Browsing by Subject "MAGNITUDE"

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  • Bowles, N. E.; Snodgrass, C.; Gibbings, A.; Sanchez, J. P.; Arnold, J. A.; Eccleston, P.; Andert, T.; Probst, A.; Naletto, G.; Vandaele, A. C.; de Leon, J.; Nathues, A.; Thomas, I. R.; Thomas, N.; Jorda, L.; Da Deppo, V.; Haack, H.; Green, S. F.; Carry, B.; Hanna, K. L. Donaldson; Jorgensen, J. Leif; Kereszturi, A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Patel, M. R.; Davies, J. K.; Clarke, F.; Kinch, K.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Agarwal, J.; Rivkin, A. S.; Pravec, P.; Fornasier, S.; Granvik, M.; Jones, R. H.; Murdoch, N.; Joy, K. H.; Pascale, E.; Tecza, M.; Barnes, J. M.; Licandro, J.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Marriner, C. M.; Warren, T.; Tosh, I. (2018)
    CASTAway is a mission concept to explore our Solar System's main asteroid belt. Asteroids and comets provide a window into the formation and evolution of our Solar System and the composition of these objects can be inferred from space-based remote sensing using spectroscopic techniques. Variations in composition across the asteroid populations provide a tracer for the dynamical evolution of the Solar System. The mission combines a long-range (point source) telescopic survey of over 10,000 objects, targeted close encounters with 10-20 asteroids and serendipitous searches to constrain the distribution of smaller (e.g. 10 m) size objects into a single concept. With a carefully targeted trajectory that loops through the asteroid belt, CASTAway would provide a comprehensive survey of the main belt at multiple scales. The scientific payload comprises a 50 cm diameter telescope that includes an integrated low-resolution (R = 30-100) spectrometer and visible context imager, a thermal (e.g. 6-16 mu m) imager for use during the flybys, and modified star tracker cameras to detect small (similar to 10 m) asteroids. The CASTAway spacecraft and payload have high levels of technology readiness and are designed to fit within the programmatic and cost caps for a European Space Agency medium class mission, while delivering a significant increase in knowledge of our Solar System. (C) 2017 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Moose, Ryan A.; Schigel, Dmitry; Kirby, Lucas J.; Shumskaya, Maria (2019)
    Saproxylic fungi act as keystone species in forest ecosystems because they colonise and decompose dead wood, facilitating colonisation by later species. Here, we review the importance of intact forest ecosystems to dead wood fungi, as well as trends in their diversity research and challenges in conservation. Saproxylic communities are sensitive to transition from virgin forests to managed ecosystems, since the latter often results in reduced tree diversity and the removal of their natural habitat dead wood. The impact of dead wood management can be quite significant since many saproxylic fungi are host-specific. The significance of citizen science and educational programmes for saproxylic mycology is discussed with the emphasis on the North American region. We intend to raise the awareness of the role that dead wood fungi play in forest health in order to support development of corresponding conservational programmes.
  • Rydland, Håvard T.; Fjær, Erlend L.; Eikemo, Terje A.; Eikemo, Terje A.; Bambra, Clare; Wendt, Claus; Kulhánová, Ivana; Martikainen, Pekka; Dibben, Chris; Kalėdienė, Ramunė; Borrell, Carme; Leinsalu, Mall; Bopp, Matthias; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2020)
    Background Educational inequalities in health and mortality in European countries have often been studied in the context of welfare regimes or political systems. We argue that the healthcare system is the national level feature most directly linkable to mortality amenable to healthcare. In this article, we ask to what extent the strength of educational differences in mortality amenable to healthcare vary among European countries and between European healthcare system types. Methods This study uses data on mortality amenable to healthcare for 21 European populations, covering ages 35–79 and spanning from 1998 to 2006. ISCED education categories are used to calculate relative (RII) and absolute inequalities (SII) between the highest and lowest educated. The healthcare system typology is based on the latest available classification. Meta-analysis and ANOVA tests are used to see if and how they can explain between-country differences in inequalities and whether any healthcare system types have higher inequalities. Results All countries and healthcare system types exhibited relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. The low-supply and low performance mixed healthcare system type had the highest inequality point estimate for the male (RII = 3.57; SII = 414) and female (RII = 3.18; SII = 209) population, while the regulation-oriented public healthcare systems had the overall lowest (male RII = 1.78; male SII = 123; female RII = 1.86; female SII = 78.5). Due to data limitations, results were not robust enough to make substantial claims about typology differences. Conclusions This article aims at discussing possible mechanisms connecting healthcare systems, social position, and health. Results indicate that factors located within the healthcare system are relevant for health inequalities, as inequalities in mortality amenable to medical care are present in all healthcare systems. Future research should aim at examining the role of specific characteristics of healthcare systems in more detail.
  • Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nusselder, Wilma J.; Bopp, Matthias; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Kalediene, Ramune; Lee, Jung Su; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Kobayashi, Yasuki; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2019)
    Background We compared mortality inequalities by occupational class in Japan and South Korea with those in European countries, in order to determine whether patterns are similar. Methods National register-based data from Japan, South Korea and eight European countries (Finland, Denmark, England/Wales, France, Switzerland, Italy (Turin), Estonia, Lithuania) covering the period between 1990 and 2015 were collected and harmonised. We calculated age-standardised all-cause and cause-specific mortality among men aged 35-64 by occupational class and measured the magnitude of inequality with rate differences, rate ratios and the average inter-group difference. Results Clear gradients in mortality were found in all European countries throughout the study period: manual workers had 1.6-2.5 times higher mortality than upper non-manual workers. However, in the most recent time-period, upper non-manual workers had higher mortality than manual workers in Japan and South Korea. This pattern emerged as a result of a rise in mortality among the upper non-manual group in Japan during the late 1990s, and in South Korea during the late 2000s, due to rising mortality from cancer and external causes (including suicide), in addition to strong mortality declines among lower non-manual and manual workers. Conclusion Patterns of mortality by occupational class are remarkably different between European countries and Japan and South Korea. The recently observed patterns in the latter two countries may be related to a larger impact on the higher occupational classes of the economic crisis of the late 1990s and the late 2000s, respectively, and show that a high socioeconomic position does not guarantee better health.
  • Kurkela, Jari L. O.; Lipponen, Arto; Hämäläinen, Jarmo A.; Näätänen, Risto; Astikainen, Piia (2016)
    Experience-induced changes in the functioning of the auditory cortex are prominent in early life, especially during a critical period. Although auditory perceptual learning takes place automatically during this critical period, it is thought to require active training in later life. Previous studies demonstrated rapid changes in single-cell responses of anesthetized adult animals while exposed to sounds presented in a statistical learning paradigm. However, whether passive exposure to sounds can form long-term memory representations remains to be demonstrated. To investigate this issue, we first exposed adult rats to human speech sounds for 3 consecutive days, 12 h/d. Two groups of rats exposed to either spectrotemporal or tonal changes in speech sounds served as controls for each other. Then, electrophysiological brain responses from the auditory cortex were recorded to the same stimuli. In both the exposure and test phase statistical learning paradigm, was applied. The exposure effect was found for the spectrotemporal sounds, but not for the tonal sounds. Only the animals exposed to spectrotemporal sounds differentiated subtle changes in these stimuli as indexed by the mismatch negativity response. The results point to the occurrence of long-term memory traces for the speech sounds due to passive exposure in adult animals.
  • von Schoultz, Åsa; Papageorgiou, Achillefs (2021)
    Under open-list proportional representation (OLPR), individual candidates compete for personal votes and representation has a distinctly individualistic dimension. This article provides a unique analysis of this individualistic representational dimension, by comparing the effects of policy positions with personal vote-earning attributes on individual electoral success within the context of the Finnish OLPR. The study confirms that personal attributes related to experience, locality and celebrity status have a strong positive effect on candidates’ ability to attract personal votes. On a more novel account, it also demonstrates that even under decidedly complex electoral settings, policy positions matter for candidates’ electoral fortunes, and that candidates who take on moderate positions within the context of their respective party are more successful than candidates who deviate from the party-median.
  • Mackenbach, Johan P.; Valverde, Jose Rubio; Bopp, Matthias; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Costa, Giuseppe; Deboosere, Patrick; Kalediene, Ramune; Kovács , Katalin; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Nusselder, Wilma J. (2019)
    Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are a challenge for public health around the world, but appear to be resistant to policy-making. We aimed to identify European countries which have been more successful than others in narrowing inequalities in mortality, and the factors associated with narrowing inequalities. We collected and harmonised mortality data by educational level in 15 European countries over the last 25 years, and quantified changes in inequalities in mortality using a range of measures capturing different perspectives on inequality (e.g., 'relative' and 'absolute' inequalities, inequalities in 'attainment' and 'shortfall'). We determined which causes of death contributed to narrowing of inequalities, and conducted country- and period-fixed effects analyses to assess which country-level factors were associated with narrowing of inequalities in mortality. Mortality among the low educated has declined rapidly in all European countries, and a narrowing of absolute, but not relative inequalities was seen in many countries. Best performers were Austria, Italy (Turin) and Switzerland among men, and Spain (Barcelona), England and Wales, and Austria among women. Ischemic heart disease, smoking-related causes (men) and amenable causes often contributed to narrowing inequalities. Trends in income inequality, level of democracy and smoking were associated with widening inequalities, but rising health care expenditure was associated with narrowing inequalities. Trends in inequalities in mortality have not been as unfavourable as often claimed. Our results suggest that health care expansion has counteracted the inequalities widening effect of other influences.
  • Vainio, Lari; Vainio, Martti (2021)
    Recent evidence has shown linkages between actions and segmental elements of speech. For instance, close-front vowels are sound symbolically associated with the precision grip, and front vowels are associated with forward-directed limb movements. The current review article presents a variety of such sound-action effects and proposes that they compose a category of sound symbolism that is based on grounding a conceptual knowledge of a referent in articulatory and manual action representations. In addition, the article proposes that even some widely known sound symbolism phenomena such as the sound-magnitude symbolism can be partially based on similar sensorimotor grounding. It is also discussed that meaning of suprasegmental speech elements in many instances is similarly grounded in body actions. Sound symbolism, prosody, and body gestures might originate from the same embodied mechanisms that enable a vivid and iconic expression of a meaning of a referent to the recipient.
  • Pantsar, Markus (2019)
    The basic human ability to treat quantitative information can be divided into two parts. With proto-arithmetical ability, based on the core cognitive abilities for subitizing and estimation, numerosities can be treated in a limited and/or approximate manner. With arithmetical ability, numerosities are processed (counted, operated on) systematically in a discrete, linear, and unbounded manner. In this paper, I study the theory of enculturation as presented by Menary (2015) as a possible explanation of how we make the move from the proto-arithmetical ability to arithmetic proper. I argue that enculturation based on neural reuse provides a theoretically sound and fruitful framework for explaining this development. However, I show that a comprehensive explanation must be based on valid theoretical distinctions and involve several stages in the development of arithmetical knowledge. I provide an account that meets these challenges and thus leads to a better understanding of the subject of enculturation.