Browsing by Subject "MAGNETIC-FIELDS"

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  • Jönsson, Emma H.; Kotilahti, Kalle; Heiskala, Juha; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Olausson, Håkan; Croy, Ilona; Mustaniemi, Hanna; Hiltunen, Petri; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Scheinin, Noora M.; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Nissilä, Ilkka (2018)
    Caressing touch is an effective way to communicate emotions and to create social bonds. It is also one of the key mediators of early parental bonding. The caresses are generally thought to represent a social form of touching and indeed, slow, gentle brushing is encoded in specialized peripheral nerve fibers, the C-tactile (CT) afferents. In adults, areas such as the posterior insula and superior temporal sulcus are activated by affective, slow stroking touch but not by fast stroking stimulation. However, whether these areas are activated in infants, after social tactile stimulation, is unknown. In this study, we compared the total hemoglobin responses measured with diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the left hemisphere following slow and fast stroking touch stimulation in 16 2-month-old infants. We compared slow stroking (optimal CT afferent stimulation) to fast stroking (non-optimal CT stimulation). Activated regions were delineated using two methods: one based on contrast between the two conditions, and the other based on voxel-based statistical significance of the difference between the two conditions. The first method showed a single activation cluster in the temporal cortex with center of gravity in the middle temporal gyrus where the total hemoglobin increased after the slow stroking relative to the fast stroking (p = 0.04 uncorrected). The second method revealed a cluster in the insula with an increase in total hemoglobin in the insular cortex in response to slow stroking relative to fast stroking (p = 0.0005 uncorrected; p = 0.04 corrected for multiple comparisons). These activation clusters encompass areas that are involved in processing of affective, slow stroking touch in the adult brain. We conclude that the infant brain shows a pronounced and adult-like response to slow stroking touch compared to fast stroking touch in the insular cortex but the expected response in the primary somatosensory cortex was not found at this age. The results imply that emotionally valent touch is encoded in the brain in adult-like manner already soon after birth and this suggests a potential for involvement of touch in bonding with the caretaker.
  • Pihajoki, Pauli; Mannerkoski, Matias; Nattila, Joonas; Johansson, Peter H. (2018)
    Ray tracing is a central tool for constructing mock observations of compact object emission and for comparing physical emission models with observations. We present ARCMANCER, a publicly available general ray-tracing and tensor algebra library, written in C++ and providing a Python interface. ARCMANCER supports Riemannian and semi-Riemannian spaces of any dimension and metric, and has novel features such as support for multiple simultaneous coordinate charts, embedded geometric shapes, local coordinate systems, and automatic parallel propagation. The ARCMANCER interface is extensively documented and user friendly. While these capabilities make the library well suited for a large variety of problems in numerical geometry, the main focus of this paper is in general relativistic polarized radiative transfer. The accuracy of the code is demonstrated in several code tests and in a comparison with GRTRANS, an existing ray-tracing code. We then use the library in several scenarios as a way to showcase the wide applicability of the code. We study a thin variable-geometry accretion disk model and find that polarization carries information of the inner disk opening angle. Next, we study rotating neutron stars and determine that to obtain polarized light curves at better than a similar to 1% level of accuracy, the rotation needs to be taken into account both in the spacetime metric and in the shape of the star. Finally, we investigate the observational signatures of an accreting black hole lensed by an orbiting black hole. We find that these systems exhibit a characteristic asymmetric twin-peak profile both in flux and polarization properties.
  • Battarbee, Markus; Dalla, Silvia; Marsh, Mike S. (2018)
    Understanding the transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) from acceleration sites at the Sun into interplanetary space and to the Earth is an important question for forecasting space weather. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), with two distinct polarities and a complex structure, governs energetic particle transport and drifts. We analyze for the first time the effect of a wavy heliospheric current sheet (HCS) on the propagation of SEPs. We inject protons close to the Sun and propagate them by integrating fully 3D trajectories within the inner heliosphere in the presence of weak scattering. We model the HCS position using fits based on neutral lines of magnetic field source surface maps (SSMs). We map 1 au proton crossings, which show efficient transport in longitude via HCS, depending on the location of the injection region with respect to the HCS. For HCS tilt angles around 30 degrees-40 degrees, we find significant qualitative differences between A+ and A- configurations of the IMF, with stronger fluences along the HCS in the former case but with a distribution of particles across a wider range of longitudes and latitudes in the latter. We show how a wavy current sheet leads to longitudinally periodic enhancements in particle fluence. We show that for an A+ IMF configuration, a wavy HCS allows for more proton deceleration than a flat HCS. We find that A- IMF configurations result in larger average fluences than A+ IMF configurations, due to a radial drift component at the current sheet.
  • Montillaud, Julien; Juvela, Mika; Vastel, Charlotte; He, JinHua; Liu, Tie; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Eden, David; Kang, Sung-ju; Kim, Kee-Tae; Koch, Patrick M.; Lee, Chang Won; Rawlings, Mark Graham; Saajasto, Mika; Sanhueza, Patricio; Soam, Archana; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Alina, Dana; Bogner, Rebeka; Kornu, David; Doi, Yasuo; Malinen, Johanna; Marshall, Douglas J.; Micelotta, Elisabetta; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Toth, L. Viktor; Traficante, Alessio; Wang, Ke (2019)
    Context. We started a multi-scale analysis of star formation in G202.3+2.5, an intertwined filamentary sub-region of the Monoceros OB1 molecular complex, in order to provide observational constraints on current theories and models that attempt to explain star formation globally. In the first paper (Paper I), we examined the distributions of dense cores and protostars and found enhanced star formation activity in the junction region of the filaments. Aims. In this second paper, we aim to unveil the connections between the core and filament evolutions, and between the filament dynamics and the global evolution of the cloud. Methods. We characterise the gas dynamics and energy balance in different parts of G202.3+2.5 using infrared observations from the Herschel and WISE telescopes and molecular tracers observed with the IRAM 30-m and TRAO 14-m telescopes. The velocity field of the cloud is examined and velocity-coherent structures are identified, characterised, and put in perspective with the cloud environment. Results. Two main velocity components are revealed, well separated in radial velocities in the north and merged around the location of intense N2H+ emission in the centre of G202.3+2.5 where Paper I found the peak of star formation activity. We show that the relative position of the two components along the sightline, and the velocity gradient of the N2H+ emission imply that the components have been undergoing collision for similar to 10(5) yr, although it remains unclear whether the gas moves mainly along or across the filament axes. The dense gas where N2H+ is detected is interpreted as the compressed region between the two filaments, which corresponds to a high mass inflow rate of similar to 1 x 10(-3) M-circle dot yr(-1) and possibly leads to a significant increase in its star formation efficiency. We identify a protostellar source in the junction region that possibly powers two crossed intermittent outflows. We show that the HII region around the nearby cluster NCG 2264 is still expanding and its role in the collision is examined. However, we cannot rule out the idea that the collision arises mostly from the global collapse of the cloud. Conclusions. The (sub-)filament-scale observables examined in this paper reveal a collision between G202.3+2.5 sub-structures and its probable role in feeding the cores in the junction region. To shed more light on this link between core and filament evolutions, one must characterise the cloud morphology, its fragmentation, and magnetic field, all at high resolution. We consider the role of the environment in this paper, but a larger-scale study of this region is now necessary to investigate the scenario of a global cloud collapse.
  • Denicol, Gabriel S.; Huang, Xu-Guang; Molnár, Etele; Monteiro, Gustavo M.; Niemi, Harri; Noronha, Jorge; Rischke, Dirk H.; Wang, Qun (2018)
    We derive the equations of motion of relativistic, nonresistive, second-order dissipative magnetohy-drodynamics from the Boltzmann equation using the method of moments. We assume the fluid to be composed of a single type of point-like particles with vanishing dipole moment or spin, so that the fluid has vanishing magnetization and polarization. In a first approximation, we assume the fluid to be nonresistive, which allows to express the electric field in terms of the magnetic field. We derive equations of motion for the irreducible moments of the deviation of the single-particle distribution function from local thermodynamical equilibrium. We analyze the Navier-Stokes limit of these equations, reproducing previous results for the structure of the first-order transport coefficients. Finally, we truncate the system of equations for the irreducible moments using the 14-moment approximation, deriving the equations of motion of relativistic, nonresistive, second-order dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. We also give expressions for the new transport coefficients appearing due to the coupling of the magnetic field to the dissipative quantities.
  • Vacca, V.; Murgia, M.; Govoni, F.; Loi, F.; Vazza, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Carretti, E.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Concu, R.; Melis, A.; Gheller, C.; Paladino, R.; Poppi, S.; Valente, G.; Bernardi, G.; Boschin, W.; Brienza, M.; Clarke, T. E.; Colafrancesco, S.; Ensslin, T. A.; Ferrari, C.; de Gasperin, F.; Gastaldello, F.; Girardi, M.; Gregorini, L.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Junklewitz, H.; Orru, E.; Parma, P.; Perley, R.; Taylor, G. B. (2018)
    We report the detection of diffuse radio emission which might be connected to a large-scale filament of the cosmic web covering a 8 degrees x 8 degrees area in the sky, likely associated with a z approximate to 0.1 overdensity traced by nine massive galaxy clusters. In this work, we present radio observations of this region taken with the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Two of the clusters in the field host a powerful radio halo sustained by violent ongoing mergers and provide direct proof of intracluster magnetic fields. In order to investigate the presence of large-scale diffuse radio synchrotron emission in and beyond the galaxy clusters in this complex system, we combined the data taken at 1.4 GHz with the Sardinia. Radio Telescope with higher resolution data taken with the NRAO VIA Sky Survey. We found 28 candidate new sources with a size larger and X-ray emission fainter than known diffuse large-scale synchrotron cluster sources for a given radio power. This new population is potentially the tip of the iceberg of a class of diffuse large-scale synchrotron sources associated with the filaments of the cosmic web. In addition, we found in the field a candidate new giant radio galaxy.
  • James, A. W.; Green, L. M.; Palmerio, E.; Valori, G.; Reid, H. A. S.; Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2017)
    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are one of the primary manifestations of solar activity and can drive severe space weather effects. Therefore, it is vital to work towards being able to predict their occurrence. However, many aspects of CME formation and eruption remain unclear, including whether magnetic flux ropes are present before the onset of eruption and the key mechanisms that cause CMEs to occur. In this work, the pre-eruptive coronal configuration of an active region that produced an interplanetary CME with a clear magnetic flux rope structure at 1 AU is studied. A forward-S sigmoid appears in extremeultra-violet (EUV) data two hours before the onset of the eruption (SOL2012-06-14), which is interpreted as a signature of a right-handed flux rope that formed prior to the eruption. Flare ribbons and EUV dimmings are used to infer the locations of the flux rope footpoints. These locations, together with observations of the global magnetic flux distribution, indicate that an interaction between newly emerged magnetic flux and pre-existing sunspot field in the days prior to the eruption may have enabled the coronal flux rope to form via tethercutting-like reconnection. Composition analysis suggests that the flux rope had a coronal plasma composition, supporting our interpretation that the flux rope formed via magnetic reconnection in the corona. Once formed, the flux rope remained stable for two hours before erupting as a CME.
  • Planck Collaboration; Akrami, Y.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    The study of polarized dust emission has become entwined with the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization in the quest for the curl-like B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves and the low-multipole E-mode polarization associated with the reionization of the Universe. We used the new Planck PR3 maps to characterize Galactic dust emission at high latitudes as a foreground to the CMB polarization and use end-to-end simulations to compute uncertainties and assess the statistical significance of our measurements. We present PlanckEE, BB, and TE power spectra of dust polarization at 353 GHz for a set of six nested high-Galactic-latitude sky regions covering from 24 to 71% of the sky. We present power-law fits to the angular power spectra, yielding evidence for statistically significant variations of the exponents over sky regions and a difference between the values for the EE and BB spectra, which for the largest sky region are alpha (EE)=-2.42 +/- 0.02 and alpha (BB)=-2.54 +/- 0.02, respectively. The spectra show that the TE correlation and E/B power asymmetry discovered by Planck extend to low multipoles that were not included in earlier Planck polarization papers due to residual data systematics. We also report evidence for a positive TB dust signal. Combining data from Planck and WMAP, we have determined the amplitudes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of polarized foregrounds, including the correlation between dust and synchrotron polarized emission, for the six sky regions as a function of multipole. This quantifies the challenge of the component-separation procedure that is required for measuring the low-l reionization CMB E-mode signal and detecting the reionization and recombination peaks of primordial CMB B modes. The SED of polarized dust emission is fit well by a single-temperature modified black-body emission law from 353 GHz to below 70 GHz. For a dust temperature of 19.6 K, the mean dust spectral index for dust polarization is beta (P)(d) = 1.53 +/- 0.02 beta d P = 1.53 +/- 0.02 . The difference between indices for polarization and total intensity is beta (P)(d)-beta (I)(d) = 0.05 +/- 0.03 beta d P - beta d I =0.05 +/- 0.03 . By fitting multi-frequency cross-spectra between Planck data at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, we examine the correlation of the dust polarization maps across frequency. We find no evidence for a loss of correlation and provide lower limits to the correlation ratio that are tighter than values we derive from the correlation of the 217- and 353 GHz maps alone. If the Planck limit on decorrelation for the largest sky region applies to the smaller sky regions observed by sub-orbital experiments, then frequency decorrelation of dust polarization might not be a problem for CMB experiments aiming at a primordial B-mode detection limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r similar or equal to 0.01 at the recombination peak. However, the Planck sensitivity precludes identifying how difficult the component-separation problem will be for more ambitious experiments targeting lower limits on r.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alina, D.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Annitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Arzoumanian, D.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bracco, A.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. E.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2015)
    Polarized emission observed by Planck HFI at 353GHz towards a sample of nearby fields is presented, focusing on the statistics of polarization fractions p and angles psi. The polarization fractions and column densities in these nearby fields are representative of the range of values obtained over the whole sky. We find that: (i) the largest polarization fractions are reached in the most diffuse fields; (ii) the maximum polarization fraction p(max) decreases with column density N-H in the more opaque fields with N-H > 10(21) cm(-2); and (iii) the polarization fraction along a given line of sight is correlated with the local spatial coherence of the polarization angle. These observations are compared to polarized emission maps computed in simulations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamical turbulence in which we assume a uniform intrinsic polarization fraction of the dust grains. We find that an estimate of this parameter may be recovered from the maximum polarization fraction p(max) in diffuse regions where the magnetic field is ordered on large scales and perpendicular to the line of sight. This emphasizes the impact of anisotropies of the magnetic field on the emerging polarization signal. The decrease of the maximum polarization fraction with column density in nearby molecular clouds is well reproduced in the simulations, indicating that it is essentially due to the turbulent structure of the magnetic field: an accumulation of variously polarized structures along the line of sight leads to such an anti-correlation. In the simulations, polarization fractions are also found to anti-correlate with the angle dispersion function S. However, the dispersion of the polarization angle for a given polarization fraction is found to be larger in the simulations than in the observations, suggesting a shortcoming in the physical content of these numerical models. In summary, we find that the turbulent structure of the magnetic field is able to reproduce the main statistical properties of the dust polarization as observed in a variety of nearby clouds, dense cores excluded, and that the large-scale field orientation with respect to the line of sight plays a major role in the quantitative analysis of these statistical properties.
  • Lönnberg, Piia; Pihko, Elina; Lauronen, Leena; Nurminen, Jussi; Andersson, Sture; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lano, Aulikki; Nevalainen, Päivi (2021)
    Objective: We assessed in extremely preterm born (EPB) children whether secondary somatosensory cor-tex (SII) responses recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) at term-equivalent age (TEA) correlate with neurodevelopmental outcome at age 6 years. Secondly, we assessed whether SII responses differ between 6-year-old EPB and term-born (TB) children. Methods: 39 EPB children underwent MEG with tactile stimulation at TEA. At age 6 years, 32 EPB and 26 TB children underwent MEG including a sensorimotor task requiring attention and motor inhibition. SII responses to tactile stimulation were modeled with equivalent current dipoles. Neurological outcome, motor competence, and general cognitive ability were prospectively evaluated at age 6 years. Results: Unilaterally absent SII response at TEA was associated with abnormal motor competence in 6-year-old EPB children (p = 0.03). At age 6 years, SII responses were bilaterally detectable in most EPB (88%) and TB (92%) children (group comparison, p = 0.69). Motor inhibition was associated with decreased SII peak latencies in TB children, but EPB children lacked this effect (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Unilateral absence of an SII response at TEA predicted poorer motor outcome in EPB children. Significance: Neurophysiological methods may provide new means for outcome prognostication in EPB children. (c) 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J. (2017)
    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k(-3) behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k(3), except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05c, produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10(-2) of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.
  • Käpylä, M. J.; Gent, F. A.; Väisälä, M. S.; Sarson, G. R. (2018)
    Context. The forcing of interstellar turbulence, driven mainly by supernova (SN) explosions, is irrotational in nature, but the development of significant amounts of vorticity and helicity, accompanied by large-scale dynamo action, has been reported. Aims. Several earlier investigations examined vorticity production in simpler systems; here all the relevant processes can be considered simultaneously. We also investigate the mechanisms for the generation of net helicity and large-scale flow in the system. Methods. We use a three-dimensional, stratified, rotating and shearing local simulation domain of the size 1 x 1 x 2 kpc(3), forced with SN explosions occurring at a rate typical of the solar neighbourhood in the MilkyWay. In addition to the nominal simulation run with realistic Milky Way parameters, we vary the rotation and shear rates, but keep the absolute value of their ratio fixed. Reversing the sign of shear vs. rotation allows us to separate the rotation-and shear-generated contributions. Results. As in earlier studies, we find the generation of significant amounts of vorticity, the rotational flow comprising on average 65% of the total flow. The vorticity production can be related to the baroclinicity of the flow, especially in the regions of hot, dilute clustered supernova bubbles. In these regions, the vortex stretching acts as a sink of vorticity. In denser, compressed regions, the vortex stretching amplifies vorticity, but remains sub-dominant to baroclinicity. The net helicities produced by rotation and shear are of opposite signs for physically motivated rotation laws, with the solar neighbourhood parameters resulting in the near cancellation of the total net helicity. We also find the excitation of oscillatory mean flows, the strength and oscillation period of which depend on the Coriolis and shear parameters; we interpret these as signatures of the anisotropic-kinetic-alpha (AKA) effect. We use the method of moments to fit for the turbulent transport coefficients, and find alpha(AKA) values of the order 3-5 km s(-1). Conclusions. Even in a weakly rotationally and shear-influenced system, small-scale anisotropies can lead to significant effects at large scales. Here we report on two consequences of such effects, namely on the generation of net helicity and on the emergence of large-scale flows by the AKA effect, the latter detected for the first time in a direct numerical simulation of a realistic astrophysical system.
  • Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davies, J. A.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Kilpua, E. (2017)
    In a recent study, we took advantage of a highly tilted coronal neutral sheet to show that density structures, extending radially over several solar radii (R-s), are released in the forming slow solar wind approximately 4-5 R-s above the solar surface. We related the signatures of this formation process to intermittent magnetic reconnection occurring continuously above helmet streamers. We now exploit the heliospheric imagery from the Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory (STEREO) to map the spatial and temporal distribution of the ejected structures. We demonstrate that streamers experience quasi-periodic bursts of activity with the simultaneous outpouring of small transients over a large range of latitudes in the corona. This cyclic activity leads to the emergence of well-defined and broad structures. Derivation of the trajectories and kinematic properties of the individual small transients that make up these large-scale structures confirms their association with the forming slow solar wind (SSW). We find that these transients are released, on average, every 19.5 hr, simultaneously at all latitudes with a typical radial size of 12 R-s. Their spatial distribution, release rate, and three-dimensional extent are used to estimate the contribution of this cyclic activity to the mass flux carried outward by the SSW. Our results suggest that, in interplanetary space, the global structure of the heliospheric current sheet is dominated by a succession of blobs and associated flux ropes. We demonstrate this with an example event using STEREO-A in situ measurements.
  • Price, D. J.; Pomoell, J.; Lumme, E.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2019)
    Aims. We present a detailed study of the magnetic evolution of AR 12673 using a magnetofrictional modelling approach. Methods. The fully data-driven and time-dependent model was driven with maps of the photospheric electric field, inverted from vector magnetogram observations obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Our analysis was aided by studying the evolution of metrics such as the free magnetic energy and the current-carrying helicity budget of the domain, maps of the squashing factor and twist, and plots of the current density. These allowed us to better understand the dynamic nature of the magnetic topology. Results. Our simulation captured the time-dependent nature of the active region and the erupting flux rope associated with the X-class flares on 6 September 2017, including the largest of solar cycle 24. Additionally, our results suggest a possible threshold for eruptions in the ratio of current-carrying helicity to relative helicity. Conclusion. The flux rope was found to be a combination of two structures that partially combine during the eruption process. Our time-dependent data-driven magnetofrictional model is shown to be capable of generating magnetic fields consistent with extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations.