Browsing by Subject "MAJOR TRAUMA"

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  • Wahlin, Rebecka Rubenson; Ponzer, Sari; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Lossius, Hans Morten; Castren, Maaret (2016)
    Background: Trauma systems and regionalized trauma care have been shown to improve outcome in severely injured trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a prehospital trauma care protocol and transport directive, and to determine its effects on the number of primary admissions and secondary trauma transfers in a large Scandinavian city. Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study based on local trauma registries and hospital and ambulance records in Stockholm County; patients > 15 years of age with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 15 transported to any emergency care hospitals in the Stockholm area were included for the years 2006 and 2008. We also included secondary transferred patients to the regional trauma center during 2006, 2008, and 2013. Results: A total of 693 primarily admitted trauma patients were included for the years 2006 and 2008. For the years 2006, 2008 and 2013, we included 114 secondarily transported trauma patients. The number of primary patient transports to the trauma center increased during the years by 20.2 %, (p <0.001); patients primarily transported to the trauma center had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score in 2008 than in 2006, and the number of patients transported secondarily to the trauma center in 2006 was higher compared to 2008 and to 2013 (p <0.001, all 3 years). Discussion: Our data indicate that implementation of a prehospital trauma care protocol may have an effect on transportation of severely injured trauma patients. A decrease in secondarily transported trauma patients to the regional trauma center was noted after 1 year and persisted at 7 years after the organizational change. Patients primarily admitted to the trauma center after the change had more severe injuries than patients transported to other emergency hospitals in the area even if 20 % of patients were not admitted primarily to a trauma center. This does not imply that the transport directives or the criteria were not followed but rather reveals the difficulties and uncertainties of field triage. Conclusions: With the introduction of a prehospital trauma transport directive in a large urban city, an increase in patients transported to the regional trauma center and a decrease in secondary transfers were detected, but a considerable number of severely injured patients were still transported to local hospitals.
  • Raj, Rahul; Siironen, Jari; Kivisaari, Riku; Kuisma, Markku; Brinck, Tuomas; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2013)
  • Moore, Lynne; Champion, Howard; Tardif, Pier-Alexandre; Kuimi, Brice-Lionel; O'Reilly, Gerard; Leppaniemi, Ari; Cameron, Peter; Palmer, Cameron S.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaarder, Christine; Yanchar, Natalie; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Coimbra, Raul; Kortbeek, John; Noonan, Vanessa K.; Gunning, Amy; Gordon, Malcolm; Khajanchi, Monty; Porgo, Teegwende V.; Turgeon, Alexis F.; Leenen, Luke (2018)
    The effectiveness of trauma systems in decreasing injury mortality and morbidity has been well demonstrated. However, little is known about which components contribute to their effectiveness. We aimed to systematically review the evidence of the impact of trauma system components on clinically important injury outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and BIOSIS/Web of Knowledge, gray literature and trauma association Web sites to identify studies evaluating the association between at least one trauma system component and injury outcome. We calculated pooled effect estimates using inverse-variance random-effects models. We evaluated quality of evidence using GRADE criteria. We screened 15,974 records, retaining 41 studies for qualitative synthesis and 19 for meta-analysis. Two recommended trauma system components were associated with reduced odds of mortality: inclusive design (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72 [0.65-0.80]) and helicopter transport (OR = 0.70 [0.55-0.88]). Pre-Hospital Advanced Trauma Life Support was associated with a significant reduction in hospital days (mean difference [MD] = 5.7 [4.4-7.0]) but a nonsignificant reduction in mortality (OR = 0.78 [0.44-1.39]). Population density of surgeons was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in mortality (MD = 0.58 [-0.22 to 1.39]). Trauma system maturity was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (OR = 0.76 [0.68-0.85]). Quality of evidence was low or very low for mortality and healthcare utilization. This review offers low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of an inclusive design and trauma system maturity and very-low-quality evidence for helicopter transport in reducing injury mortality. Further research should evaluate other recommended components of trauma systems and non-fatal outcomes and explore the impact of system component interactions.
  • Int Injury Care Improvement Initia; Moore, Lynne; Champion, Howard; O'Reilly, Gerard; Leppäniemi, Ari; Cameron, Peter; Palmer, Cameron; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaarder, Christine; Yanchar, Natalie; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Coimbra, Raul; Kortbeek, John; Noonan, Vanessa; Gunning, Amy; Leenan, Luke; Gordon, Malcolm; Khajanchi, Monty; Shemilt, Michele; Porgo, Valerie; Turgeon, Alexis F. (2017)
    Background: Injury represents one of the greatest public health challenges of our time with over 5 million deaths and 100 million people temporarily or permanently disabled every year worldwide. The effectiveness of trauma systems in decreasing injury mortality and morbidity has been well demonstrated. However, the organisation of trauma care varies significantly across trauma systems and we know little about which components of trauma systems contribute to their effectiveness. The objective of the study described in this protocol is to systematically review evidence of the impact of trauma system components on clinically significant outcomes including mortality, function and disability, quality of life, and resource utilization. Methods: We will perform a systematic review of studies evaluating the association between at least one trauma system component (e.g. accreditation by a central agency, interfacility transfer agreements) and at least one injury outcome (e. g. mortality, disability, resource use). We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE central, and BIOSIS/Web of Knowledge databases, thesis holdings, key injury organisation websites and conference proceedings for eligible studies. Pairs of independent reviewers will evaluate studies for eligibility and extract data from included articles. Methodological quality will be evaluated using elements of the ROBINS-I tool and the Cochrane risk of bias tool for non-randomized and randomized studies, respectively. Strength of evidence will be evaluated using the GRADE tool. Discussion: We expect to advance knowledge on the components of trauma systems that contribute to their effectiveness. This may lead to recommendations on trauma systemstructure thatwill help policy-makersmake informed decisions as to where resources should be focused. The review may also lead to specific recommendations for future research efforts.
  • Ryynanen, Olli-Pekka; Iirola, Timo; Reitala, Janne; Malmivaara, Antti (2010)
    Background -: Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support) and BLS- (basic life support) levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim -: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods -: In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results -: We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service), ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions -: ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is also some evidence in favour of ALS among patients with epileptic seizures as well as those with a respiratory distress.
  • Ali Ali, Bismil; Brinck, Tuomas; Handolin, Lauri; Belzunegui Otano, Tomas (2021)
    Purpose To compare the profile, treatment and outcome of elderly patients with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) between southern Finland and Navarra (Spain). Methods Data collected from, 2010 to 2015, in the Major Trauma Registry of Navarra (MTR-N) and the Helsinki Trauma Registry (HTR) were compared. Patients with New Injury Severity Score (NISS) >= 16 and age >= 65 with isolated severe TBI were considered. Patients who had been admitted to the hospital >= 24 h after the trauma, had been pronounced dead before hospital arrival, or had been injured by hanging, drowning or burns, were excluded. Outcome was defined by 30-day hospital mortality. The expected mortality was calculated using the Revised Injury Severity Classification score II (RISC II). Other compared data included demographics, injury mechanism, pre-hospital and hospital treatment, and time intervals. Results A total of 305 (MTR-N) and 137 (HTR) patients were included in the outcome analysis. The standardized mortality ratio with 95% confidence interval was for MTR-N 1.4 (1.1-1.6) and for HTR 0.8 (0.6-1.1). Patients in Navarra were older (average 79.7 vs. 75.0) while in southern Finland the percentage of pre-hospital intubation in patients with GCS
  • Skrifvars, Markus; Bailey, Michael; Presneill, Jeffrey; French, Craig; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2017)
    To estimate the prevalence, risk factors, prophylactic treatment and impact on mortality for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit. A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI) trial that included twice-weekly lower limb ultrasound screening. Venous thrombotic events were defined as ultrasound-proven proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or clinically detected pulmonary embolism (PE). Results are reported as events, percentages or medians and interquartile range (IQR). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time to VTE and death. Of 603 patients, 119 (19.7%) developed VTE, mostly comprising DVT (102 patients, 16.9%) with a smaller number of PE events (24 patients, 4.0%). Median time to DVT diagnosis was 6 days (IQR 2-11) and to PE diagnosis 6.5 days (IQR 2-16.5). Mechanical prophylaxis (MP) was used in 91% of patients on day 1, 97% of patients on day 3 and 98% of patients on day 7. Pharmacological prophylaxis was given in 5% of patients on day 1, 30% of patients on day 3 and 57% of patients on day 7. Factors associated with time to VTE were age (HR per year 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), patient weight (HR per kg 1.01, 95% CI 1-1.02) and TBI severity according to the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials risk of poor outcome (HR per 10% increase 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The development of VTE was not associated with mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51-1.65). Despite mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis, VTE occurs in one out of every five patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Higher age, greater weight and greater severity of TBI increase the risk. The development of VTE was not associated with excess mortality.
  • Ratasvuori, Maire; Lassila, Riitta; Laitinen, Minna (2016)
    Introduction and aim: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a severe complication associated both with major orthopaedic surgery and cancer. However, survival and postoperative complications of skeletal metastases despite their thrombogenic potential, have received little attention in both the clinical management and research setting. This single-centre observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the incidence and impact of VTE in association with cancer surgery targeted to the management of fractures secondary to skeletal metastases. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical database. We included consecutive 306 patients operated for 343 non-spinal skeletal metastases during a 15-year period (1999-2014). The incidence of VTE and its risk factors were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate variables affecting survival. Results: The rate of symptomatic VTE was 10% (30/306) during the 3-month postoperative period, while 79% received thromboprophylaxis. Fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) rate was high, 3.3% (10/306) after surgery. Intraoperative oxygen saturation drop, pulmonary metastases and intramedullary nailing were independent risk factors for VTE. Indicators of decreased survival were lung cancer, intramedullary nailing, multiple skeletal and pulmonary metastases, anaemia, leukocytosis, and PE. Conclusion: Relationship between fractures secondary to skeletal metastases and VTE needs further clinical attention. Whether the survival of patients with fractures secondary to skeletal metastases can be improved by targeted thromboprophylactic means should be studied further. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.