Browsing by Subject "MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE"

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  • Ahola, Aila J; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims: Depressive mood negatively affects self-care practices, and thereby increases the risk of long-term complications. Not much is known about the association between depressive symptoms and dietary intake in patients with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Subjects (n = 976, 41% men, age 48 +/- 14 years) were participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaire-entries by exploratory factor analysis. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated from food records. In the same record, participants also reported the results of their daily blood glucose monitoring. Associations between BDI score and selfcare variables were analysed using generalized linear regression. For macronutrients, a substitution model was applied. Results: TWo dietary patterns ("Fish and vegetables", and "Traditional") negatively associated with the BDI score. Instead, an increase in the "Sweet" pattern score was positively associated with depressive symptomatology. Of the macronutrients, favouring protein over carbohydrates or fats associated with lower depression scores. Higher blood glucose selfmonitoring frequency and higher variability of the measurements were positively associated with the BDI score. However, no association was observed between depressive symptoms and the mean of the blood glucose measurements. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are reflected in the dietary intake and the selfmonitoring of blood glucose, in type 1 diabetes. Whether depression, via compromised self-care practices, negatively affect long-term outcomes in this patient group has to be the subject of future studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mozaffarian, Dariush; Dashti, Hassan S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Mannisto, Satu; Kristiansson, Kati; Reedik, Magi; Lahti, Jari Marko; Houston, Denise K.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Dimitriou, Maria; Kanoni, Stavroula; Mikkila, Vera; Steffen, Lyn M.; Otto, Marcia C. de Oliveira; Qi, Lu; Psaty, Bruce; Djousse, Luc; Rotter, Jerome I.; Harald, Kennet; Perola, Markus; Rissanen, Harri; Jula, Antti; Krista, Fischer; Mihailov, Evelin; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Xue, Luting; Jacques, Paul F.; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Palotie, Aarno; Liu, Yongmei; Nalls, Nike A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hernandez, Dena; Manichaikul, Ani; Tsai, Michael Y.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rallidis, Loukianos; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Buring, Julie E.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Lemaitre, Rozenn; Salomaa, Veikko; Knekt, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Siscovick, David; Franco, Oscar H.; Deloukas, Panos; Dedoussis, George; Chasman, Daniel I.; Raitakari, Olli; Tanaka, Toshiko (2017)
    Background Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. Objective To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. Design We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group. Results from cohort-specific GWA analyses (additive model) for fish and EPA+DHA consumption were adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, and population stratification, and meta-analyzed separately using fixed-effect meta-analysis with inverse variance weights (METAL software). Additionally, heritability was estimated in 2 cohorts. Results Heritability estimates for fish and EPA+DHA consumption ranged from 0.13-0.24 and 0.12-0.22, respectively. A significant GWA for fish intake was observed for rs9502823 on chromosome 6: each copy of the minor allele (Freq(A) = 0.015) was associated with 0.029 servings/day (similar to 1 serving/month) lower fish consumption (P = 1.96x10(-8)). No significant association was observed for EPA+DHA, although rs7206790 in the obesity-associated FTO gene was among top hits (P = 8.18x10(-7)). Post-hoc calculations demonstrated 95% statistical power to detect a genetic variant associated with effect size of 0.05% for fish and 0.08% for EPA+DHA. Conclusions These novel findings suggest that non-genetic personal and environmental factors are principal determinants of the remarkable variation in fish consumption, representing modifiable targets for increasing intakes among all individuals. Genes underlying the signal at rs72838923 and mechanisms for the association warrant further investigation.
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita Johanna; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G. (2015)
    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n = 394) were examined at baseline ( Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p <0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.
  • McKeown, Nicola M.; Dashti, Hassan S.; Ma, Jiantao; Haslam, Danielle E.; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C.; Smith, Caren E.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Rybin, Denis; Sonestedt, Emily; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Li, Yanping; Wang, Carol A.; Leermakers, Elisabeth T. M.; Mikkilä, Vera; Young, Kristin L.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Chen, Tzu-An; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Huang, Tao; Oddy, Wendy H.; Raitakari, Olli; Rice, Kenneth; Meigs, James B.; Ericson, Ulrika; Steffen, Lyn M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Hofman, Albert; Kähönen, Mika; Psaty, Bruce M.; Brunkwall, Louise; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Viikari, Jorma; Siscovick, David S.; Seppälä, Ilkka; North, Kari E.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Dupuis, Josee; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rich, Stephen S.; Mutsert, Renee de; Qi, Lu; Pennell, Craig E.; Franco, Oscar H.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Herman, Mark A. (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fructose-induced metabolic disease. We hypothesise that common variants in 11 genes involved in fructose metabolism and the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway may interact with SSB intake to exacerbate positive associations between higher SSB intake and glycaemic traits. Methods Data from 11 cohorts (six discovery and five replication) in the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided association and interaction results from 34,748 adults of European descent. SSB intake (soft drinks, fruit punches, lemonades or other fruit drinks) was derived from food-frequency questionnaires and food diaries. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified: (1) the associations between SSBs and glycaemic traits (fasting glucose and fasting insulin); and (2) the interactions between SSBs and 18 independent SNPs related to the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway. Results In our combined meta-analyses of discovery and replication cohorts, after adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI and other dietary covariates, each additional serving of SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose (beta +/- SE 0.014 +/- 0.004 [mmol/l], p = 1.5 x 10(-3)) and higher fasting insulin (0.030 +/- 0.005 [log(e) pmol/l], p = 2.0 x 10(-10)). No significant interactions on glycaemic traits were observed between SSB intake and selected SNPs. While a suggestive interaction was observed in the discovery cohorts with a SNP (rs1542423) in the beta-Klotho (KLB) locus on fasting insulin (0.030 +/- 0.011 log(e) pmol/l, uncorrected p = 0.006), results in the replication cohorts and combined meta-analyses were non-significant. Conclusions/interpretation In this large meta-analysis, we observed that SSB intake was associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin. Although a suggestive interaction with a genetic variant in the ChREBP-FGF21 pathway was observed in the discovery cohorts, this observation was not confirmed in the replication analysis.