Browsing by Subject "Longitudinal"

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  • Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Jari; Kuula, Liisa; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Andersson, Sture; Strandberg, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2018)
    Objective: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed new genetic variants behind self-reported individual circadian preference, a distinct biological trait that is fairly stable during adulthood. In this study we analyze whether these genetic variants associate with objectively measured sleep timing from childhood to adolescence, over a nine-year period, with self-reported circadian preference during late adolescence. Methods: The participants (N = 100, 61% girls) came from a community cohort from Finland born in 1998. Sleep midpoint was measured with actigraphy at 8, 12 and 17 years. Circadian preference was self-reported at the age of 17 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were extracted at 12 years of age from the Illumina OmniExpress Exome 1.2 bead array data. Weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated based on top SNPs from a recent GWAS for morningness-eveningness in an adult population. Results: The PRS for circadian preference towards morningness was associated with earlier sleep midpoint from childhood to adolescence. When the time points were analyzed separately, the association between genetic tendency towards morning preference and earlier sleep midpoint was strongest among the 17-year-olds. Furthermore, the shift towards later sleep rhythm from early to late adolescence was milder for those with a higher PRS for morning preference. PRS for morning preference was also associated with self-reported circadian preference towards morningness in late adolescence. Conclusion: Our results suggest that genetic variants found for circadian preference in adults are already associated with objective sleep timing during childhood and adolescence, and predict individual developmental sleep trajectories from childhood onwards. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Viding, Essi; Dobewall, Henrik; Kaseva, Kaisa; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2021)
    We investigated (i) the predictive relationships of compassion with negative emotionality (a marker of susceptibility to stress) and vital exhaustion (a marker of chronic stress response) and (ii) the effect of compassion on the developmental courses of negative emotionality and vital exhaustion over a follow-up from early adulthood to middle age. We used the prospective Young Finns data (n = 1031-1495, aged 20-50). Compassion was evaluated in 1997, 2001, and 2012; and vital exhaustion and negative emotionality in 2001, 2007, and 2012. The predictive paths from compassion to vital exhaustion and negative emotionality were stronger than vice versa: high compassion predicted lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality. The effect of high compassion on lower vital exhaustion and lower negative emotionality was evident from early adulthood to middle age. Overall, high compassion appears to protect against dimensions of stress from early adulthood to middle age, whereas this study found no evidence that dimensions of stress could reduce disposition to feel compassion for others' distress over a long-term follow-up.
  • Vähämurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Telama, Risto; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Background and aims: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. Methods: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. Results: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDLcholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p Conclusions: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.
  • Vornanen, Marleena; Konttinen, Hanna; Peltonen, Markku; Haukkala, Ari (2021)
    Background Perceived disease risk may reflect actual risk indicators and/or motivation to change lifestyle. Yet, few longitudinal studies have assessed how perceived risk relates to risk indicators among different disease risk groups. We examined in a 5-year follow-up, whether perceived risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease predicted physical activity, body mass index (BMI kg/m(2)), and blood glucose level, or the reverse. We examined further whether perceived risk, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs together predicted changes in these risk indicators. Method Participants were high diabetes risk participants (N = 432) and low/moderate-risk participants (N = 477) from the national FINRISK 2002 study who were followed up in 2007. Both study phases included questionnaires and health examinations with individual feedback letters. Data were analyzed using gender- and age-adjusted structural equation models. Results In cross-lagged autoregressive models, perceived risks were not found to predict 5-year changes in physical activity, BMI, or 2-h glucose. In contrast, higher BMI and 2-h glucose predicted 5-year increases in perceived risks (beta-values 0.07-0.15,P-values <0.001-0.138). These associations were similar among high- and low/moderate-risk samples. In further structural equation models, higher self-efficacy predicted increased physical activity among both samples (beta-values 0.10-0.16,P-values 0.005-0.034). Higher outcome beliefs predicted lower BMI among the low/moderate-risk sample (beta-values - 0.04 to - 0.05,P-values 0.008-0.011). Conclusion Perceived risk of chronic disease rather follows risk indicators than predicts long-term lifestyle changes. To promote sustained lifestyle changes, future intervention studies need to examine the best ways to combine risk feedback with efficient behavior change techniques.
  • Lounassalo, Irinja; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Palomäki, Sanna; Salin, Kasper; Tolvanen, Asko; Pahkala, Katja; Rovio, Suvi; Fogelholm, Mikael; Yang, Xiaolin; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli T; Tammelin, Tuija H (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Evidence on whether leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) facilitates individuals’ adoption of multiple healthy behaviors remains scarce. This study investigated the associations of diverse longitudinal LTPA trajectories from childhood to adulthood with diet, screen time, smoking, binge drinking, sleep difficulties, and sleep duration in adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants were aged 9–18 years (N = 3553; 51% females) in 1980 and 33–49 years at the latest follow-up in 2011. The LTPA trajectories were identified using a latent profile analysis. Differences in self-reported health-related behaviors across the LTPA trajectories were studied separately for women and men by using the Bolck-Croon-Hagenaars approach. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, education level, marital status, total energy intake and previous corresponding behaviors. Results Persistently active, persistently low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified in both genders and an additional inactive trajectory for women. After adjusting the models with the above-mentioned covariates, the inactive women had an unhealthier diet than the women in the other trajectories (p <  0.01; effect size (ES) > 0.50). The low-active men followed an unhealthier diet than the persistently and increasingly active men (p <  0.01; ES > 0.50). Compared to their inactive and low-active peers, smoking frequency was lower in the increasingly active women and men (p <  0.01; ES > 0.20) and persistently active men (p <  0.05; ES > 0.20). The increasingly active men reported lower screen time than the low-active (p <  0.001; ES > 0.50) and persistently active (p <  0.05; ES > 0.20) men. The increasingly and persistently active women reported fewer sleep difficulties than the inactive (p <  0.001; ES > 0.80) and low-active (p <  0.05; ES > 0.50 and > 0.80, respectively) women. Sleep duration and binge drinking were not associated with the LTPA trajectories in either gender, nor were sleep difficulties in men and screen time in women. Conclusions Not only persistently higher LTPA but also an increasing tendency to engage in LTPA after childhood/adolescence were associated with healthier diet and lower smoking frequency in both genders, having less sleep difficulties in women and lower screen time in increasingly active men. Inactivity and low activity were associated with the accumulation of several unhealthy behaviors in adulthood. Associations were stronger in women.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Eerola, P.; Forthomme, Laurent; Kirschenmann, H.; Österberg, K.; Voutilainen, M.; Brücken, Erik; Garcia, F.; Havukainen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kim, Minsuk; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuuva, T. (2021)
    The first measurements of production cross sections of polarized same-sign (WW +/-)-W-+/- boson pairs in proton-proton collisions are reported. The measurements are based on a data sample collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb(-1). Events are selected by requiring exactly two same-sign leptons, electrons or muons, moderate missing transverse momentum, and two jets with a large rapidity separation and a large dijet mass to enhance the contribution of same-sign (WW +/-)-W-+/- scattering events. An observed (expected) 95% confidence level upper limit of 1.17 (0.88) fbis set on the production cross section for longitudinally polarized same-sign W-+/- W-+/- boson pairs. The electroweak production of same-sign W-+/- W-+/- boson pairs with at least one of the W bosons longitudinally polarized is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 2.3 (3.1) standard deviations. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Josefsson, Kim; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Merjonen, Paivi; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa (2013)
  • Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hakulinen, Christian; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Mikkila, Vera; Tossavainen, Paivi; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2017)
    The psychosocial environment and especially various psychosocial risks in childhood have been shown to predict later negative health behavior and health problems. In this study, we examined whether various psychosocial factor domains in childhood and adolescence: socioeconomic status, theemotional family environment (parental nurturance, life-satisfaction), parental lifestyle, life-events, the child's self-regulatory behavior and the child's social adaptation were associated with body mass index (BMI) trajectories individually by domain and as a cumulative score across domains. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2016 men and women fromthe Young Finns study aged 3-18 years at study entry in 1980. Their BMI wasmeasured at six study phases from 1980 to 2012. Their parents reported all the factors related to their psychosocial environment in 1980. The participants responded to questions on adulthood socioeconomic status in 2007. The accumulation of psychosocial factors in childhood was the main exposure variable. The findings fromrepeated measuresmultilevelmodeling showed that parental lifestyle and life-events and the more positive cumulative psychosocial factors score were associated with a slower increase in BMI during follow-up (regression coefficient range from - 0.06 to -0.50). In conclusion, the psychosocial environment in childhood and adolescence, particularly parental lifestyle and lack of stressful life-events, are associated with a lower increase of BMI. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hirvelä, Leon (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose The association of bulimic symptoms with sensation seeking is uncertain; however, both behaviors have been linked to alcohol problems. We assessed in a longitudinal, community-based setting whether sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with bulimic symptoms in early adulthood, also accounting for alcohol problems. Methods Finnish men (N = 2000) and women (N = 2467) born between 1974–1979 completed Zuckerman’s sensation seeking scale (SSS) at age 18. Alcohol problems (Malmö-modified Michigan alcoholism screening test (Mm-MAST) and bulimic symptoms [eating disorder inventory-2, bulimia subscale (EDI-Bulimia), population and clinical scoring systems] were defined at age 22–27. We examined relationships between SSS, Mm-MAST, and EDI-Bulimia using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression. Results Alcohol problems were moderately correlated with sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms (population scoring) among women and men (r = 0.21–0.31). The correlation between sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms (population scoring) was weak among men (r = 0.06, p = 0.006) and even weaker and non-significant among women (r = 0.03, p = 0.214). Adjustment for alcohol problems removed the association between sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms among men. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms when assessing EDI-Bulimia clinical scoring. Conclusion Sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms were not associated among women. The association between sensation seeking and bulimic symptoms among men was entirely attributable to increased alcohol problems among those with higher sensation seeking. While this association may be important on the population level, its clinical significance may be minor.
  • Jokela, Markus (2020)
    This study examined the role of selective residential mobility and differential personality development in the emergence of associations between personality and two neighborhood characteristics: urban-rural residence and neighborhood affluence. Participants were 19,665 individuals from the longitudinal Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study with personality traits assessed in 2005, 2009, and 2013. Urban and more affluent neighborhoods were both characterized by higher openness to experience, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. Overall, selective residential mobility was more important for urban-rural differences whereas both selective residential mobility and social influence contributed to correlations with neighborhood affluence. Simulated data based on the regression models produced correlations that were very close to the empirical correlations, suggesting that the empirical correlations could feasibly emerge within a 30-year period.
  • IMAGEN Consortium; Frere, Pauline Bezivin; Vetter, Nora C.; Artiges, Eric; Penttilä, Jani; Lemaitre, Herve (2020)
    Though adolescence is a time of emerging sex differences in emotions, sex-related differences in the anatomy of the maturing brain has been under-explored over this period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether puberty and sexual differentiation in brain maturation could explain emotional differences between girls and boys during adolescence. We adapted a dedicated longitudinal pipeline to process structural and diffusion images from 335 typically developing adolescents between 14 and 16 years. We used voxel-based and Regions of Interest approaches to explore sex and puberty effects on brain and behavioral changes during adolescence. Sexual differences in brain maturation were characterized by amygdala and hippocampal volume increase in boys and decrease in girls. These changes were mediating the sexual differences in positive emotional regulation as illustrated by positive attributes increase in boys and decrease in girls. Moreover, the differential maturation rates between the limbic system and the prefrontal cortex highlighted the delayed maturation in boys compared to girls. This is the first study to show the sex effects on the differential cortico/subcortical maturation rates and the interaction between sex and puberty in the limbic system maturation related to positive attributes, reported as being protective from emotional disorders.
  • Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Mustelin, Linda; Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2018)
    Objectives: To assess factors associated with successful weight maintenance over ten years in a prospective general population sample of young adults. Material and methods: Our study comprised 2452 women and 2227 men born in 1975-1979 (mean age at baseline 24 years, attrition 27.1%). Weight maintenance was defined as weight maintained within +/- 5% of baseline body mass index (BMI). We examined the role of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in successful weight maintenance. Results: Relatively few young adults were able to maintain their weight over ten years (28.6% of women vs. 23.0% of men); net weight loss was uncommon (7.5% and 3.8%). Most participants gained weight (mean annual weight gain was 0.9 kg in women and 1.0 kg in men). Among women, exercise was associated with successful weight maintenance, but having two or more children, frequent use of sweet drinks, irregular eating, history of dieting (intentional weight loss) and low life satisfaction were associated with weight gain. Among men, higher baseline BMI and higher education were associated with successful weight maintenance, whereas irregular eating, history of dieting and smoking were associated with weight gain. Conclusions: Only about a quarter of young adults were able to resist weight gain. Regular eating and having no history of dieting were associated with successful weight maintenance in young women and men.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2018)
    Background: The aim of this study was to examine longitudinally in the general population (a) whether depressive symptoms co-occur with paranoid ideation from late adolescence to middle age (b) whether depressive subsymptoms are differently linked with paranoid ideation (c) whether depressive symptoms are associated with state-level or trait-level paranoid ideation. Methods: Altogether 2109 subjects of the Young Finns study completed the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised and a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory in 1992, 1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II in 2007, 2011, and 2012. Results: Higher self-rated depressive symptoms were associated with the course of more severe paranoid ideation over age, especially in late adolescence and early adulthood. Regarding depressive subsymptoms, the associations of negative attitude and performance difficulties with paranoid ideation were evident over age, whereas the influence of somatic symptoms (such as changes in sleep and appetite) was not significant until after early adulthood. Additionally, depressive symptoms were more evidently associated with the development of traitthan state-level paranoid ideation. Limitations: Our study mostly captured mild depressive and paranoid symptoms. The results cannot be directly generalized to clinical populations. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms were associated with the course of paranoid ideation from late adolescence to middle age. Patients with paranoid ideation might merit from evaluation of potential depressive symptoms, especially in late adolescence and early adulthood. Among patients with co-occurring depressive symptoms and paranoid ideation, there may be a substantial need for neurocognitive rehabilitation and community-based treatments.
  • Early Genetics Lifecourse; EGG Consortium; EGG Membership; EAGLE Membership; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Mahajan, Anubha; Auvinen, Juha; Eriksson, Johan G.; Groop, Leif; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahti, Jari; Palviainen, Teemu; Strandberg, Timo; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth E. (2019)
    The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.