Browsing by Subject "MALIGNANCY"

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  • Endén, Kira; Tainio, Juuso; Nikkilä, Atte; Helanterä, Ilkka; Nordin, Arno; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Jalanko, Hannu; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Jahnukainen, Timo (2020)
    Background The prevalence of malignancies after pediatric solid organ transplantation was evaluated in a nationwide study. Methods All patients who had undergone kidney, liver, or heart transplantation during childhood between the years 1982 and 2015 in Finland were identified. The inclusion criteria were age under 16 years at transplantation and age over 18 years at the last follow-up day. A total of 233 (137 kidney, 53 liver, and 43 heart) transplant recipients were enrolled. Controls (n = 1157) matched by the year of birth, gender, and hometown were identified using the Population Register Center registry. The cancer diagnoses were searched using the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results Altogether 26 individuals diagnosed with cancer were found, including 18 transplant recipients. Cancer was diagnosed at a median of 12.0 (IQR 7.8-17.8) years after the transplantation. The transplant recipients' risk for cancer was significantly higher when compared with the controls (HR 14.7; 95% CI 6.4-33.9). There was no difference for different graft types. Sixty-one percent of cancers among the transplant recipients were diagnosed at age older than 18 years. Conclusion The risk for cancer is significantly higher among young adults having undergone solid organ transplantation during childhood in comparison with population controls. Careful follow-up and attention to prevent cancers throughout adulthood are warranted.
  • Friman, Terhi Kristiina; Jäämaa-Holmberg, Salla; Åberg, Fredrik; Helanterä, Ilkka; Halme, Maija; Pentikäinen, Markku O.; Nordin, Arno; Lemström, Karl B.; Jahnukainen, Timo; Räty, Riikka; Salmela, Birgitta (2022)
    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and related to lifelong immunosuppression. This retrospective registry study assessed for the first time in Finland population-based cancer risk and cancer mortality after all SOTs (lung and childhood transplantations included) as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Data from transplant registries were linked with the data of Finnish Cancer Registry and Statistics Finland. We followed 6548 consecutive first SOT recipients from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2016 translating to 66 741 person-years (median follow-up time 8.9 years [interquartile range 4.0-15.1]). In total, 2096 cancers were found in 1483 patients (23% of all patients). Majority of cancers (53%) were nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). The overall SIR was 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5-3.8) and the SIR excluding NMSCs was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3). SIR for all cancers was highest for heart (5.0) and lowest for liver (2.7) recipients. Most common cancer types after NMSCs were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), SIR 9.9 (95% CI: 8.5-11.4) and kidney cancer, SIR 7.3 (95% CI: 6.0-8.8). Cancer-related deaths were 17% (n = 408) of all deaths after first month post transplantation. SMR for all cancers was 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.7) and for NHL 13.6 (95% CI: 10.7-16.8). Notably, overall SIR for cancer was lower in later period (2000-2016), 3.0 (95% CI: 2.8-3.2), than in earlier period (1987-1999), 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0-4.5), P < .001. Decrease in cancer incidence was temporally associated with major changes in immunosuppression in the 2000s.
  • Zhang, Luyao; Hemminki, Otto; Zheng, Guoqiao; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    Literature on familial risk of carcinomas in situ (CISs) is limited because many cancer registries do not collect information on CIS. In Sweden CISs are collected, and we used these data to analyze familial relative risks (RRs) for concordant (CIS-CIS) types of anogenital (cervical, other female and male genital and anal) and skin squamous cell CIS; additionally RRs were assessed between CIS types and between CIS and invasive forms. RRs were calculated for the offspring generations when family members were diagnosed CIS. Case numbers for CIS ranged from 330 in anal to 177,285 in cervical CIS. Significant concordant CIS-CIS RRs were 2.74 for female genital, 1.77 for cervical and 2.29 for SCC skin CISs. The CIS forms associated also with each other, except for cervical and skin CIS types. RRs for concordant CIS-invasive cancer associations were lower than CIS-CIS associations. Cervical CIS associated with non-Hodgkin CIS which may suggest immune dysfunction as a contributing factors. The results for anogenital CIS types suggest that life style related human papilloma virus infections contributed to the observed familial associations. Lower risks for CIS-invasive cancer than CIS-CIS suggest that CIS and invasive cancers share only partially risk factors that underlie familial clustering.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Bello, Ibrahim O.; Keski-Santti, Harri; Mäkinen, Laura; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Pukkila, Matti; Hagstrom, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Tommola, Satu; Nieminen, Outi; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Koivunen, Petri; Grenman, Reidar; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2014)
  • The International PSC Study Group; The UK PSC Consortium; Alberts, Rudi; de Vries, Elisabeth M. G.; Goode, Elizabeth C.; Jiang, Xiaojun; Sampaziotis, Fotis; Rombouts, Krista; Böttcher, Katrin; Folseraas, Trine; Weismüller, Tobias J.; Mason, Andrew L.; Wang, Weiwei; Alexander, Graeme; Alvaro, Domenico; Bergquist, Annika; Björkström, Niklas K.; Beuers, Ulrich; Björnsson, Einar; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Bragazzi, Maria C.; Carbone, Marco; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Cheung, Angela; Dalekos, Georgios; Eaton, John; Eksteen, Bertus; Ellinghaus, David; Färkkilä, Martti Antero; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Floreani, Annarosa; Franceschet, Irene; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; van Hoek, Bart; Holm, Kristian; Hohenester, Simon; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Imhann, Floris; Invernizzi, Pietro; Juran, Brian D.; Lenzen, Henrike; Lieb, Wolfgang; Liu, Jimmy Z.; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Marzioni, Marco; Melum, Espen; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Müller, Tobias; Pares, Albert; Rupp, Christian; Rust, Christian; Sandford, Richard N.; Schramm, Christoph; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrumpf, Erik; Silverberg, Mark S.; Srivastava, Brijesh; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Vallier, Ludovic; Verheij, Joanne; Vila, Arnau Vich; de Vries, Boudewijn; Zachou, Kalliopi; Chapman, Roger W.; Manns, Michael P.; Pinzani, Massimo; Rushbrook, Simon M.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Franke, Andre; Anderson, Carl A.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Weersma, Rinse K. (2018)
    Objective Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a genetically complex, inflammatory bile duct disease of largely unknown aetiology often leading to liver transplantation or death. Little is known about the genetic contribution to the severity and progression of PSC. The aim of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with PSC disease progression and development of complications. Design We collected standardised PSC subphenotypes in a large cohort of 3402 patients with PSC. After quality control, we combined 130 422 single nucleotide polymorphisms of all patients-obtained using the Illumina immunochip-with their disease subphenotypes. Using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, we identified genetic variants associated with binary and time-to-event PSC subphenotypes. Results We identified genetic variant rs853974 to be associated with liver transplant-free survival (p=6.07x10(-9)). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a 50.9% (95% CI 41.5% to 59.5%) transplant-free survival for homozygous AA allele carriers of rs853974 compared with 72.8% (95% CI 69.6% to 75.7%) for GG carriers at 10 years after PSC diagnosis. For the candidate gene in the region, RSPO3, we demonstrated expression in key liver-resident effector cells, such as human and murine cholangiocytes and human hepatic stellate cells. Conclusion We present a large international PSC cohort, and report genetic loci associated with PSC disease progression. For liver transplant-free survival, we identified a genome-wide significant signal and demonstrated expression of the candidate gene RSPO3 in key liver-resident effector cells. This warrants further assessments of the role of this potential key PSC modifier gene.
  • Zhou, Wei; Brumpton, Ben; Kabil, Omer; Gudmundsson, Julius; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Weinstock, Josh; Zawistowski, Matthew; Nielsen, Jonas B.; Chaker, Layal; Medici, Marco; Teumer, Alexander; Naitza, Silvia; Sanna, Serena; Schultheiss, Ulla T.; Cappola, Anne; Karjalainen, Juha; Kurki, Mitja; Oneka, Morgan; Taylor, Peter; Fritsche, Lars G.; Graham, Sarah E.; Wolford, Brooke N.; Overton, William; Rasheed, Humaira; Haug, Eirin B.; Gabrielsen, Maiken E.; Skogholt, Anne Heidi; Surakka, Ida; Smith, George Davey; Pandit, Anita; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Jonasson, Jon G.; Senter, Leigha; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Ringel, Matthew D.; Xu, Li; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; He, Huiling; Netea-Maier, Romana T.; Mayordomo, Jose; Plantinga, Theo S.; Hrafnkelsson, Jon; Hjartarson, Hannes; Sturgis, Erich M.; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark; Citterio, Cintia E.; Arvan, Peter; Brummett, Chad M.; Boehnke, Michael; de la Chapelle, Albert; Stefansson, Kari; Hveem, Kristian; Willer, Cristen J.; Asvold, Bjorn Olav (2020)
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. To better understand the genetic contribution to TSH levels, we conduct a GWAS meta-analysis at 22.4 million genetic markers in up to 119,715 individuals and identify 74 genome-wide significant loci for TSH, of which 28 are previously unreported. Functional experiments show that the thyroglobulin protein-altering variants P118L and G67S impact thyroglobulin secretion. Phenome-wide association analysis in the UK Biobank demonstrates the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants and a polygenic score for higher TSH levels is associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in the UK Biobank and three other independent studies. Two-sample Mendelian randomization using TSH index variants as instrumental variables suggests a protective effect of higher TSH levels (indicating lower thyroid function) on risk of thyroid cancer and goiter. Our findings highlight the pleiotropic effects of TSH-associated variants on thyroid function and growth of malignant and benign thyroid tumors. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical for normal development and metabolism. Here, the authors conduct a GWAS and suggest protective effect of higher TSH on risk of thyroid cancer and goitre.
  • Efraim Investigators; Nine-I Study Grp; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Valkonen, Miia; Azoulay, Elie (2019)
    BackgroundIt is unclear whether influenza infection and associated co-infection are associated with patient-important outcomes in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure.MethodsPreplanned secondary analysis of EFRAIM, a prospective cohort study of 68 hospitals in 16 countries. We included 1611 patients aged 18years or older with non-AIDS-related immunocompromise, who were admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The main exposure of interest was influenza infection status. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes ICU length of stay (LOS) and 90-day mortality.ResultsInfluenza infection status was categorized into four groups: patients with influenza alone (n=95, 5.8%), patients with influenza plus pulmonary co-infection (n=58, 3.6%), patients with non-influenza pulmonary infection (n=820, 50.9%), and patients without pulmonary infection (n=638, 39.6%). Influenza infection status was associated with a requirement for intubation and with LOS in ICU (P
  • Haavisto, Anu; Mathiesen, Sidsel; Suominen, Anu; Lähteenmäki, Päivi; Sorensen, Kaspar; Ifversen, Marianne; Juul, Anders; Nielsen, Malene Mejdahl; Müller, Klaus; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2020)
    There are many known endocrine complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in childhood including increased risk of biochemical hypogonadism. However, little is known about sexuality in adulthood following childhood HSCT. In this multicenter study, sexual functions and possible risk factors were assessed comprehensively in two national cohorts (Finland and Denmark) of male adult survivors of childhood HSCT. Compared to a healthy control group (n= 56), HSCT survivors (n= 97) reported less sexual fantasies, poorer orgasms, lower sexual activity with a partner and reduced satisfaction with their sex life, even in the presence of normal erectile functions and a similar frequency of autoerotic acts. Of the HSCT survivors, 35% were cohabitating/married and 66% were sexually active. Risk factors for poorer self-reported sexual functions were partner status (not cohabitating with a partner), depressive symptoms, CNS and testicular irradiation. Sexual dysfunction increased by age in the HSCT group with a pace comparable to that of the control group. However, because of the lower baseline level of sexual functions in the HSCT group, they will reach the level of clinically significant dysfunction at a younger age. Hence, male survivors of childhood HSCT should be interviewed in detail about their sexual health beyond erectile functions.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Chen, Tianhui; Foersti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2021)
    Background: Second primary cancers (SPCs) are increasing, which may negatively influ-ence patient survival. Gastric cancer (GC) has poor survival and when it is diagnosed as SPC it is often the cause of death. We wanted to analyze the risk of SPCs after GC and the risk of GC as SPC after any cancer. Such bidirectional analysis is important in relation to fatal cancers because SPCs may be under-reported in the short-term survival period. Methods: Cancers were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1990 through 2015. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to estimate bidirectional relative. Results: We identified 23,137 GC patients who developed 1042 SPCs (4.5%); 2158 patients had GC as SPC. While the risk for three SPCs was increased after GC, seven first primary cancers were followed by an increased risk of GC as SPC, including esophageal, colorectal, bladder, squamous cell skin and breast cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Breast cancer, which was followed by a diagnosis of second GC, showed an excess of lobular histology. Conclusion: Multiple primary cancers in the same individuals may signal genetic predis-position. Accordingly, the association of GC with breast cancer may be related to mutations in the CDH1 gene, and clustering of colorectal, small intestinal and bladder cancers could be related to Lynch syndrome. The third line of findings supports a contribution of immune dysfunction on the increased risk of GC as SPC after skin cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Early detection of GC in the risk groups could save lives.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sud, Amit; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Houlston, Richard; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2019)
    Improvement of survival in lymphocytic leukaemia has been accompanied by the occurrence of second primary cancer (SPCs). Based on Swedish Family Cancer Database, we applied bi-directional analyses in which relative risks (RRs) were calculated for any SPCs in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) and the risks of these leukaemias as SPCs. After CLL, RRs were significant for 20 SPCs, and high for skin squamous cell cancer (2458 for insitu and 763 for invasive), Merkel cell carcinoma (1436), Hodgkin lymphoma (716) and Kaposi sarcoma (676). Conversely, 15 CLL cancer pairs were reciprocally increased. The increased risks were reciprocal for ALL and four cancers. RR for ALL was 1535 after myeloid neoplasia. HCL showed reciprocally increased RRs with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. The concordance between RRs for bi-directional associations between CLL and different cancers, and HCL and different cancers was highly significant. For CLL (also for HCL), the bi-directional risks with skin cancers and other immune-related cancers suggest the probable involvement of immune dysfunction. For ALL, treatment may contribute to risks of multiple SPCs. Increased risk of ALL after haematological neoplasms may indicate bone marrow dysfunction. These findings may help guide treatment decisions and prognostic assessment.
  • Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Hemminki, Akseli; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari (2020)
    Second primary cancers (SPCs) are becoming a common cancer entity, which may interfere with survival in relatively benign first primary cancers. We examined the hypothesis that immune dysfunction may contribute to SPCs by assessing SPCs associated with known immune responsive skin cancers, invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. Cancers were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry from the year 1958 to 2015. Standardized relative risks were calculated bidirectionally for any SPC after skin cancer and for skin cancer as SPC. Over 80,000 first primary cancers were identified for each invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Bidirectional increased risks were observed for 26 cancers associated with invasive skin cancer; the Spearman rank correlation was 0.72 (P = 4.6 x 10(-5)). The highest bidirectional relative risks were for invasive and in situ skin cancer as SPCs (14.59 and 16.71, respectively). Remarkably high risks for second in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the skin were found after Kaposi sarcoma (685.68) and Merkel cell carcinoma (117.23). The high systematic bidirectional risks between immune responsive skin cancers and most other cancers suggest that immune suppression is a key mechanism contributing to an increased risk of SPCs.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Triantafyllou, Asterios; de Bree, Remco; Strojan, Primoz; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Suarez, Carlos; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Ferlito, Alfio; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy of the head and neck region. OSCC has a relatively low survival rate and the incidence of the disease is increasing in some geographic areas. Staging and grading of OSCC are established prerequisites for management, as they influence risk stratification and are the first step toward personalized treatment. The current AJCC/UICC TNM staging (8th edition, 2017) of OSCC has included significant modifications through the incorporation of depth of invasion in the T stage and extracapsular spread/extranodal extension in the N stage. Further modifications for AJCC 8 have been suggested. On the other hand, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification (4th edition, 2017) still endorses a simple, differentiation-based histopathologic grading system of OSCC (despite its low prognostic value) and ignores factors such as tumor growth pattern and dissociation, stromal reactions (desmoplasia, local immune response), and tumor-stroma ratio. The various controversies and possible developments of the current staging and grading criteria of OSCC are briefly discussed in this update together with possible applications of artificial intelligence in the context of screening and risk stratification.
  • Boyd, Sonja; Mustonen, Harri; Tenca, Andrea; Jokelainen, Kalle; Arola, Johanna; Farkkila, Martti A. (2017)
    Objective: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease leading to bile duct strictures and fibrosis, and predisposing to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Biliary dysplasia is a known precursor of CCA. In our unit, PSC patients undergo regular surveillance with ERC and brush cytology (BC), and liver transplantation is an option in case with biliary dysplasia. We evaluated the risk factors for biliary dysplasia and CCA based on ERC imaging, BC and liver function tests. Patients and methods: Seven hundred and eighty-eight ERCs were performed with BC for 447 PSC patients. ERC images were evaluated using the modified Amsterdam score, neutrophilic inflammation was assessed in BC, and liver function tests were collected. Ploidy analysis with DNA flow cytometry was performed in cases with advanced PSC or previous suspicious BC/aneuploidy. The endpoint was either a benign disease course (follow-up for >= 2.4 years after the latest ERC), benign histology, biliary dysplasia or CCA. Results: Benign disease course was seen in 424/447 (including 23 cases with biliary dysplasia), and CCA in 17 (3.8%) patients. Gallbladder carcinoma/carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in three patients. Advanced ERC findings, male gender, suspicious BC, aneuploidy in flow cytometry, inflammation, and elevation of ALP, bilirubin, ALT, AST, GGT, CEA and CA19-9 represented significant risk factors for CCA in univariate analysis. Conclusions: PSC patients with advanced bile duct disease and elevated liver enzymes, CEA or CA19-9, inflammation or suspicious BC are most likely to develop CCA. These patients may benefit from surveillance with BC if early liver transplantation is possible.
  • Malham, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Virta, Lauri J.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Wewer, Vibeke (2019)
    Background Recent studies report increased risks of both cancer and mortality in paediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD) but the reproducibility of this is unknown. Aim To estimate the risk of cancer and mortality in the Danish and Finnish pIBD population in a 23-year period compared to the general population. Methods The pIBD population was defined as individuals registered in the national patient registries with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) or IBD-unclassified before their 18th birthday from 1992 to 2014. This cohort was cross referenced with the national cancer and mortality registries identifying all pIBD patients who subsequently developed cancer and/ or died and followed up to the end of 2014. Risk estimates are presented as standardised incidence ratios calculated based on incidence figures from the populations. Results Six thousand six hundred and eight-nine patients with pIBD were identified (median age at follow-up 22.3 years; median follow-up: 9.6 years [interquartile range: 4.8-16.0]). Seventy-two subsequently developed cancer and 65 died. The standardised incidence ratio of cancer in general was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.8-3.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.4) in CD and UC, respectively. The standardised mortality ratios were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4-3.4) and 3.7 (95% CI: 2.7-5.0) in CD and UC, respectively. The leading causes for mortality were cancer, suicide and infections. Conclusions We found an increased risk of cancer and mortality in pIBD. This underlines the importance of cancer surveillance programs and assessment of mental health in the standard of care in adolescent pIBD patients.
  • Trovik, Clement; Bauer, Henrik C. F.; Styring, Emelie; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Vult von Steyern, Fredrik; Eriksson, Sigvard; Johansson, Ingela; Sampo, Mika; Laitinen, Minna; Kalen, Anders; Jonsson, Halldor; Jebsen, Nina; Eriksson, Mikael; Tukiainen, Erkki; Wall, Najme; Zaikova, Olga; Sigurdsson, Helgi; Lehtinen, Tuula; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Skorpil, Mikael; Eide, Geir Egil; Johansson, Elisabeth; Alvegard, Thor A. (2017)
    Purpose - We wanted to examine the potential of the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) Central Register, and evaluate referral and treatment practice for soft-tissue sarcomas in the extremities and trunk wall (STS) in the Nordic countries. Background - Based on incidence rates from the literature, 8,150 (7,000-9,300) cases of STS of the extremity and trunk wall should have been diagnosed in Norway, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden from 1987 through 2011. The SSG Register has 6,027 cases registered from this period, with 5,837 having complete registration of key variables. 10 centers have been reporting to the Register. The 5 centers that consistently report treat approximately 90% of the cases in their respective regions. The remaining centers have reported all the patients who were treated during certain time periods, but not for the entire 25-year period. Results - 59% of patients were referred to a sarcoma center untouched, i.e. before any attempt at open biopsy. There was an improvement from 52% during the first 5 years to 70% during the last 5 years. 50% had wide or better margins at surgery. Wide margins are now achieved less often than 20 years ago, in parallel with an increase in the use of radiotherapy. For the centers that consistently report, 97% of surviving patients are followed for more than 4 years. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) increased from 67% to 73% during the 25-year period. Interpretation - The Register is considered to be representative of extremity and trunk wall sarcoma disease in the population of Scandinavia, treated at the reporting centers. There were no clinically significant differences in treatment results at these centers.
  • Kiiski, Juha; Raikkonen, Kim; Vuento, Maarit H.; Hyoty, Marja K.; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O.; Kaartinen, Ilkka S. (2019)
    Introduction: Pelvic exenteration (PE) is the only curative treatment for certain locally advanced intrapelvic malignancies. PE has high morbidity, and optimal reconstruction of the pelvic floor remains undetermined. Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review was performed at a tertiary university center to assess the surgical and oncological outcomes of 39 PE procedures over a 12-year period. The majority of patients (n = 25) underwent transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap reconstruction for pelvic floor reconstruction. Results: The 1- and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 72% (95%CI 58%-86%) and 48% (95%CI 31%-65%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, lymph node metastasis (HR 3.070, p = 0.024) and positive surgical margins (HR 3.928, p = 0.009) were risk factors for OS. In this population, 71.8% of the patients had at least one complication. The complication rate was 65.4% and 84.6% for patients with versus without flap reconstruction, respectively (p = 0.191). The length of stay was longer for patients with a major complication 16,0 +/- 5,9 days vs. 29,4 +/- 14,8 days, p = 0.001, but complications did not affect OS. Conclusion: For selected patients, PE is a curative option for locally advanced, residual, or recurrent intrapelvic tumors. Pelvic floor and vulvovaginal defects can reliably be reconstructed using TMG flaps. TMG flaps are favored in our institution over abdominal-based flaps because the donor site morbidity is reasonable and TMG does not interfere with enterostomy. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd, BASO similar to The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.
  • Ratasvuori, Maire; Lassila, Riitta; Laitinen, Minna (2016)
    Introduction and aim: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a severe complication associated both with major orthopaedic surgery and cancer. However, survival and postoperative complications of skeletal metastases despite their thrombogenic potential, have received little attention in both the clinical management and research setting. This single-centre observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the incidence and impact of VTE in association with cancer surgery targeted to the management of fractures secondary to skeletal metastases. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from the medical database. We included consecutive 306 patients operated for 343 non-spinal skeletal metastases during a 15-year period (1999-2014). The incidence of VTE and its risk factors were assessed using binary logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate variables affecting survival. Results: The rate of symptomatic VTE was 10% (30/306) during the 3-month postoperative period, while 79% received thromboprophylaxis. Fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) rate was high, 3.3% (10/306) after surgery. Intraoperative oxygen saturation drop, pulmonary metastases and intramedullary nailing were independent risk factors for VTE. Indicators of decreased survival were lung cancer, intramedullary nailing, multiple skeletal and pulmonary metastases, anaemia, leukocytosis, and PE. Conclusion: Relationship between fractures secondary to skeletal metastases and VTE needs further clinical attention. Whether the survival of patients with fractures secondary to skeletal metastases can be improved by targeted thromboprophylactic means should be studied further. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.