Browsing by Subject "Luokanopettaja (kasvatuspsykologia)"

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  • Siitonen, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. According to Warr's (1999) and Hakanen's (2011) models, the different states of well-being at work can be perceived through four key concepts. These include job satisfaction, burnout, stress and work engagement. Although teachers are mostly satisfied with their work, well-being at work has developed in an alarming direction in recent years and the stress experienced by teachers has increased. There has also been much public debate about the pandemics effects on well-being. Based on previous research, teachers have experienced more stress than normal during the exceptional circumstances caused by the coronavirus. The aim of this master's thesis was to find out how classroom teachers have experienced their well-being at work during the COVID-19 pandemic and to increase understanding of what factors contributed to well-being. In addition, the study sought to find out how classroom teachers well-being at work was promoted at that time. Methods. The study was conducted as semi-structured thematic interviews. The data consists of interviews with eight classroom teachers and one special classroom teacher. The data was analyzed using theory-guided and data-driven qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The COVID-19 pandemic affected teachers well-being at work in many ways. Teachers found the distance learning period particularly stressful. Stressors included an increase in workload, uncertainty and the combination of work and free time. On the other hand, for some teachers the distance learning period increased work engagement and job satisfaction. Some felt that towards the autumn 2020 the situation had recovered close to the time before pandemic, while some felt that exceptional circumstances were still having a strong impact on well-being. The most important support for promoting well-being at work came from the work community, which provided empathy, shared gatherings, and assistance in planning and teaching. Teachers also felt the empathy received from their principal important. Teachers themselves tried to separate work and free time, to exercise and to stick to their basic task. Teachers expressed dissatisfaction with the activities of municipalities and political decision-makers.
  • Rantakari, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to describe what kind of understanding pre-service class teachers have about thinking skills and teaching thinking in primary school. In addition, I am interested to find out whether or not the students in the field of educational sciences and the students in the field of educational psychology differ in their perceptions of thinking. The study examines thinking skills from the perspective of cognitive processes and uses the Integrated Model developed by Moseley and his group (2005a) to support the definition. The study was conducted as a phenomenographic study. The data consisted of 12 individual interviews and was collected in February 2021 from pre-service class teachers. Data analysis was performed using phenomenographic analysis. The study showed that the pre-service class teachers perceive thinking skills as a complex concept for which there was not seen a clear definition. Thinking skills were described as individual and evolving skills whose interrelationships were described in different ways. Thinking skills were perceived as tools that a person uses to perform various tasks. The teaching of thinking skills was seen as an investment for the future, as it was believed to promote learning and cultivate citizenship. Teaching was seen to take place mainly through pedagogical means. According to the subjects, thinking skills should be developed through diverse ways, with an emphasis on co-operation and supporting student agency. In addition, the importance of the teacher, the school and the learning environment was emphasized. Teaching thinking was also seen challenging. The students in the field of educational psychology and in the field of educational sciences largely followed a common line in their perceptions of thinking, but differences were found at the subcategory level. The most significant difference can be considered as the lack of creative thinking in the responses of educational psychology students. In addition, the study found that the pre-service class teachers had challenges in defining thinking skills as well as justifying pedagogical choices. This could suggest that they lack the metacognitive and pedagogical knowledge of thinking skills that Zohar (2005) considers as a prerequisite for teaching thinking skills. In the future, it would be good to further study the abilities of pre-service class teachers in terms of teaching thinking skills.
  • Hintsala, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. About a third of the population is highly sensitive in temperament. One of the most important research topics in educational psychology is learning, one aspect of which is learning strategies. Learning strategies and high sensitivity have been studied separately in the past, but there is very little research linking the two. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the relationship between high sensitivity to the use of learning strategies. The research task is to describe what kind of learning strategies are used by highly sensitive and non-highly sensitive students and to investigate how high sensitivity explains the use of learning strategies. Methods. The material was collected using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a sensitivity test, a section measuring learning strategies, an open-ended question, and background information. The data were analyzed by linear regression analysis using the deletion method. The entire data set (n = 202) consisted of adult people who, according to the research questions, were limited to either highly sensitive students (n = 117), non-highly sensitive students (n = 12) or students (n = 129). Results and conclusions. Elaboration and organization (M = 3.85) were the highest of the means (M), when describing the use of learning strategies by highly sensitive students (n = 117). These two learning strategies, as well as the in-depth treatment of high sensitivity, aim to build connections between things and connect new knowledge with the previous one. This similarity may explain the popularity of using these two strategies with highly sensitive persons. According to the regression analysis, the high sensitivity test positively explained 2% the use of organization statistically significantly (p < .05) and 7.4% the use of critical thinking statistically significantly (p < .001). The strategy of the organization is in line with the in-depth treatment of high sensitivity, as both seek to make connections between things. The strategy of critical thinking is consistent with an inhibition, which is a typical behavior for a highly sensitive person. The main principle in both of these strategies is to use previous information in new situations. These similarities may serve as an explanation for the fact that the high sensitivity test explains the use of organizational and critical thinking learning strategies in a statistically significant way.
  • Kärkäs, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract This study describes the perceptions of primary school teachers who participated in the strength training of the #newschool project about the development of students' self-regulatory skills and supporting development. In addition, the study examines how teachers define self-regulation skills. Self-regulation has been theoretically examined from several different starting points, which partially explains the broad definition of self-regulation and the challenges of defining the concept (Aro, 2011a, 10). The character strength classification made in the studies of positive psychology offers a new perspective on terminology in which self-regulation is seen as a strength. Strength education, which embodies positive psychology in school, in turn provides new tools to support students’ self-regulatory skills. (Peterson & Seligman, 2004, 30; Uusitalo-Malmivaara & Vuorinen, 2016, 69.) This study was conducted as a qualitative study. The material was obtained by interviewing seven teachers who actively participated in the strength training of the #newschool project. The interviews were conducted as individual interviews during March 2020. Theoretical content analysis was used as the method of data analysis. The main results of the study revealed that teachers did not have an unambiguous definition for self-regulation, rather they described it through various sub-skills and concrete examples. The socioemotional dimension of self-regulation complemented the previous definition of self-regulation by Aro (2011) in this study (Aro, 2011a, 10). In addition, the results showed that teachers' perceptions of the development of students’ self-regulatory skills include growth mindset and mixed mindset, according to Dweck’s (2006) Mindset theory (Dweck, 2006, 6). Some teachers saw self-regulation as an evolving skill, while for some it meant an innate ability, whose development can not be further influenced in school. The results show that strength education has begun to find a place in teaching and students' self-regulatory skills are supported in quite a variety of ways in everyday school life. However, teachers' mindsets still reflect mixed mindset, and more tools are needed to support, for example, educational partnerships. The special value of the research can be seen in the information it provides to trainings on how they should be further developed in the future. On the other hand, the research raises the question of how occasional trainings can have an influence on attitudes and activities. Looking to the future, the role of teacher education in embracing the growth attitude of future teachers can be assessed, and on the other hand, the potential of teacher education to provide students with better skills to support students’ self-regulatory skills can be examined.
  • Rantanen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. In sports, there is a pressure for change in coaches behaviour and coaching styles. The discussion regarding the methods and procedures used in coaching is active. From a coaching philosophical perspective, coach orientation has changed to player orientation. Teaching methods used in coaching should be updated to reflect modern learning concepts in which the player has the role of an active agent. In conclusion, the need to develop the skills of coaches has increased. In addition to mastering coaching styles, the coach is required to have the ability to utilize social and emotional skills. This study examines and analyzes how football coaches utilize and use social and emotional skills as well as teaching styles. In addition, connections between socialemotional skills and teaching styles are sought. Methods. The approach of this study was qualitative. The material was collected through individual interviews. There were total of six interviews (n = 6). The coaches interviewed had extensive and long coaching experience. The analysis of material was done as a theory-based content analysis, because the aim was to look at the material from the perspective of theory. Results and conclusions. Based on this research, the notion that coaching is moving towards a teaching style in which the player´s role as a active learner and a builder of knowledge is taken into account was confirmed. It can be concluded from the material that coaches use a autonomy supportive teaching style to take into account the needs of the players. However, coaches feel that there are situations where it is justified to use controlling teaching style instead of autonomyt supportive style. The best approach can be therefore considered to be a combination of an autonomy supportive and controlling style. Based on this research, coaches utilize social and emotional skills in a variety of coaching work. It can be concluded from the material that coaches value social and emotional skills and perceive them as a significant aspect of coaching. Based on the material, coaches place particular emphasis on those areas of social and emotional skills that are related to working with others. From this it can be concluded that in the future more attention should be paid to the development of coache´s self-awareness and self-management.
  • Eerolainen, Eemeli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between adolescents’ academic self-efficacy and their family structure, estimated income and estimated quality of parent-child-relationship. Self-efficacy, also known as one’s trust in their own capabilities, is a fundamental source of human motivation. It is positively related to persistence, stress control and performance, all of which support success in school. Earlier studies have shown that family background is related to adolescent’s academic self-efficacy and academic performance. Methods. The data was collected with questionnaires as a part of Mind the Gap -project during spring 2014. The participants (N = 1316) were 13–14-year-old students from elementary schools of the metropolitan area of Finland. Academic self-efficacy was measured of six different school subjects. The estimated income was evaluated in general and in relation to friends. The estimated parent-child-relationship was evaluated in relation to mum and dad seperately. The instruments were based on questionnaries used in previous research. I used one-way analysis of variance to examine, whether there were differences in the levels of academic self-efficacy between groups based on family structure, income and parent-child-relationship. I also used regression analysis to see, whether family structure, evaluated income and evaluated quality of parent-child-relationship predicts the variation of academic self-efficacy. Results and conclusions. Adolescents from intact families had higher level of academic self-efficacy than adolescents from blended families or single parent families. Adolescents who evaluated their income higher had higher level of academic self-efficacy than adolescents with low or mediocre evaluation of income. Adolescents who evaluated their parent-child-relationship higher had higher level of academic self-efficacy than adolescents with poor or mediocre evaluation of parent-child-relationship. Family structure, estimated income and estimated parent-child-relationship predicted academic self-efficacy, but not strongly. The results were similar to earlier findings. The results suggest that adolescents from certain backgrounds might be in greater need of support of their academic self-efficacy. This should be noticed by the school and the caretakers.
  • Pursiainen, Janika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The theoretical frame for this study is Ladson-Billings' (1992, 1995) theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. Culturally relevant pedagogy has sought to solve the challenge that multicultural education has not been able to meet. The cultural diversity of schools is a wealth of teaching that should be used as a starting point for school activities. This, according to previous research, increases the student’s experience of relevance and violates the power structures that prevail in the school. This study is interested in the way teachers feel that they implement culturally relevant pedagogy in their teaching. In addition, the purpose is to find out the abilities and challenges experienced by teachers when implementing culturally relevant pedagogy in their teaching. This study is a multi-case study. The research material has been collected through a thematic interview by interviewing primary school teachers in schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area. In addition, the material has also been collected through a pre-sent tuning task. The material has been analyzed by research questions using qualitative content analysis, both deductively and inductively. The material consists of a total of six primary school teacher interviews and tuning assignments. Teachers perceived cultural diversity in the group not only as wealth but also as a challenge. Teachers said that they use different teaching methods to support the group's joint activities and the students' academic success. According to the teachers, the individual support of the student was strong. However, some teachers felt that their cultural competence was weak, and that meeting diversity was challenging. Cultural diversity was often associated with immigration or foreign language. According to the teachers, the development of critical thinking skills was limited. The students' own cultural backgrounds and the power exercised by the students in teaching were mainly manifested in teacher-led assignments or discussions. Based on this research, the competence of teachers in multicultural education should be developed. Based on this study, genuine student active participation in teaching is also still lacking.
  • Fernström, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of subjective wellbeing based on Seligman’s (2011) PERMA-theory among sixth and ninth grade girls and boys. Previous studies have shown that girls experience lower wellbeing than boys and that the subjective wellbeing decreases as the children move on to higher grades. This study creates an understanding of the state of subjective wellbeing among sixth and ninth graders and the factors that affect it. This study provides knowledge to those working with children and youth on which elements of wellbeing should be taken in consideration in order to promote the wellbeing of children and youth. Methods. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. Sixth and ninth graders (N = 175) from three schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area participated in the study. Their experiences of subjective wellbeing were mapped using a questionnaire. The EPOCH wellbeing measure (Kern et al., 2016) based on the PERMA-theory was used as a measure of subjective wellbeing in this study. Mann Whitney's U-test was used in the analysis of the data. Results and conclusions. Majority of the participants in this study seemed to be doing well, although unlike in previous studies, girls were experiencing more wellbeing than boys. Also, unlike in previous studies, grade levels did not differ in the experience of wellbeing. Sixth grade girls experienced engagement and connectedness, and ninth grade girls, in addition to the above, also experienced perseverance and happiness more often than boys of the same age. Gender differences in the experience of subjective wellbeing and its elements can serve as indicative results which, however, are still in need of further research in order to be able to better understand the factors affecting youth wellbeing and thus allowing us to effectively promote it.
  • Taipalus, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate talented children studying in a homeschool. The first research question describes home school parents’ definitions of talent. The second research question focuses on supporting a talented child in a homeschool. Previous research data shows that talent and homeschooling are related both as a reason for choosing a homeschool and as a high learning outcomes (Ray 2002, 2017) The research material was collected through a thematic interview. Home school parents (N=7) and their children (N=6) participated in the remote connected interview. Literated interviews were analyzed in the first research question by inductive content analysis and in the second research question by deductive content analysis question based on the catalysts of Gagnés (2004) Differentiated model of giftedness and talent. Talent was seen as differences in performance based on innate ability. Parents emphasized the importance of the environment and work alongside this perception. Talent was seen a little more multimodal than general. The talented child was defined by a high willingness to learn and various interests. The views are in line with previous research data and resembles Gagné’s (2004) definitions of the development of natural ability into talent by talent development process. Families saw homeschooling as a workable solution for educating a talented child. The parents emphasized the impact of the environment and individuality on learning. Homeschooling was seen as a motivating learning environment and supporting a child’s well-being. Parents felt it was important to appreciate the child’s talent and a lot of resources could be directed to support the child’s talent. The flexible timetable in homeschool increased free time or allowed the child to engage more intense hobbies. Homeschooling appears to be potential form of education form of education for a talented child but requires certain educational resources from the family.
  • Rintamäki, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of the study was to describe children’s agency related to climate change and to find out what kind of climate actions children do. In addition, the factors limiting and supporting children’s climate action were studied. The climate crisis is a wicked problem that requires a change in human behavior. In recent years young people's concern about the climate change as well as their social impact have increased. Previous research shows that active agency promotes student’s environmentally responsible behavior. Efforts have been made to strengthen children's empowerment and agency in society by increasing opportunities for participation. In this study climate change knowledge, emotions and climate change action were the main research themes. The target group consisted of 4th grade children (N = 18) which were interviewed during winter 2021. The group interviews were recorded and analyzed using theory-guided content analysis. The children were able to name causes and consequences of climate change, as well as to suggest solutions. Participants also expressed misconceptions about climate change. Differences were found considering how children experience the severity of climate change. Emotions that the participants associated with climate change were anxiety, sadness, fear and hope. However, not all participants associated strong feelings about climate change. The children committed climate actions related to transportation, food, energy consumption and social impact. The study showed that child's social environment can act as a limiting or promoting factor in climate action. Adult example in particular, such as parents’ role, was significant. The study shows that children’s climate action is a multidimensional entity. As some children feel that their own influence in mitigating climate change is weak, there is a need to create more opportunities for participation. Adult’s role as an enabler of child’s climate action is essential.
  • Laaksonen, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Self-esteem affects to child’s appearance, thoughts and actions and it has a big impact regarding child’s learning, well-being and future sights. Previous studies reveal that teacher’s feedback has a big role when enhancing child’s self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine primary school teachers’ descriptions of primary school students’ self-esteem in school and the ways of enhancing it in their job. The theoretical frame of this study is based on Michele Borba’s five component self-esteem model and on previous studies that reveal the importance of enhancing child’s self-esteem. This study was a qualitative study and it was analysed by using a phenomenographic analysis. Eight primary school teachers’ participated to the study. Four of them were male and four women. The data was collected from the primary school teachers throughout theme interviews. The data consists of 92 transcribed pages from the interviews. The categories presented as the results of the study were build from the descriptions of the primary school teachers and concerning the research questions. They were build from detailed expressions towards to a bigger picture and finally forming the categories shown as results. What comes to the results, primary school teachers’ know quite well and many-sided, how to enhance students’ self-esteem. As a result, five different types of categories were revealed. The categories were enhancing the student’s feeling of security, enhancing the group dynamics, enhancing the student’s selfhood, enhancing the student’s realistic target set up and enhancing the student’s feeling of competence. It is important to enhance self-esteem long-term and always take into account the different types of individuals in the group. Primary school teachers’ also thought that the enhancement of self-esteem is important in the school. Regarding the primary school teachers’ descriptions of the manifestation of students’ self-esteem and its level in school, six different types of categories were revealed as a result. The categories were the appreciation of yourself, the recognizing of your strengths and weakness’, social skills, the trust towards yourself and your abilities, the courage to participate and try new things and the tolerance of disorder in routines. What comes to the results, a primary school teacher needs to focus the attention towards the students’ and try to get to know the students’ better. That way the teacher can identify the quality of the students’ self-esteem. The results of this study are similar when comparing them to Borba’s self-esteem model.
  • Lindholm, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goal. The objective of this study is to survey classroom teachers’ insights of authority, its contribution to peaceful work environment and finally, how the amount of work experience affects these two factors. Teacher’s authority has been examined and written about from many different perspectives. It has been affected by changes in society and the school system. The aim of this study is to describe and address the topic as broadly as possible in order to outline the big picture. Authority has been seen to have a very large impact on peace in the class. The concept of peace at work is subjective and is usually approached from the discourse of issues. Both topics and related changes have also been actively discussed in the media in recent years. The study also took into account changes over time and their effects. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative study using a phenomenographic research approach. The material was collected using an electronic questionnaire and the respondents were working as a class teacher. The group of respondents was quite heterogeneous and the survey was answered anonymously. The material consisted of replies given by 33 people to open interview questions. The data was analyzed in relation to three different research questions. Results and conclusions. The research results showed that classroom teachers defined authority mostly in relation to agreed rules, student encounters, interaction, and trust. The length of teachers’ careers affected their responses in many different ways. Novice teachers felt they had less authority than those who had worked in the field longer. Novice teachers also didn’t emphasize the importance of the rules as much in their responses, but rather highlighted aspects of positive pedagogy. The majority of respondents felt that their class was in favor of peace at work and only four expressed dissatisfaction with peace at work. Almost half of the respondents mentioned certain students disturbing peace at work. Respondents who had been teachers for the longest time found most often their working peace to be good, but also stated more often that certain students perceived working peace as challenging.
  • Nokelainen, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. During the past ten years, there has been some studies about the Finns’ language proficiency and how they perceive English language (EF EPI, 2019; Eurobarometer, 2012; Grasz & Schlabach, 2011; Leppänen ym., 2009; Niemi & Ruuskanen, 2018; Virtanen, 2019). However, these studies have not studied these topics from one occupation’s point of view. The research aims to describe, analyse and interpret the class teachers’ perceptions of their language proficiency and of English language. In addition, the results of the study were compared to the previous studies (Leppänen ym., 2009; Niemi & Ruuskanen, 2018; Virtanen, 2019), and the answers of the less experienced class teachers and the more experienced teachers were compared to each other. Methods. The study was carried out as a qualitative survey research. The data was collected from the questionnaire, in which 32 class teachers answered. Other studies’ indicators were adapted in the questionnaire, and it had both open-ended and close-ended questions. A classification was used as the method of the data analysis. The data was sorted adequately depending on the question type, and in a way that it was comparable to the results of the previous studies. Results. The class teachers told that they know many foreign languages. The class teachers’ most proficient language was English, as almost everyone rated their proficiency as good or excellent. The less experienced class teachers rated their level of English and Spanish higher than the more experienced teachers, whereas the more experienced teachers rated their level of Swedish and German higher than the less experienced teachers. According to the answers, the class teachers perceived English language mainly positively and thought that the knowledge of English is an important skill to have. There were some differences found between the less experienced class teachers and the more experienced ones. It seemed that the more experienced teachers perceived English a little bit more negatively than the less experienced ones. The class teachers’ expectations of their own competence, in this case of their language proficiency, was at the high level. In addition, they thought that the knowledge of English and other foreign languages was an important skill to have. According to the expectancy-value theory (Eccles, 1983, as cited in Viljaranta, 2017, it can be said that the class teachers are committed to the ongoing or future task of early language teaching.
  • Ellonen, Eetu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Goal. The importance of socioemotional skills has grown in our society. Those are positively related to learning and well-being. Skills are needed in people's daily life and working, as well as in the school world. Research on the topic has focused more on children than teachers in the school world, although it would be important to study teachers as well. Teachers can support the socioemotional skills of their students, which requires teachers to master those skills themselves. The aim of this study was to increase awareness of the socioemotional skills of classroom teachers. The study was used to find out what kind of socioemotional skills classroom teachers feel they have and how attending interaction training affects the skills. In addition, the study looked at socioemotional methods that teachers used in the work and in what situations they needed those skills. Methods. 41 classroom teachers from all over Finland participated in this multi-method study. Subjects answered 43 multiple-choice questions and six open-ended questions on the topic using an E-form sent to social media groups for teachers and educators. Based on the background data, the amount of work experience of the respondents varied and they had graduated over several decades. Results and conclusion. Classroom teachers felt they had high socioemotional skills in this study. Attending interaction training did not have a statistically significant effect on the experience of skills. However, open-ended responses made it possible to question the veracity of one's own experience, especially for classroom teachers who had not participated in interaction training. The study also found that those who underwent interaction training used more methods of socioemotional skills in their work and were more likely to succeed in solving challenging situations. Classroom teachers needed their skills, especially when working with students, colleagues, and student caregivers. Based on this research, interaction training may have a positive effect on teachers’ socioemotional skills.
  • Nissinen, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The framework for this study comes from Carol Dweck’s (2000, 2006) theory of mindsets. Dweck has categorized mindsets between two categories: the growth mindset and the fixed mindset. A person with a fixed mindset believes these qualities are stable whereas a person with a growth mindset believes human qualities such as intelligence, skills and personality are malleable. There have been a lot of studies about mindsets, but most of the research examines the mindsets of adolescents and adults. Instead, there has been less research regarding children’s mindset and effect on them through education. This is a case study from the third grade of primary school. The data of this study was collected as a part of the Copernicus research project led by Kirsi Tirri, based on the growth mindset pedagogy. The data consisted of learning diaries completed by the third grade pupils during the teaching period called “I can learn!”. The aim of this study was to find out what things pupils mention as challenging, what kind of mistakes and failures remain in pupils’ minds. In addition, pupils were asked to describe what strategies they use when facing a challenging learning situation and how “I can learn!” -teaching period influenced earlier strategies described. The analysis was done using an inductive content analysis. The results of this study showed that challenges and mistakes mentioned by the pupils were mainly related to exercise and school subjects. In light of the results, it can be concluded that the teaching period was able to influence pupils’ thinking and attitudes towards challenges and failures. The strategies mentioned by the pupils for challenging situations increased and positive, self-talk began to appear in pupils’ responses at the end of the teaching period. We can identify increase in pupils’ growth mindset thinking as a result of I can learn! -teaching period.
  • Kauppi, Eija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract In this Master’s thesis I studied commitment to Basic education in theatre arts. Basic education in theatre arts is “goal-oriented, progressing from one level to other and it teaches children skills in self-expression and capabilities needed for vocational, polytechnic and university education in their chosen art form” (Curriculum of Basic Education in Art, 2017, p. 10). Basic education in theater arts is a hobby that requires the commitment of a child or a young person. In the theory part I studied the commitment from a philosophical point of view as well as from a psychological point of view that includes motivation. In addition, I examined commitment in different environments: educational institutions and in art contexts. Previous theories (inter alia Morgan & Saxton, 1985; Newbery, 2012; Willms, 2003; Zynghier, 2008) alone were unable to explain the phenomenon being studied. However, together the theoretical framework helped to understand the commitment to Basic education in theatre arts. I divided the theoretical framework into three main categories: the characteristics of art, the teaching processes and the pupil's background. Previous studies have studied, among other things, the relation between Basic education in the arts and the future of culture (Ministry of Education and Culture, 2011), self-evaluation of educational institutions (Basic Education Education Association, 2012), regional accessibility of Basic education in the arts (Regional Administration, 2012), the efficiency of teaching (Järvinen, 2015), the accessibility of teaching (Nokka, 2017) as well as from the point of view of experiential quality in Basic education in theatre arts (Myllyniemi, 2017). I found very little previous research of the topic of my thesis. In my opinion, factors influencing commitment was important to study for two reasons: the importance of commitment has increased in the curriculum (Curriculum of Basic Education in Art, 2005; 2017) and because of the growing number of students in the Tikkurila Theater and Circus School. My aim is to describe, analyze and interpret commitment as a phenomenon in Basic education in theater arts. The context of the research is Tikkurila Theater and Circus School. The research questions were: 1. Which factors influence to pupil’s commitment to Basic education in theater arts? 2. How do the importance, possibilities and realization of engagement in Basic education in theater arts become apparent in the interviews? 3. How does the theoretical framework of commitment appear in the interviews? Does the theoretical framework change based on the interviews? My research approach was qualitative. The material was collected as a part of Anu Myllyniemi's (2017) master's thesis The experiential quality in Basic education in theatre arts. The data collection method was individual interviews. There were in total of five interviews. Because my thesis was influenced by theory-based perspectives, I found the abductive content analysis to be the most suitable analytical method. The analysis process was divided into three phases: material reduction, grouping and conceptualization. (Tuomi & Sarajärvi, 2017) According to this study, the most important factors influencing the commitment to Basic education in theater arts were the social dimension of the hobby and the methods of teaching used in the education. In addition to these, the interviewees highlighted the importance of trying different kind of roles. Some significance could also be seen with values and attitudes appeared in the theatre school, teacher’s responsibility and pupil’s self-confidence. The results of the study showed similarities with the theoretical framework. Complementing the theoretical framework, the meaning of the environment (teaching facilities) emerged as a significant factor of commitment. The National Agency of Education has defined as one of the goals of Basic education in arts that pupil’s are goal-oriented and aiming for vocational education (Curriculum of Basic Education in Art, 2017, p. 10). If the research were to be carried out in a broader sense, it could provide new perspectives for the curriculum of Basic arts education and help the educational institutions to engage their students more effectively.
  • Paananen, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    With the growing popularity of video games, it has been considered how interest and motivation to study science could be increased through games. However, more research is needed on the benefits of learning games to support teaching, especially in grades 1-6. Observation of species and familiarization with their habitats, as well as inquiry-based learning, are essential in science education, but the research is still lacking on learning games on the subject. Information is also needed about game engagement and attitudes toward games, as they have been found to have a connection to learning. The purpose of this study was to examine students’ engagement, learning, and attitudes toward game content in a learning game about ants, their ecology, and research. The aim was to provide information on the use of a learning game using an inquiry-based approach in the context of science education. This mixed methods research used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study design was a quasi-experimental intervention study. The data were collected through a questionnaire involving 38 fifth graders. The students responded to a pre- and post-questionnaire on learning, engagement, and attitudes, between which an intervention was conducted by playing the Anter learning game. Qualitative data on ant structure (drawings) as well as ecology and research (open-ended questions) were categorized and quantified, after which qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using statistical tests. In addition, thematic design was used in the analysis of qualitative data to investigate research problems. According to the results, the learning game statistically significantly promoted the learning of ant characteristics, ecology, and research. Based on the responses, the engagement to the Anter game was at a fairly high level, although it did not reach the same level of engagement when compared to the students’ favourite games. Engagement in playing a learning game correlates statistically significantly with attitude dimensions, such as interest in ants and their research. Fear of ants is negatively correlated with interest in ants and their research. Girls and boys achieved similar results in learning, but boys were more interested in ants and their research than girls. The fear of ants was stronger in girls than in boys. The results show that a learning game appropriate to their context can bring a useful addition to the teaching of science education, as the game allows students to learn even challenging details, knowledge, and research skills independently.
  • Sopanen, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    There has been much research on agency in different branch of science and different perspectives. In the context of school, student agency research has largely focused on examining teacher-student interactions. The study of writing is also a current topic in educational research. The perception of writing and learning to write has changed in the last twenty years. In the context of writing increasing emphasis on literacy skills, a process-oriented approach to writing and a collaborative writing. In the context of collaborative learning, studying agency in student interactions where the teacher is not constantly present becomes essential. The purpose of this thesis is to gain more insight into the process of co-writing and the building of agency through interaction between students. The video material used in the thesis consist of small group work of three 5th grade students in history lesson, during which the small group is tasked with writing a joint information text. The material was collected in winter 2018 for the purposes of the Tekstistä Tekstiin -research project. The video material analysed the linguistic initiatives taken by the students and the subsequent interaction periods during the writing process. Discourse analysis with emphasis on the functions of linguistic expressions was used as the method of analysis. In the context of the thesis, co-writing emerged as an interactive process consisting four stages: information retrieval, planning of writing, writing and structuring work. The student agency appeared as individual and shared responsibility for advancing the assignment, skills in relation to the prerequisites of the writing assignment and performing as expected. Based on the data, student agency was appeared to be linked to the institutional context that guides the development of agency also during student interaction.
  • Vehmas, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Self-efficacy, which means one’s beliefs about their own capabilities, has a key role in motivation and performance. Therefore, it also plays an important role in language learning. There is very little research about the Finnish self-efficacy of Finnish as a second language (FSL) learners. The aim of this study was to find out if sex, age, length of residence and reading fluency of FSL learners predict their Finnish self-efficacy. In addition, the aim was to find out how the Finnish self-efficacy differ when it comes to abstract and concrete questions. Moreover, the aim was to find out if Finnish self-efficacy measured on one hand on abstract level and on the other hand on concrete level predict reading fluency of FSL learners. Methods. The data was collected with an electrical questionnaire as a part of Kielellisten taitojen ja lukemisen tukeminen -research project realised by Niilo Mäki Instituutti during spring 2016. The participants (N = 67) of this research were 9-12-year-old FSL learners from grades 3 to 5. The participants were from different parts of Finland. Regression analysis was used to find out if age, sex, length of residence and reading fluency of FSL learners predict their Finnish self-efficacy. Paired sample t-test was used to examine the mean differences between Finnish self-efficacy measured on abstract and on concrete level. Lastly, regression analysis was used to find out if Finnish self-efficacy measured on abstract and on concrete level predict reading fluency of FSL learners. Results and conclusions. The length of residence predicted self-efficacy in reading comprehension and in writing. FSL learners estimated their Finnish self-efficacy higher on abstract level than on concrete level. The means of abstract self-efficacy and concrete self-efficacy differed from each other statistically significantly. Finnish self-efficacy measured on abstract level didn’t predict reading fluency, whereas Finnish self-efficacy measured on concrete level did predict reading fluency. The results of this research show that the time spent in a country and its culture plays an important role in Finnish self-efficacy. In addition, the results show that when measuring language self-efficacy, it is important to consider the specificity level on which it will be measured.
  • Lehto, Hilppa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Achievement goal orientation research has a long background and roots in motivation re-search. However, achievement goal orientations have not been studied in connection with learning difficulties, although research has been done on motivation and learning difficul-ties. (see. eg. Mononen, Aunio, Väisänen, Korhonen & Tapola, 2017) The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between achievement goal orienta-tions and learning difficulties. The purpose is to find out what kind of achievement goal orien-tation profiles can be found in the material and how differently motivated students differ in their experienced and actual learning difficulties. It is hypothesized that at least students emphasizing mastery (mastery-oriented), performance (success-oriented), and avoidance (avoidance-oriented) are identified and that mastery-oriented students are less likely to report learning difficulties, while avoidan-ce-oriented students are more likely to perceive difficulties in their studies. . The data was part of the material collected in the Mind the Gap project. The material has been collected as a longitudinal study and I had at my disposal thde material from 2016, dur-ing which the subjects were in the 7th grade. A total of data were collected from 1,553 stu-dents, but the number of respondents to different questions varies by question. The data were analyzed by Two step cluster analysis, analysis of variance and cross-tabulation. Three achievement goal orientation profiles were dicovered in the data, which could be named mastery-oriented, success-oriented, and avoidance-oriented. No statistically signifi-cant association was found between the learning difficulties identified and the achievement goal orientations by cross-tabulation. According to the results of the analysis of variance, mastery-orientated students report less experienced learning difficulties than other students, while avoidance-oriented students report the most learning difficul-ties, especially difficulties in following the teaching.