Browsing by Subject "MALES"

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  • Sauna-aho, Oili; BjelogrlicLaakso, Nina; Rautava, Päivi; Arvio, Maria (2020)
    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability. The aim of our longitudinal study was to describe ageing-related cognitive changes in men with FXS. Method A neuropsychologist determined the raw scores (RSs) of 19 men with FXS twice with the Leiter International Performance Scale at an average interval of 22 years. The ages of the participants at baseline ranged from 16 to 50 (mean 27) years. Results At follow-up, the RSs improved in two men, remained the same in two men and declined in 15 men. Overall, the RS of the study group deteriorated by an average 4 points in RSs (p <.001). Conclusion Cognitive ageing in men with FXS started earlier than that in men in the general population; in many cases, cognitive ageing in men with FXS began before middle age, usually without any medical or other underlying cause.
  • Tran, Quoc Ty; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Poolamets, Olev; Tsuiko, Olga; Lubenets, Dmitri; Reimand, Tiia; Punab, Margus; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a feasible approach for single sperm isolation and chromosome analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS).MethodsSingle sperm cells were isolated from semen samples of normozoospermic male and an infertile reciprocal translocation (RcT) carrier with the 46,XY,t(7;13)(p12;q12.1) karyotype using the optimized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique. Genome profiling was performed using NGS.ResultsFollowing whole-genome amplification, NGS,and quality control, the final chromosome analysis was performed on 31 and 6 single cell samples derived from the RcT carrier and normozoospermic male, respectively. All sperm cells from normozoospermic male showed a normal haploid 23-chromosome profile. For the RcT carrier, the sequencing data revealed that 64.5% of sperm cells harbored different variants of chromosome aberrations, involving deletion of 7p or 7q, duplication of 7p, and duplication of 13q, which is concordant with the expected chromosome segregation patterns observed in balanced translocation carriers. In one sample, a duplication of 9q was also detected.ConclusionsWe optimized FACS protocol for simple and efficient isolation of single human sperm cells that subsequently enabled a successful genome-wide chromosome profiling and identification of segmental aneuploidies from these individual cells, following NGS analysis. This approach may be useful for analyzing semen samples of infertile men or chromosomal aberration carriers to facilitate the reproductive risk assessment.
  • Hopkins, Juhani; Lehtonen, Topi K.; Baudry, Gautier; Kaitala, Arja (2021)
    How fecundity might be traded off with mate attraction and other aspects of reproduction in females remains poorly understood. We investigated these allocation trade-offs using the common glowworm (Lampyris noctiluca), a lampyrid beetle, in which flightless, sedentary females only use resources gathered during the larval stage to attract flying males by glowing. While sexual signaling was not found to have a significant fecundity cost, a delay in successfully attracting a mate greatly increased the risk of reproductive failure, with fecundity losses being more severe in small females. These findings are among the first to show that failure to quickly attract a mate can decrease female fecundity. The results also show how the length of delay before mating can drive the evolution of female sexual ornamentation.
  • Tregenza, Tom; Niemela, Petri T.; Rodriguez-Munoz, Rolando; Hopwood, Paul E. (2022)
    The role of female choice in sexual selection is well established, including the recognition that females choose their mates based on multiple cues. These cues may include intrinsic aspects of a male's phenotype as well as aspects of the environment associated with the male. The role of the spatial location of a potential mate has been well studied in territorial vertebrates. However, despite their role as laboratory models for studies of sexual selection, the potential for insects to choose their mates on the basis of location has scarcely been studied. We studied a natural population of individually tagged crickets (Gryllus campestris) in a meadow in Northern Spain. Adults typically move between burrows every few days, allowing us to examine how pairing success of males can be predicted by the burrow they occupy, independent of their own characteristics. We observed the entirety of ten independent breeding seasons to provide replication and to determine whether the relative importance of these factors is stable across years. We find that both male ID and the ID his burrow affect the likelihood that he is paired with a female, but the burrow has a consistently greater influence. Furthermore, the two factors interact: the relative attractiveness of an individual male depends on which burrow he occupies. Our finding demonstrates a close interaction between naturally and sexually selected traits. It also demonstrates that mate choice studies may benefit from considering not only obvious secondary sexual traits, but also more cryptic traits such as microhabitat choice. We show that female insects choosing to cohabit with a male place more importance on where he lives than on who he is, but the combination of the two is more important still. We know that female birds often choose a male based on the quality of his territory; our 10 years of observing crickets moving around a Spanish meadow to share burrows with members of the opposite sex, reveals insects can do the same.
  • Cowley, Benjamin; Kirjanen, Svetlana; Partanen, Juhani; Castrén, Maija (2016)
    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and a variant of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FXS population is quite heterogeneous with respect to comorbidities, which implies the need for a personalized medicine approach, relying on biomarkers or endophenotypes to guide treatment. There is evidence that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) endophenotype-guided treatments can support increased clinical benefit by considering the patient's neurophysiological profile. We describe a case series of 11 children diagnosed with FXS, aged one to 14 years, mean 4.6 years. Case data are based on longitudinal clinically-observed reports by attending physicians for comorbid symptoms including awake and asleep EEG profiles. We tabulate the comorbid EEG symptoms in this case series, and relate them to the literature on EEG endophenotypes and associated treatment options. The two most common endophenotypes in the data were diffuse slow oscillations and epileptiform EEG, which have been associated with attention and epilepsy respectively. This observation agrees with reported prevalence of comorbid behavioral symptoms for FXS. In this sample of FXS children, attention problems were found in 37% (4 of 11), and epileptic seizures in 45% (5 of 11). Attention problems were found to associate with the epilepsy endophenotype. From the synthesis of this case series and literature review, we argue that the evidence-based personalized treatment approach, exemplified by neurofeedback, could benefit FXS children by focusing on observable, specific characteristics of comorbid disease symptoms.
  • Rautiala, Petri; Helantera, Heikki; Puurtinen, Mikael (2019)
    Evolution of altruistic behavior was a hurdle for the logic of Darwinian evolution. Soon after Hamilton formalized the concept of inclusive fitness, which explains how altruism can evolve, he suggested that the high sororal relatedness brought by haplodiploidy could be why Hymenopterans have a high prevalence in eusocial species, and why helpers in Hymenoptera are always female. Later it was noted that in order to capitalize on the high sororal relatedness, helpers would need to direct help toward sisters, and this would bias the population sex ratio. Under a 1:3 males:females sex ratio, the inclusive fitness valuation a female places on her sister, brother, and an own offspring are equalapparently removing the benefit of helping over independent reproduction. Based on this argumentation, haplodiploidy hypothesis has been considered a red herring. However, here we show that when population sex ratio, cost of altruism, and population growth rate are considered together, haplodiploidy does promote female helping even with female-biased sex ratio, due the lowered cost of altruism in such populations. Our analysis highlights the need to re-evaluate the role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of helping, and the importance of fully exploring the model assumptions when comparing interactions of population sex ratios and social behaviors.
  • Vahl, Wouter K.; Boiteau, Gilles; de Heij, Maaike E.; MacKinley, Pamela D.; Kokko, Hanna (2013)
  • Varimo, Tero; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Raivio, Taneli; Kerttula, Liisa; Dunkel, Leo; Hero, Matti (2019)
    Background: Aromatase inhibitors (Als) have been used in boys with idiopathic short stature (ISS) to promote growth despite the lack of actual data regarding treatment effect on adult height. In this study, we characterized adult heights and long-term follow-up in Al-treated boys with ISS. Methods: Adult heights and long-term follow-up data, including spine MRIs, of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of boys who were treated with letrozole (Lz) (2.5 mg/d) or placebo (PI) for 2 years during prepuberty and early puberty. The mean bone ages at treatment cessation were 10.2 and 10.8 years, respectively. Results: Adult heights were similar between the boys treated with Lz (n = 10) and those who received PI (n = 10) (164.8 +/- 4.0 vs. 163.7 +/- 3.7 cm, p = 0.49, respectively). In either group, the adult heights did not differ from predicted adult heights at start of the study [PI: 163.7 (3.7) cm vs. 166.9 (3.3), p = 0.06; Lz: 164.8 (4.0) cm vs. 167.6 (7.9), p = 0.20, respectively]. Long-term follow-up data showed that the frequency of subjects with a vertebral deformity was similar between the groups (Lz, 29% and PI, 22%, p = 0.20), and no single comorbidity was clearly enriched in either group. Conclusions: The Lz-treated boys had similar adult heights with the subjects who received PI for 2 years, which indicates that the treatment is not beneficial when given to pre- or early-pubertal boys. Previously observed vertebral deformities ameliorated during follow-up, which supports the skeletal safety of Lz therapy in children and adolescents.
  • Johnson, Sini; Candolin, Ulrika (2017)
    Much evidence exists for sexually selected traits reflecting various components of mate quality, but the factors that limit signal expression and ensure honest signaling are less well known. Predation risk has been proposed to be one factor that could constrain the elaboration of visually conspicuous signals and ensure honesty, but little evidence exists because of limitations of earlier used methods. We investigated using a combination of field observations and experimental work if a conspicuous sexual signal of the threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus, the red nuptial coloration of the male, increases predation risk. We compared the proportion of colorful males in the gut of a predator in the wild, the perch Perca fluviatilis, to that in the population, and found proportionally more red-colored stickleback in the gut. This indicates that the predator selectively preys on colorful males under natural conditions. To differentiate between the effects of color and behavior on susceptibility to predation, we experimentally investigated the attack behavior of the predator towards breeding stickleback males differing in coloration. We found the predator to preferentially attack more colorful males, independent of their behavior. These results indicate that predation risk is a cost of the sexual signal that could limit expression and influence the honesty of the signal as an indicator of mate quality
  • Hemilä, Harri (2009)
    Berry et al. studied the between-trial variation in the effect of vitamin E on mortality in 22 trials, concluding in the abstract that “vitamin E intake is unlikely to affect mortality regardless of dose.” However, their discussion of the vitamin E literature is biased to such an extent that it does not provide a proper context for their paper.