Browsing by Subject "MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA"

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  • Penttinen, Kirsi; Swan, Heikki; Vanninen, Sari; Paavola, Jere; Lahtinen, Annukka M.; Kontula, Kimmo; Aalto-Setala, Katriina (2015)
    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a highly malignant inherited arrhythmogenic disorder. Type 1 CPVT (CPVT1) is caused by cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene mutations resulting in abnormal calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Dantrolene, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release, has been shown to rescue this abnormal Ca2+ release in vitro. We assessed the antiarrhythmic efficacy of dantrolene in six patients carrying various RyR2 mutations causing CPVT. The patients underwent exercise stress test before and after dantrolene infusion. Dantrolene reduced the number of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) on average by 74% (range 33-97) in four patients with N-terminal or central mutations in the cytosolic region of the RyR2 protein, while dantrolene had no effect in two patients with mutations in or near the transmembrane domain. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from all the patients and differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes (CMs). The antiarrhythmic effect of dantrolene was studied in CMs after adrenaline stimulation by Ca2+ imaging. In iPSC derived CMs with RyR2 mutations in the N-terminal or central region, dantrolene suppressed the Ca2+ cycling abnormalities in 80% (range 65-97) of cells while with mutations in or near the transmembrane domain only in 23 or 32% of cells. In conclusion, we demonstrate that dantrolene given intravenously shows antiarrhythmic effects in a portion of CPVT1 patients and that iPSC derived CM models replicate these individual drug responses. These findings illustrate the potential of iPSC models to individualize drug therapy of inherited diseases.
  • Rudnik-Schoeneborn, Sabine; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina (2019)
    Reports on pregnancy and delivery issues in women with congenital myopathies are scarce. In this review, we summarize the medical literature along with updates of our own data. Included are patients with nemaline myopathy (n = 11), central core disease (n = 6), multi-minicore disease (n = 2), cytoplasmic body myopathy (n = 1), and congenital fiber-type disproportion (n = 1). Apart from 1 patient with nemaline myopathy, who had used a wheelchair from the age of 18 years, all other women were able to walk when becoming pregnant. In comparison with the general population, there were no increased pregnancy or delivery complications, apart from the fact that 38% elective Cesarean sections took place. Neonatal outcome was favorable. In cases where a possible influence of gestation on muscle function was assessed, a deterioration during or after pregnancy was not observed. Patients who wish to have children should be advised by a multidisciplinary team according to the specific diagnosis, severity, and distribution of muscle weakness. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.