Browsing by Subject "Luokanopettaja, kasvatustiede"

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  • Särkelä, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Objectives. Sexuality is a part of humanity. Sexuality develops through our lives and includes various stages of growth and development. Sex education is part of human rights and WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Europe wide standards for sex education. Previous studies show that sex education increases more knowledge and strengthens the child’s self-esteem. On the other hand, studies have shown teachers experiencing sex education challenging and they need further education on it. The aim of this research was to determine perceptions and experiences of primary school teachers about sex education. Methods. The data of this qualitative research was collected by interviewing five primary school teachers. The material is analyzed by the method of analysis of the content. Interviews are transcribed and transcribed material decrypted into sections sorted by the topic. These themes emerged from the data itself and on research issues. By using content analysis, the purpose was to create a view of teacher’s perceptions and experiences and reflect them with the theoretical frame of reference of research. Results and conclusions. Teachers considered sex education important and relevant. The world is changing all the time and teacher’s knowledge should keep up with the change. Content areas of sex education were mainly familiar to teachers, but some flaws in their knowledge were also found. Teachers perceived the subject as a natural thing, but they also identified the challenging nature of the subject. Sex education raised some uncertainty among teachers which was mostly due to lack of education. Further education of teachers would improve sex education on primary schools and strengthens teachers’ faith in themselves as sex educators.
  • Laine-Åström, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims. The content of this work is meeting which is studied by analysing special teacher`s self-bring out significances for the touching from their interviews. The significance of the touch has been confessed from the point of view of the health of brain. The connection to others is significant and confessed from the point of view of the learning. According to studies the touch is a part of the school human interaction. In this study the goal was to examine through the interpretation frames the meanings that special teachers themselves give related to the touch. In the study were examined the touches between teacher and the student. In this study the study task is to increase the understanding of the means to utilise the touch in the changing situations of the school by the special teachers. Methods. The research data was gathered from Koskettava koulu -projects five ready transcribed special teacher’s interviews. They were analyzed by using content analysis to find research units. These units were categorized to four different interpretation frames. Through each of the frames is a possibility to observe the teacher’s manner on speaking from the touch, so called discourses of touch, which build up the picture of the touch in the school. A subject of the study is to find out purposes of the touch given buy teachers and also to find out what kind of reality teachers are building when they talk about touch. Results and conclusions. The majority from discourse of the teacher’s interviews were emphasised the frames of Everyday life and Pupil knowing. In the frame of everyday life were observed discourse’s which processed the touch through steering, regulation, encouraging, the act of consoling and routines. Through the frame of the Pupil knowing were observed discourses of touch in which the teacher’s ability to know the pupil and his/her background, pupils age and the pupil’s initiative was emphasised. Through the frame of danger, the teachers addresses brought out the touch at school from the point of view of restriction, worry which rises from the media, sufficient informing of the supporters and protection skills. In the frame of interaction touch was analysed through discourses of trust and communication. The result of this study cannot be generalized to apply all the special teachers, but they will give a points of view from significance of the touch in the school
  • Pesonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to research possible tensions between the aims of anti-racism and the Finnish educational institution. The thesis describes situations where these tensions become apparent in the Finnish educational institution and in anti-racist work. The thesis makes use of previous research that sees racism as a process of racialization and othering, as well as understands racism pri- marily as a structure. The thesis is contextualized in the Finnish educational system where the idea of white normativity is maintained. Previous studies have shown that debate on racism is ignored in Fin- nish educational institution even though it is part of everyday reality of the entire school, students and teachers. The purpose of this thesis is to understand the situations that may challenge the introduction of anti-racism into the Finnish educational system. The data consisted of interviews with specialists which were arranged in the spring of 2021. I intervie- wed three specialists of anti-racism who have taken anti-racism forward in Finland. In addition, all specialists had connection to the educational system through their work history or education. I applied thematic analysis in my research. I applied the phases of the thematic analysis of Braun and Clarke in particular. I understood the research process from the perspective of the anti-racist agenda and feminist methodology. My research results are structured through three themes that describe the position of anti-racism in the Finnish educational system. According to the results, the Finnish educational system operated on a white narrative that defined the idea of normal. Based on my results, it can be concluded that the aims of anti- racism are not easily achieved in an inflexible educational system. In educational system, power and institutional racism are easily left out of the debate. The educational system was described through glorifying speech that praised equality and non-discrimination. Teachers were also identified as bene- factors through this speech. However, the results show that the Finnish educational system cannot se- parate itself from racism. Due to the contradiction, it is not easy to incorporate anti-racism or any form of critical pedagogy to a Finnish educational system. The results also showed that racism is easily out- sourced and ignored in the Finnish educational system. This happened through curricula, teachers, and practices in the school system. The inflexibility of the school system and the difficulty to position ins- titutional racism in the Finnish educational system united all the three themes.
  • Karhunen, Nelli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this study is to examine how much other than Finnish or Finnish as a second language subject teachers use literature education in multidisciplinary teaching and how much they collaborate with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers. Previous studies show that while teachers attach great importance to multidisciplinary teaching, cross-subject collaboration requires a lot of extra work from teachers. Research shows that reading literature is holistically linked to the better performance of pupils at school. This study provides information on how much teachers cooperate in literature and what kind of collaboration is. The investigation will also examine the reasons why there is no cooperation. The data of this study have been based on the Finnish and Swedish responses of the survey data sent to other subject teachers in the Lukuklaani project, which received 611 answers. Among the answers to the survey sent to other subject teachers, I looked at the questions that had been used to investigate the literary education carried out by subject teachers. With regard to the answers to closed questions, I examined qualitative indicators and open answers through qualitative content analysis. The results of my research showed that the other subject teachers use very little of literary education in their teaching. In multidisciplinary learning modules, literary education was used as an upwardly differentiated material and in deepening the knowledge of the subject through non-fiction. The reason why literature education was not utilised was that the subject taught by the subject teacher was not involved in the school's multidisciplinary teaching, or that multidisciplinary learning modules were limited. Subject teachers cooperated with Finnish or Finnish as a second language teachers most often every academic year or less often. Closer cooperation was less common. Cooperation was carried out in the teaching of multidisciplinary learning entities, the teaching and evaluation of writing and literacy, language maintenance, expressive skills and the organization of school parties. The reason for the lack of cooperation was the unwillingness of Finnish teachers and the lack of time. The study shows that subject teachers do quite a bit of multidisciplinary cooperation, but do not express a reluctance to cooperate.
  • Humalajoki, Samuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives. Studies show that intelligence is declining in Western countries. Researchers ’concerns have widened into a debate over whether society is depleting or whether there is an issue in statistics. The purpose of this study is to sort out the epistemological beliefs of the Mensians in relation to the decline in intelligence. It also explores how incremental theory of intelligence is reflected in the beliefs of Mensians. The aim of the study is to give people who are found to be intelligent the opportunity to describe the evolution of intelligence to broaden the understanding of the phenomenon. Because intelligence is a complex concept, the theoretical background of the study contains broad research of measurement and definition of intelligence. Methods. This qualitative research is part of a phenomenographic research tradition. The material of the study is secondary data from a previous master’s thesis, which examined the beliefs of Mensians in the development of intelligence. This study focuses on the open-ended response in the data, in which Mensians describe why they believe intelligence is declining in the West. In accordance with the phenomenographic research approach, the material was first analysed by classifying the beliefs found in the material into units. Those units were formed into descriptive categories that reflect the relationship between the beliefs associated with the phenomenon in a larger picture. Results and conclusions. According to the results of the study, Mensians widely believe that intelligence is built on a person’s own making. Therefore, incremental beliefs were strongly present in the epistemological beliefs, but entity-theoretic beliefs were also found. The Mensians saw many reasons for the decline in intelligence, the most common being digitalisation and transition in society. Other answers include the breeding of stupid people, chemicalization and life habits. There was concern about the decline in intelligence and it was understood to be part of the negative development of modern society. On the other hand, many Mensans also questioned the whole phenomenon and suspected it as a misunderstanding.
  • Besic, Sameer (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Combining studying and goal-oriented sports is challenging. This master's thesis looks at the path of successful high-level athletes to the top and how they have experienced the combining of two careers. The aim is to look at the experience’s athletes have of combining sports careers and studies at different levels of education and what they have found challenging and what has been, on the other hand, successful. On average, sports careers at the top level are short, and after the end of their careers, many athletes find employment in jobs corresponding to their studies. The best way we can understand athletes' experiences is if we are also aware of how to develop into a top athlete. The data of the study consists of seven interviews. Seven Finnish athletes who have had successful sports careers and who also have had varied study experiences were interviewed for the purpose of the study. The study data was collected in autumn 2021 through a thematic interview. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. A phenomenographic approach was used in the analysis of the data. Based on the research results, athletes had similar experiences combining study and sports in comprehensive school. Combining these did not require any special effort. However, the sports-oriented classes in comprehensive school provided an opportunity for morning training. In high school, different experiences were experienced. It was possible to combine sports and studies in a regular high school, but it required initiative and support from the school side. In sports schools, it was easier to combine the two careers, and the school provided significant support to promote both athlete careers. In higher education studies, combining sports and studies was considered challenging. In particular, courses requiring attendance slowed down the completion of studies. However, the interviewees agreed that studying and graduating is possible during a sports career. Studying was seen as a counterbalance to the sport. Sports academies aim to simplify the combination of sports and studies. However, not all athletes knew how to take advantage of the services provided by sports academies because most of them were unaware of their existence. In the future, the activities of sports academies should be developed so that it is even more efficient and accessible to athletes.
  • Laattala, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    In 2020 new university students started their studies in special arrangements due to COVID- 19-pandemic. This thesis has two purposes. First, this thesis examines the student engagement of first-year students at the University of Helsinki. Second, it examines the correlation of student engagement and sense of coherence. The theoretical background of this study is Korhonen’s (2014) model of student engagement, where engagement develops through the interaction of individual and collective progress, strengthening student’s identity and sense of belonging. This study aims to answer to the following research questions: 1) How are the first- year students engaged in their studies, and how does their engagement differ from that of first year students in 2012? 2) How does engagement differ according to change of residence and previous experiences university studies? 3) What engagement groups can be found in first year students? 4) Is there a connection between sense of coherence and student engagement? The data was collected with a survey in spring 2021. The survey was answered by 183 first year students at the University of Helsinki. In the survey student engagement was measured with EEQ and sense of coherence was measured with the SOC-13 scale. The data was analyzed with quantitative methods. First-year students were more engaged in the individual dimension, but in the collective dimension engagement was weaker. Students’ engagement was strong in areas of identity and sense of belonging. There were several differences between 2021 and 2013 data. First-year students who begun their studies in 2020 had better academic skills, but in all other areas engagement was weaker. In particular, sense of belonging and participation were weaker than in students who started their studies in 2012. Students who moved to a new residence experienced fewer social practices in their studies. Students who had earlier university degree, had stronger academic skills and stronger sense of meaning in studies, identity and belonging. Three different engagement groups were found and named strongly, individually and weakly engaged. Sense of coherence correlated positively with five areas of student engagement.
  • Vackström, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The interest towards the subject of the study awakened because the field of student councelling is in major changes in Finland due to the most recent changes in the law enforcement regarding student councelling and transferring information from the basic education to secondary education. In this study that was put into practice as a qualitative research the articulated phase of basic and secondary education is inspected from the perspective of the student counselling of a pupil with special needs and the transfer of information. Six student counsellors of basic education were interviewed for the study with a structured interview. The data of the study consisted of those interviews. The data of the study was analyzed by theming the research results. It was discovered that there is no overestimating the importance of the articulated phase of basic and secondary education. The student counselor of a pupil with special needs requires getting familiar with the individual needs in education of the pupil and getting familiar with questions of the health of the pupil or other aspects in pupil’s life that may affect the choice of vocation. The student counsellors do a lot of multiprofessional cooperation with the special education teachers and student counsellors of secondary education. Pointing out facts regarding to pupil’s education and other aspects that can affect the choice of vocation was important but the student counsellors also pointed out that supporting the student and their self-image was important as well as encouraging the student. The importance of coopetaring with the pupil’s guarding was also brought up in regards of pondering the choice of vocation and also in regards of getting the permission to transfer information. The discoveries of the study also pointed out that the obligation to maintain secrecy complicates transferring information between basic and secondary education and it needs changes. It was discovered in the study that more coherent courses of action are needed in regarding transferring information throughout the whole country of Finland.
  • Salonen, Nette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The aim of this master’s thesis is to examine the teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy of those teachers who taught remotely during the autumn of 2020. Furthermore, the aim is to find out if some background variables are connected to these above mentioned constructs. Teacher efficacy and collective efficacy are based on the self-efficacy beliefs which describe person’s beliefs in their own ability to succeed in specific situations (Bandura, 1977). Teacher efficacy is connected to many positive outcomes, e.g., remaining in the profession (Burley et al., 1991), and job satisfaction (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2010). There is also evidence that teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy are connected to each other (Goddard & Goddard, 2001). This master’s thesis aims to supplement the previous research data on teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy in the context of COVID-19. The data used in this study are from a research project that aims to examine the effects of COVID-19 on studying, teaching and well-being. The project is run by University of Helsinki and Tampere University. The data were collected in November 2020 by sending electronic surveys to every comprehensive school in Finland. In total there were 5797 teacher participants, but the final sample consisted of those 1095 teachers who said that they had taught remotely during the autumn. The methods used in this quantitative study included describing the data and running correlation analyses and Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The dimensions of teacher efficacy were more correlated between themselves than the dimensions of collective teacher efficacy. The correlations between the two were even weaker. Class teachers had higher teacher efficacy compared to subject teachers or special education class teachers. Female teachers of the lower levels of comprehensive education had the highest levels of efficacy when teacher efficacy and collective teacher efficacy were examined together; the result is in line with several other studies (e.g. Greenwood, 1990; Edwards et al., 1996). Results indicate that remote teaching has weakened the collective teacher efficacy by decreasing the encounters of the work community. The result that class teachers had the highest levels of teacher efficacy might be explained by the vast level of general competence brought by the education or by their more reasonable workload.
  • Veinola, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Currently in Finland there are very limited number of assessment tools in use to identify mathematical learning difficulties in children aged 9 to 16. This study examines the validity of the FUNA-DB measure for assessing mathematical learning difficulties in terms of concurrent validity. The objective of this study is to determine how FUNA-DB correlates with a previously developed RMAT measure, and how, compared to the RMAT measure, FUNA-DB identifies those children and adolescents who potentially should be suspected to have a mathematical learning difficulty. This research is part of a larger FUNA research project in Finland. The study was performed by having 318 children tested with both FUNA-DB and RMAT measurements. The analysis of the data was performed using quantitative research methods. The correlation of FUNA-DB and RMAT was measured by task sections using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. In addition, configural frequency analysis was used to determine whether both FUNA-DB and RMAT recognize the same weak students. In addition, descriptive statistics were examined. The results of this study showed that FUNA-DB and RMAT correlated with each other for all task sections (p <0.001). In addition, statistically significant correlation was identified between task sections where the tasks did not correspond to each other in terms of content. FUNA-DB and RMAT both identified the same low-performing students (p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that FUNA-DB appears to be a valid and effective assessment tool in identifying mathematical learning difficulties. Moreover, the study showed that the language best spoken by the student was not relevant to the results of the FUNA-DB measurement, while in the RMAT test, those who spoke Finnish outperformed (p<0.05) the students who did not speak Finnish as their mother tongue. Therefore, FUNA-DB does not seem to be tied to a student’s language skills and it specifically measures math proficiency, as it should. However, the as-sessment of the validity and reliability of the FUNA-DB test in this study remains rather one-sided, yet there are ongoing studies which examine the reliability and validity of FUNA-DB in other means.
  • Ronkainen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what kind of expectancies and values 7 th graders hold in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, physics and Finnish language. Subjective task values, which are intrinsic value, utility value and attainment value, have been studied a extensively, but phenomenon-based learning is a new perspective in this research field, as it only became established in Finnish schools with the latest curriculum. Subjective expectancies, values, self-efficacy and costs influence adolescents’ performance and school related choices. The study uses expectation value theory applying person-oriented approach. This research answers three research questions: 1) What kind of motivational profiles can be identified in phenomenon-based learning, mathematics, science and Finnish language among middle school students based on expectancies and values? 2) How is the gender distributed in the identified profile groups? 3) Do the identified profile groups differ in terms of school performance? Methods. The data used in the study was collected with an electronic questionnaire, which was answered by 1013 7th grade students from Helsinki. The first research question was studied using latent profile analysis. The second research question was examined by cross-tabulation and the third was examined by one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. Using the profile analysis, five different profile groups were identified from the respondents: phenomenon-oriented (23%), motivated and well-being (24%), weakly motivated (15%), motivated but loaded (16%) and science-oriented (26%). Phenomenon-oriented students were more interested in phenomenon-based learning than in other subjects, although they also considered traditional subjects important. Motivated and well-being were interested and felt competent in all subjects; they were not burdened by studies. Weakly motivated did not value any of the subjects and the study was perceived as burdensome and challenging. Motivated but loaded students hold high attainment value across subject domains but they also showed high cost value. Science-oriented students hold high interest value in mathematics and physics but low interest in phenomenon-based learning. The results were in line with the previous study, but phenomenon-oriented were identified as a new group. Girls were more evenly distributed in all profile groups, while the percentage of boys was clearly lower in phenomenon-oriented group compared to girls. School performance were lower in weakly motivated students compared to other groups.
  • Kivistö, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014), schools should guide students towards a sustainable lifestyle, as well as understanding that people are part of na-ture and completely dependent on the surrounding ecosystem. Schools should also address emotions related to climate change, as children have experienced, for example, sadness, fear, and helplessness. Studies suggest that climate education in schools is very fragmented and variable and should be improved. Studies show that children’s books are a good way to deal with difficult issues and emotions among children. In this thesis, I examine what climate emotions occur in children’s books on climate change and how the books present climate change. Based on these questions, I evaluate how children's books on climate change could be used in climate education. This thesis is a qualitative study. Four Finnish children's books on climate change published during 2019 and 2020 were used as data. The books are aimed at children of primary school age. The books were analyzed by using content analysis. In the second research question, I used theory-guided content analysis, in which the guiding theory was the model of ecological literacy by Wong and Kumpulainen (2019). The characters in the books had a wide range of climate emotions: distressing emotions from fear to anxiety, worry, and joy and enthusiasm. The climate emotions in the books were simi-lar to emotions that people have related to climate change. The books described climate change and issues related to climate change in many ways. Children's books on climate change can be useful in climate education, as they can help children deal with difficult climate emotions, as well as understand climate change as a wider phenomenon. More research is needed on how books could improve children’s ecological literacy, and more specifically cli-mate literacy.
  • Almén, Jannica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The purpose of this Master's thesis was to find out what kind of role after-school clubs play in supporting the daily life and well-being of the child and family. The objective is to highlight the factors that are part of a high-quality after-school club. After-school clubs, as well as its connections with well-being support, have been little studied. However, previous research has shown that there is a strong connection between child and parental well-being. So, the well-being or ill-being of someone affects other family members as well. According to previous research, after-school clubs play a large role in combining parents' work and family life, as well as reducing a child's lonely time after school. After-school clubs also play an important role in strengthening the child's social relations and healthy lifestyle. The study was conducted as a qualitative study. The data were collected as themed interviews by interviewing eight parents of children attending Tennis- ja mailapelikoulu -after-school club organized by Grani Tennis. The research setting was phenomenographic, meaning the goal was to understand and describe the meanings given by parents to the phenomenon being studied. The data was analyzed using theory-driven content analysis in which the theoretical framework of the thesis served as the theory. The study’s results highlighted the important role of after-school clubs in organizing the daily life of the child and the family and in supporting everyone’s well-being. They allow parents to work full-time. While working, it is important to have a safe place for their child to spend time after school. Parental well-being is supported by the fact that the daily life is not burdened with additional planning in relation to reducing the child's lonely time. The well-being of the child and parents was also perceived to have a strong connection. After-school clubs particularly support the child's social, psychological, and physical well-being. After-school clubs in Finland, however, should be still developed more so that there are enough instructors that have the skills to work with different children and supporting their needs. It should be ensured that every child has equally a safe place to develop and grow. As after-school clubs are fee-required, they should also be developed so that every family has the possibility to use them in their daily life.
  • Peuramäki, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The study examined Finnish classroom teachers’ self-compassion and perfectionism in relation to burnout. The study sought to find out how self-compassion and perfectionism affect the burnout experienced by classroom teachers and what kind of relationship there is between self- esteem and perfectionism. Previous studies have shown that perfectionistic concerns are a risk factor for burnout. Self-compassion has been found to affect very positively for a person's well- being and resilience. In Finland, no research has been conducted among teachers about these topics. The data was collected via an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to teachers by Luokanopettajat ry -email list and Alakoulun Aarreaitta -Facebook group. The questionnaire measured burnout by Maslach Burnout Invetory, perfectionism by The Short Almost Perfect and self-compassion by Self-Compassion Short Form. Answers were received from 153 classroom teachers. Self-compassion was negatively correlated with perfectionist concerns and all dimensions of burnout. Perfectionist concerns were positively correlated with all dimensions of burnout. Two different groups of perfectionism and self-compassion were found. The second group (46%) consisted of teachers with high self-criticism, high perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings and low self-compassion This group was named as self-critical teachers. Teachers in the second group (54%) were more self-compassionate and less critical about themselves. This group was named as self-compassionate teachers. Self-critical teachers experienced more exhaustion than self-compassionate teachers. No statistically significant difference was found between these groups for cynicism and inefficacy. Based on the correlation matrix, self- compassion was negatively and perfectionistic concerns were positively related to all the dimensions of burnout. Perfectionistic strivings correlated negatively with inefficacy so striving for perfection seems to be protective factor against inefficacy. According to the study, self- criticism and perfectionist concerns are predisposing factors for burnout. Self-compassion seems to protect teachers from burnout.
  • Kantanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Continuous learning, identity and ecology are strong phenomena in our time. They are also quite wide-ranging. Previous research has shown an interaction between learning and identity. However, there is just little research on the link between learning and identity and there has been a need for it. Previous research has found that, for example, individual-relevant learning subjects has influenced his or her willingness to learn. Thus, the meanings contained in identity affect in its own way continuous learning. The aim of this research was to study continuous learning and the meanings of learning subjects in the context of coloring with natural dyes. The aim of this research is to determine, analyze and construe the learning and the meanings contained in identity that take place in the learning process related to natural coloring. Research material consisted of 26 interviews, which were interviewed as part of the BioColour research project led by Riikka Räisänen. Interviews were transcribed by an outside party. The research material was analyzed by content analysis. The research material was coded, classified and themed. The classifications were made based on previous research, but the subcategories come from the research material. The themed was done through themes that come from the research material. Using content analysis, it was possible to create a wide picture of the topic under this research. Those, who dye with natural colorants, learn in many ways. They learn especially through oblique knowledge transfer, where different courses were the largest class in the learning process. The interviewees described also that they learned, among other things, through their experiments. Those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the learning subject. They experienced personal meanings: related to health, self and emotions, as well as ethical meanings: environmental and traditional meanings. Based on the results, it could be said that the those, who dye with natural colorants, experienced meanings on the subject that they were during their lifetime, but the connection between this experienced meaningful subject and their learning cannot be studied with this research.
  • Pauloaho, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. At the heart of this study are two significant phenomena, motivation and interest. The study focuses on verifying the relationship between these two phenomena as well as examining the relationship of the set background variables to perceived motivation. In terms of its theoretical background, the study draws on the theory of self-determination developed by Deci and Ryan (1985) and on the theory of interest of Schiefel and Krapp (1981). The theories were selected as part of the study partly because they have been used together in similar studies in the past (see, for example, Müller & Louw, 2004), but motivation theory especially because it is currently one of the most prevalent motivation theories in Finland. This study focuses on the study motivation of students at the University of Helsinki's Faculty of Education, especially class teacher students, as well as their interest in their studies. The aim is to find both explanatory factors for students' study motivation and differences in study motivation, and to find out whether the perceived interest in one's own studies correlates with the perceived study motivation. Methods. The research material of the study consists of the answers of 234 students of the Faculty of Education of the University of Helsinki to a three-part questionnaire, which included, in addition to background questions, questions related to study motivation and interest in one's own studies. The study used AMS (Academic Motivation Scale) and SIQ (Study Interest Questionnaire) scales based on the background theory of the study to measure motivation and interest, both of which are widely used, especially in the study of university students. The focus of the study was on class teacher students (N = 124) and the answers of other students of the Faculty of Education (N = 110) were used as a control group. The responses were also examined as coherent material. The analysis of the data was performed with IBM SPSS software and the analysis methods include exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results and conclusions. The motivation and interest scales used could be found to be functional in structure, and factor analysis was used to generate factor models that support the theory. Examining the correlations between background variables and study motivation, a few statistically significant associations were found between, among other things, age and amotivation and intrinsic motivation. Regression analysis could be used to produce an explanatory model that showed interest in explaining learning motivation in quite a number of different areas of motivation. Background variables, in turn, did not produce a statistically significant explanatory model for study motivation. The most important result of this study turned out to be the verification of the connection between interest and study motivation.
  • Klemetti, Sinituulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate how flipped learning could be utilized in teaching mathematics in primary school from fourth to sixth grade. Another aim of this study was to examine the benefits and challenges of utilizing flipped learning in teaching mathema-tics from the perspective of both the teacher and the pupil. Flipped learning is a pupil-oriented learning culture which involves supporting the development of autonomy and self-determination of the pupil. Flipped learning enables individual learning pace and also utilizes collaborative learning. Flipped learning investigated in this study has been marginally studied as the majority of flipped learning studies focus on examining flipped classroom method. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study. The participants in this study were class teachers who had utilized flipped learning for the past five years as well as one pupil who had been in flipped learning utilizing class for the past three years. The research material was collected by conducting theme interviews and the results were analyzed with theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The mathematics class investigated in this study utilized flipped learning by means of digital games and weekly achievement plan. The pupils made progress at their own pace and studied in small groups. From the point of view of both the teachers and the pupil, the benefits of flipped learning in this study turned out to be well-being and school satisfaction, the development of studying skills, collaborative learning, clarity of lear-ning objectives and increased motivation. From the point of view of the teachers, the challen-ges presented themselves in maintaining a peaceful working environment as well as concern for the proactivity of the pupils when in need of assistance. From the point of view of the pu-pil, the challenge of flipped learning method appeared as stress involved with scheduling the studies and matching the weekly achievement plan. It can be concluded from these results that in the class investigated in this study, flipped learning resulted in more benefits than chal-lenges although some of the pupils experienced the responsibility involved in flipped learning as burdensome.
  • Äärilä, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims. Mild disturbances to a calm working environment are part of the everyday life in school. These disturbances can emerge through a wide variety of reasons, and often either the teacher or the teaching assistant will need to intervene to address disruptive behaviour. The teacher or the teaching assistant may intervene in the disruptive behaviour by verbal or non-verbal means. One of the means of non-verbal communication is physical touch. Physical touch is a natural element of multimodal interactions between people and has been found to have various developmental benefits as well as positive effects on well-being. The aim of this thesis was to examine situations where the calm working environment is disturbed and the teaching assistant intervenes by using physical touch. What are the multimodal elements that constitute these situations, how can these elements be grouped, and how does the teaching assistant’s intervention take shape? Methods. The thesis was a qualitative case study based on a data set of 13 lessons that had been video recorded and pre-transcribed for the ‘Long Second’ research project. The data was categorized and five video clips (in total 47s) were selected from the data for closer examination. These clips were selected as they featured specific instances, interpreted as situations where the calm working environment was disturbed and the teaching assistant intervened by using physical touch. The videos were viewed multiple times and the events that unfolded were narrated and recorded with a neutral voice. The events in the videos were then studied by means of microethnography, reflecting back to existing research. Results and conclusions. The thesis puts forward a new nine-dimensional classification of disturbances to calm working environment, extending from the classification developed by Madsen et al. (1968). The situations, interpreted as instances where the calm working environment was disturbed, and where the teaching assistant intervened by using physical touch, consisted of various multimodal elements, such as speech, bodily movement, and fiddling with an object. The teaching assistant’ interventions that employed physical touch comprised two or three distinct parts, and the intervention had an either activating or deactivating effect on the pupil. As the thesis is a case study its findings are not generalizable. However, the findings significantly enhance our understanding of those specific situations where the calm working environment is interpreted to be disturbed and the teaching assistant intervenes by using physical touch.
  • Kartano, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Children in primary school age already use the internet and social media, but they are miss-ing media literacy skills. Children may also be exposed to several different risks while using the internet. Therefore, while social media is playing a more significant role also in children's lives it would be important that there would be accurate and truthful information available for them too. Children value news but they think news organizations don’t understand the lives of young people and don’t cover the issues that matter to them. Yle Mix by Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle) tries to answer this need by producing news journal-ism for children about current topics and the matters of the lives of the children. After all, the news has a great influence on our ideas of the world and the news produced for children in-creases their inclusion in society. Nevertheless, there’s no previous research done from the content of Yle Mix news. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine Yle Mix as a news genre and study media education discourses produced in the analysed news videos. In this study three different Yle Mix news videos related to issues of media education were analysed. All three news videos were available on the internet. News videos were studied as multisemiotic texts where the combination of the text, picture and audio together con-structs the meaning of the news video. The genre of Yle Mix news was studied, and the da-ta were analysed with discourse analysis in order to present the media education discours-es produced in the news videos. The results of this the study shows that the Yle Mix news differ from the genre of televised news but there are also similarities between them. In the data there were three main media education discourses presented: risks of children's media usage, teaching of media skills and normalizing the children's media usage. According to the analysis the media education of the news videos was presented trough the potential risks of children’s media usage, but this point of view was also challenged in the data. However, the risk discourse and teach-ing discourse were hegemonic while discourse that emphasised children's inclusion and rep-resented children's media usage as normal were subordinate to the previous.
  • Kivistö, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    According to the National core curriculum for basic education (2014) cultural diversity is one of the core values in Finnish education. The purpose of this study was to examine cultural diversity in images of environmental studies textbooks for primary education. As visual representations provoke feelings and thoughts as well as create strong mental images it is important to study them. The aim of this study was to describe how people from different continents are represented in textbook images. Previous studies on cultural diversity in textbooks suggest that Western bias, othering representations and stereotypes are typical in textbooks, especially in images. This thesis is a mixed methods -study. 225 images, from twelve different textbooks of environmental studies for primary education, were used as data. The images were analyzed by using quantitative content analysis. The analysis was completed by qualitative analysis of selected images. The results show that different continents are represented with different kinds of images in textbooks of environmental studies. Differences in the number of images and contents in textbooks from different publishers were also found. Othering representations were found in images, but there were also images that challenged stereotypes. More research on new textbooks and the interest of publishers to use the results in textbook development is needed.