nationwide databases in order to obtain data on one-year survival, neurological outcome, and healthcare-associated costs. Healthcare-associated costs were calculated for every patient stratified by cardiac arrest location (OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, IHCA = all in-hospital cardiac arrest, ICU-CA = in-ICU cardiac arrest) and initial cardiac rhythm. Cost-effectiveness was estimated by dividing total healthcare-associated costs for all patients from the respective group by the number of survivors and survivors with favourable neurological outcome. Results: The study population included 1,024 ICU-treated CA patients. The sum of costs for all patients was (sic)50,847,540. At one-year after CA, 58% of OHCAs, 44% of IHCAs, and 39% of ICU-CAs were alive. Of one-year survivors 97% of OHCAs, 88% of IHCAs, and 93% of ICU-CAs had favourable neurological outcome. Effective cost per one-year survivor was (sic)76,212 for OHCAs, (sic)144,168 for IHCAs, and (sic)239,468 for ICU-CAs. Effective cost per one-year survivor with favourable neurological outcome was (sic)81,196 for OHCAs, (sic)164,442 for IHCAs, and _(sic)257,207 for ICU-CAs. Conclusions: In-ICU CA patients had the lowest one-year survival with the effective cost per survivor three times higher than for OHCAs.
  • Int Liaison Comm Resuscitation; Buick, Jason E.; Wallner, Clare; Aickin, Richard; Meaney, Peter A.; de Caen, Allan; Maconochie, Ian; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Welsford, Michelle (2019)
    Introduction: The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation prioritized the need to update the review on the use of targeted temperature management (TTM) in paediatric post cardiac arrest care. In this meta-analysis, the effectiveness of TTM at 32-36 degrees C was compared with no target or a different target for comatose children who achieve a return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Methods: Electronic databases were searched from inception to December 13, 2018. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized studies with a comparator group that evaluated TTM in children were included. Pairs of independent reviewers extracted the demographic and outcome data, appraised risk of bias, and assessed GRADE certainty of effects. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken where possible. Results: Twelve studies involving 2060 patients were included. Two randomized controlled trials provided the evidence that TTM at 32-34 degrees C compared with a target at 36-37.5 degrees C did not statistically improve long-term good neurobehavioural survival (risk ratio: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.69-1.93), long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.93-1.39), or short-term survival (risk ratio: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.96-1.36). TTM at 32-34 degrees C did not show statistically increased risks of infection, recurrent cardiac arrest, serious bleeding, or arrhythmias. A novel analysis suggests that another small RCT might provide enough evidence to show benefit for TTM in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Conclusion: There is currently inconclusive evidence to either support or refute the use of TTM at 32-34 degrees C for comatose children who achieve return of sustained circulation after cardiac arrest. Future trials should focus on children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
  • Kellokumpu, Ilmo; Voutilainen, Markku; Haglund, Caj; Färkkilä, Martti Antero; Roberts, Peter J.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2013)
  • Fromm, Annette; Thomassen, Lars; Naess, Halvor; Meijer, Rudy; Eide, Geir Egil; Krakenes, Jostein; Vedeler, Christian A.; Gerdts, Eva; Larsen, Terje H.; Kuiper, Karel K-J; Laxdal, Elin; Russell, David; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike (2013)
  • Hirvonen, Tuomas; Marjamaa, Johan; Siironen, Jari; Koskinen, Seppo; Niemelä, Mika; Koski-Palken, Anniina (2021)
    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The leading surgical treatment of cervical radiculopathy is anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). However, it has been suggested that ACDF procedures could lead to accelerated degeneration of the adjacent cervical discs (adjacent segment disease, or ASD) and the effect of ACDF surgery on neck symptoms and quality of life in the long term is not fully understood. Patients operated on at young ages generally have a long life expectancy and a long number of working years ahead of them. Thus, this patient group is of special interest when considering the accumulation of cervical problems due to possible ASD, the overall progressive nature of cervical degeneration in the long term, and their effects on related quality of life. PURPOSE: Our goal was to study the health-related quality of life in the long-term follow-up after ACDF surgery in the young adult population between the ages of 18 and 40. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study with propensity matched controls. PATIENT SAMPLE: All patients between 18 and 40 years of age at the time of the surgery who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disease at Helsinki University Hospital between the years 1990 and 2005 who had filled in the quality of life questionnaires 12 to 28 years after the surgery (281 patients), and a propensity matched control cohort of the general population selected based on age, sex, and smoking status. OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality of life measured by the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L and EQ-VAS). METHODS: The medical records of all patients who underwent ACDF due to degenerative cervical disease at the age of 18 to 40 years at Helsinki University Hospital between 1990 and 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. The EuroQol questionnaire was sent to all patients whose contact information could be obtained (443 patients) at the end of the follow-up (median 17.5 years) to assess their current quality of life. A total of 281 patients returned the questionnaires and were included in this study. Quality of life was compared to that in the general Finnish population using a similar sized control cohort selected through propensity matching. RESULTS: The patients who had undergone ACDF surgery reported significantly more problems than the general population cohort in three out of five dimensions that were assessed in the EQ-5D questionnaire, including mobility, usual activities, and pain/discomfort. Similarly, the overall EQ-5D-3L index calculated from the dimensional values was lower (0.74 vs. 0.83, p=.000), depicting a generally decreased health-related quality of life among patients. Spondylosis as a primary diagnosis, clinical myelopathy, and further cervical surgeries were associated with lower quality of life in the subgroup analyses of the patients. Similarly, in the EQ-VAS assessment, patient subgroups with spondylosis as a primary diagnosis, at least one reoperation, operation on more than one level, and clinical myelopathy were associated with lower scores and lower quality of life. The mean EQ-VAS score among patients was 73%. Regardless of the decreased health-related quality of life, there was no statistically significant difference in the concurrent employment status between the patient and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The health-related life quality measured by the EQ-5D-3L was lower in the patient population than in the general population. Patients had more problems with mobility and usual activities and more pain/discomfort. However, satisfaction with the surgery was very high, and there was no significant difference in employment status between the patients and the control population. Patients with spondylosis as a primary diagnosis had lower quality of life compared to patients with disc herniation. Also, clinical myelopathy and further cervical surgeries during follow-up were associated with lower quality of life in the subgroup analyses of the patients. It must also be kept in mind that we do not know what the situation could have been without surgery and with conservative treatment only. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.