Browsing by Subject "Longitudinal study"

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  • Mylläri, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. Depression is associated with increased risk of chronic disease, which may be at least partly due to poor health behaviors. Growing body of evidence has associated depression with unhealthy diet. However, the association of depression with diet quality in the long run is not well known. Furthermore, it is unclear if dietary interventions could mitigate the harmful association of depression with diet. This study examined the association of depression with diet both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a population-based prospective cohort. The effectiveness of an early-onset dietary intervention in modifying these associations was investigated. Methods. The sample (n = 457) was from The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP). The intervention group (n = 209) had undergone a dietary intervention lasting from age of 7 months until age of 20 years. Depression was measured at age 20 using Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Diet quality was assessed at ages 20 and 26 using a diet score calculated based on food diaries. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation by chained equations. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze the association of depression at age 20 with diet at ages 20 and 26, as well as the modifying effect of intervention group on these associations. Results. No cross-sectional association was found for depression and diet at age 20. Depression at age 20 was longitudinally associated with worse diet quality at age 26. The associations did not differ between intervention and control groups at either of the time points. Conclusions. Contrary to previous research, this study did not find cross-sectional association for depression with diet. However, this study offers novel information on longitudinal associations, suggesting that depression may have effects on diet quality that can manifest after several years. Dietary intervention was not found effective in modifying these associations. Since long-term effects on diet may be an important factor explaining the association of depression with chronic diseases, ways to mitigate the adverse consequences of depression for diet should be explored further.
  • Kortesoja, Laura; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja; Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Merikanto, Ilona (2020)
    The long-term effects of sleep on adolescent psychosocial well-being are mostly unknown, although insufficient sleep has been associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties in cross-sectional studies. With a five-year follow-up of Finnish adolescents (Time 1: n = 8834; Mean age = 13 years, 51.1% female, Time 2: n = 5315, Mean age = 15 years, 51.6% female, Time 3: n = 3712; Mean age = 17 years; 50.2% female), the purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relations between self-reported sleep duration, sleep problems, and emotional and behavioral difficulties during adolescence. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were assessed using The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measuring emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and total difficulties. Sleep duration was calculated by counting the hours between self-reported bedtime and wake-up time. Sleep problems were assessed with a single question about the general sleep problems. According to the cross-lagged models for sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties, the findings of this study indicate a developmental process during adolescence where, firstly, short sleep duration is a stronger predictor for current and prospective emotional and behavioral difficulties than vice versa. Secondly, increased emotional and behavioral difficulties expose adolescents to current and later sleep problems more strongly than reverse. Thus, the results show that short sleep duration predisposed to emotional and behavioral difficulties across adolescence, which then led to more prospective sleep problems. These findings suggest a developmental process where sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties are intertwined in shaping adolescents' health.
  • Hublin, Christer; Haasio, Lassi; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    Background: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods: Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. Conclusions: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
  • Hublin, Christer; Haasio, Lassi; Kaprio, Jaakko (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. Methods Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. Results Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18–34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35–54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. Conclusions There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.
  • Suomela, Emmi; Oikonen, Mervi; Pitkanen, Niina; Ahola-Olli, Ari; Virtanen, Johanna; Parkkola, Riitta; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jula, Antti; Loom, Britt-Marie; Mikkila, Vera; Telama, Risto; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2016)
    Background & Aims: Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults. Methods: Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver. Results: Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p = 0.002). Conclusions: Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes. Lay summary: The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18 years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49 years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (2019)
    Background: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R-2 = 0.048) and WC (R-2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P <0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Ketonen, Elina E.; Hotulainen, Risto (2019)
    The development of students' learning and test-taking behavior may derive from the social context and the group of peers they associate with daily for years. Consequently, it is assumed that students' academic achievements are to some degree affected by their classmates and the composition of the classroom. The present study provides evidence on how Finnish students (N = 5071) from different classrooms (N = 435) develop distinct patterns regarding their mathematics and literacy achievement during lower secondary school. We analysed longitudinal large-scale educational assessment data using a multilevel latent profile analysis (MLPA) to investigate the impact of classroom effect on students' achievement patterns, that is, on the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores from 7th to 9th grade. The results demonstrated the added value of modelling the multilevel structure inherent in educational assessment data: we identified four student achievement patterns that displayed different distributions across the school classes. More precisely, besides individual characteristics, the development of students' low-stakes mathematics and literacy test scores was associated with class-level factors and some of the classrooms seemed to have a stronger effect on students' test scores. These results suggest that classroom context is associated with students' achievement patterns, especially regarding the worst achieving students. The findings may reflect a combination of class placement practices as well as classroom and peer effect. Although the differences between Finnish schools have been one of the lowest in the OECD countries, the findings of the present study suggest that the classroom membership may create class level quality differences in both the preconditions and the development of learning.
  • Vehkavuori, Suvi-Maria; Kamarainen, Maiju; Stolt, Suvi (2021)
    Background: The long-term associations between early receptive/expressive lexical skills and later language/preliteracy skills require clarification. Aims: To study the association between and predictive values of early receptive/expressive lexical skills and language/pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years, and to examine the language profiles at 5;0 years of children with weak receptive language/expressive lexical skills at 2;0 years. Participants and methods: The participants were 66 monolingual children. Their lexical skills were measured using the Finnish short-form version of the MacArthur?Bates Communicative Development Inventories at 1;6 and 2;0 years. Receptive language skills were measured at 2;0 years using the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. A broader assessment at 5;0 years measured lexical, phonological, morphological and pre-literacy skills. Results: Significant associations between receptive/expressive lexical skills at 1;6 years and language and preliteracy skills at 5;0 years were found. Both receptive language and expressive lexical development measured at 2;0 years were greatly and relatively evenly associated with language and pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years. Lexicon/language variables at 1;6 years and 2;0 years had statistically significant predictive values for general language and pre-literacy scores at 5;0 years. The best models that included early lexical predictors explained 20?34% of later language/literacy outcome. Weak skills at 2;0 years proposed vulnerability in language and preliteracy skills at 5;0 years. Conclusions: Language and pre-literacy skills at 5;0 years can to some extent be explained by early receptive language and/or expressive lexical development. Further assessment and/or follow-up is important for children who have had weak language/lexical skills at 2;0 years.
  • Nykänen, Kathleen Campano (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Code-switching is an interesting phenomenon that is present not only in a sociolinguistic context, in which a speaker switches from one language to another, but can be found in social and cultural ones as well. Over the decades, research done on code-switching has had an emphasis on bilingualism and multilingualism, therefore there is need for more research on code-switching in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context especially in Finland. Consequently, this study was conducted in hopes of adding more insight on code-switching in Finnish EFL classrooms and to serve as a reference to assist pre-service teachers of EFL to get a glimpse of how to utilize code-switching in their future classrooms. The present study is a longitudinal case study that focuses on a single EFL teacher’s language choice and code-switching in a primary school EFL classroom setting. It set out to answer the following questions: 1) What functions and characteristics do the Finnish language (L1) and English language (L2) have in this primary school EFL classroom? 2) How conscious is the EFL teacher of the different language choices and code-switching that occurs during their lessons? and 3) How does the EFL teacher’s code-switching change over time between the two school years? A mixed method of data collection and analysis was used for this study. Data was collected through interviews with the teacher, audio recordings of five observed lessons, three from fifth-grade and two from the sixth-grade, and field notes. Data analysis showed that the functions and characteristics of code-switching follow those of previous studies in that the L1, was used mainly, for classroom management, grammar teaching, clarification and assigning homework. It was found that the teacher consciously employed code-switching, mainly inter-sentential code-switching and tag-switching, and it was for the benefit of the students. There were noticeable differences in how code-switching was utilized in the sixth-grade. This proved that changes do occur and it showed that code-switching was utilized less and more there were more concentrated efforts in using the L2 in the classroom.
  • Tiainen, Kristina; Raitanen, Jani; Vaara, Elina; Hervonen, Antti; Jylha, Marja (2015)
    Background: Several studies have focused on predictors of mobility limitations and disabilities. Yet little is known about the pace and patterns of mobility changes among very old people. This study examined changes in functional mobility among individuals aged 90 years and older during a 2-9-year follow-up. In addition, we were interested in the patterns of mobility changes. Methods: Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire in the years 2001, 2003, 2007 and 2010. The study population (n = 948) consisted of individuals from three cohorts (2001, 2003, 2007) who participated in at least two survey rounds and answered the mobility questions. The length of the follow-up varied from 2-9 years between individuals as well as according to how many times an individual took part in the survey. Multilevel ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of time, age, gender, cohort and chronic conditions on changes in mobility. Results: At the baseline, "younger" old people, men and individuals in the cohorts for 2003 and 2007 had significantly better mobility compared with women, older individuals and individuals in the 2001 cohort. In addition, individuals with fewer chronic conditions had better mobility than those with more diseases. Mobility declined for most of the participants during the follow-up. The difference in the change in mobility over time for gender, age or chronic conditions was not statistically significant. The analyses were performed with a subgroup of participants aged 90-91 years at the baseline, and results did not differ substantially from the results for the entire study sample. However, the effect of chronic conditions on the change in mobility was statistically significant among participants aged 90-91years. Conclusions: No differences were observed in the rate of mobility decline over time between age or gender. The effect of chronic conditions on the change in mobility was significant only among individuals aged 90-91 years. The prevention efforts are important and should focus even more, also among the oldest-old, on additional modifiable risk factors such as maintaining muscle strength.
  • Toffol, Elena; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia M.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Objective: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics. Methods: A total of 2321 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly between gestational weeks thorn days 12 + 0/13 + 6 and 38 + 0/39 + 6. At child's mean age of 3.5 (standard deviation = 0.7) years, mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and answered questions on child sleep quantity and quality using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and sleep disorders using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Results: Maternal depressive symptoms showed high stability throughout pregnancy. Children of mothers with clinically significant symptomatology throughout pregnancy had shorter mother-rated sleep duration, longer sleep latency, higher odds for waking up two or more times during the night and for total and several specific sleep disorders. These associations were robust to covariates. However, maternal depressive symptoms at the child follow-up fully mediated the associations with sleep duration and awakenings, partially mediated those with sleep latency and disorders, and added to the effects on sleep disorders. Conclusion: Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with mother-rated child sleep quantity, quality, and disorders. Maternal depressive symptoms at child follow-up mediate and add to the prenatal adverse effects on child sleep characteristics. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sormunen, Jani J.; Andersson, Tommi; Aspi, Jouni; Back, Jaana; Cederberg, Tony; Haavisto, Noora; Halonen, Hanna; Hanninen, Jari; Inkinen, Jasmin; Kulha, Niko; Laaksonen, Maija; Loehr, John; Makela, Satu; Makinen, Katja; Norkko, Joanna; Paavola, Riku; Pajala, Pauliina; Petaja, Tuukka; Puisto, Anna; Sippola, Ella; Snickars, Martin; Sundell, Janne; Tanski, Niko; Uotila, Antti; Vesilahti, Ella-Maria; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Vuorenmaa, Silja; Ylonen, Hannu; Ylonen, Jari; Klemola, Tero (2020)
    In 2015 a long-term, nationwide tick and tick-borne pathogen (TBP) monitoring project was started by the Finnish Tick Project and the Finnish Research Station network (RESTAT), with the goal of producing temporally and geographically extensive data regarding exophilic ticks in Finland. In the current study, we present results from the first four years of this collaboration. Ticks were collected by cloth dragging from 11 research stations across Finland in May September 2015-2018 (2012-2018 in Seili). Collected ticks were screened for twelve different pathogens by qPCR: Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Altogether 15 067 Ixodes ricinus and 46 Ixodes persulcatus were collected during 68 km of dragging. Field collections revealed different seasonal activity patterns for the two species. The activity of I. persulcatus adults (only one nymph detected) was unimodal, with activity only in May July, whereas Ixodes ricinus was active from May to September, with activity peaks in September (nymphs) or July August (adults). Overall, tick densities were higher during the latter years of the study. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were the most common pathogens detected, with 48.9 +/- 8.4% (95% Cl) of adults and 25.3 +/- 4.4% of nymphs carrying the bacteria. No samples positive for F. tularensis, Bartonella or TBEV were detected. This collaboration project involving the extensive Finnish Research Station network has ensured enduring and spatially extensive, long-term tick data collection to the foreseeable future.
  • Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a key life event, which is associated with changes in physical activity, however, there is limited evidence with regard to changes in physical activity that take place in post-retirement years. The aim of this study was to examine how leisure-time physical activity changes shortly after the transition to retirement and during the post-retirement years. Methods: The phase 1 data were collected in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%) among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Phase 2 was carried out in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%) and phase 3 in 2012 (n = 6814, response rate 79%). Disability retirees and those under the age of 50 at baseline were excluded. This yielded 2902 participants. Most of the participants (79%) were women. The mean age of the participants was 54.4 in phase 1. Negative binomial models for repeated measurements with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to calculate the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). These indicated the changes in time spent in self-reported leisure-time physical activity among the retired compared with the continuously employed. Results: Of the participants, 851 retired on the grounds of old age during the first period (phases 1-2), and 948 during the second period (phases 2-3). Change in physical activity was positive among those who retired during the first (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.17) and second (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16) periods compared to the continuously employed. During the second period, there was little difference between those who had retired during the first one (IRR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.02) and the continuously employed. Conclusions: The transition to statutory retirement was associated with an immediate increase in leisure-time physical activity, which nevertheless diminished during post-retirement years.
  • Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Retirement is a key life event, which is associated with changes in physical activity, however, there is limited evidence with regard to changes in physical activity that take place in post-retirement years. The aim of this study was to examine how leisure-time physical activity changes shortly after the transition to retirement and during the post-retirement years. Methods The phase 1 data were collected in 2000–2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%) among 40–60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Phase 2 was carried out in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%) and phase 3 in 2012 (n = 6814, response rate 79%). Disability retirees and those under the age of 50 at baseline were excluded. This yielded 2902 participants. Most of the participants (79%) were women. The mean age of the participants was 54.4 in phase 1. Negative binomial models for repeated measurements with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to calculate the incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). These indicated the changes in time spent in self-reported leisure-time physical activity among the retired compared with the continuously employed. Results Of the participants, 851 retired on the grounds of old age during the first period (phases 1–2), and 948 during the second period (phases 2–3). Change in physical activity was positive among those who retired during the first (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17) and second (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16) periods compared to the continuously employed. During the second period, there was little difference between those who had retired during the first one (IRR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.91–1.02) and the continuously employed. Conclusions The transition to statutory retirement was associated with an immediate increase in leisure-time physical activity, which nevertheless diminished during post-retirement years.
  • Lipsanen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Tremblay, Mark S.; Rovio, Suvi; Lagström, Hanna; Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Jula, Antti; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Simell, Olli; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja; Pulkki-Råback, Laura (2020)
    Background and objectives: Temperament may be associated with eating behaviors over the lifespan. This study examined the association of toddlerhood temperament with dietary behavior and dietary intervention outcomes across 18 years. Methods: The study comprised 660 children (52% boys) from The Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP), which is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial from the age of 7 months until the age of 20 years (1990-2010). Temperament was assessed using Carey temperament scales when the participants were 2 years of age. Latent profile analysis yielded three temperament groups, which were called negative/low regulation (19% of the children), neutral/average regulation (52%) and positive/high regulation (28%). Dietary behavior was examined from 2 to 20 years of age using food records, which were converted into a diet score (mean= 15.7, SD 4.6). Mixed random-intercept growth curve analysis was the main analytic method. Results: Dietary behavior showed a significant quadratic U-shaped curve over time (B for quadratic association = 0.39, P<.001; B for linear association = 0.09, P = 0.58). Children in the negative/low regulation temperament group had a lower diet score (less healthy diet) across the 18 years compared to children in the neutral/average or in the positive/high regulation group. Temperament was not associated with the rate of change in diet over time. Temperament did not have any interactive effects with the intervention (F [2, 627], P = 0.72). Conclusion: Children with a temperament profile characterized by high negative mood, high irregularity and high intensity in emotion expression constitute a risk group for less healthy eating over the lifespan.
  • Hienonen, Ninja; Lintuvuori, Meri; Jahnukainen, Markku; Hotulainen, Risto; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina (2018)
    This study investigates how the proportion of SEN students in regular classes is related to the student-level and class-level cross-curricular competences. The data (N = 5368) come from a large-scale, longitudinal assessment study conducted on students at the beginning and end of lower secondary education in a Finnish metropolitan area. The results of the multilevel regression models showed that students in regular classes with SEN students performed on average lower than students in classes without SEN students, and that the proportion of students with SEN in class weakly predicted negatively the ninth-grade test scores. Furthermore, SEN students seemed to perform at the same level regardless of the proportion of other SEN students in class. However, students without SEN in classes with SEN students performed slightly lower than their peers in classes without SEN students in the ninth-grade assessment even when the initial differences related to placement were taken into account.