Browsing by Subject "MAMMALIAN TARGET"

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  • Kissing, Sandra; Rudnik, Soenke; Damme, Markus; Luellmann-Rauch, Renate; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Kornak, Uwe; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Jabs, Sabrina; Heeren, Joerg; De Brabander, Jef K.; Haas, Albert; Saftig, Paul (2017)
    The vacuolar-type H+-translocating ATPase (v-H+-ATPase) has been implicated in the amino aciddependent activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1), an important regulator of macroautophagy. To reveal the mechanistic links between the v-H+-ATPase and MTORC1, we destablilized v-H+-ATPase complexes in mouse liver cells by induced deletion of the essential chaperone ATP6AP2. ATP6AP2-mutants are characterized by massive accumulation of endocytic and autophagic vacuoles in hepatocytes. This cellular phenotype was not caused by a block in endocytic maturation or an impaired acidification. However, the degradation of LC3-II in the knockout hepatocytes appeared to be reduced. When v-H+-ATPase levels were decreased, we observed lysosome association of MTOR and normal signaling of MTORC1 despite an increase in autophagic marker proteins. To better understand why MTORC1 can be active when v-H+-ATPase is depleted, the activation of MTORC1 was analyzed in ATP6AP2-deficient fibroblasts. In these cells, very little amino acid-elicited activation of MTORC1 was observed. In contrast, insulin did induce MTORC1 activation, which still required intracellular amino acid stores. These results suggest that in vivo the regulation of macroautophagy depends not only on v-H+-ATPase-mediated regulation of MTORC1.
  • Sanz, Dafne Jacome; Raivola, Juuli; Karvonen, Hanna; Arjama, Mariliina; Barker, Harlan; Murumägi, Astrid; Ungureanu, Daniela (2021)
    Simple Summary Ovarian cancer (OC) is known for its poor prognosis, due to the absence of reliable biomarkers and its late diagnosis, since the early-stage disease is almost asymptomatic. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in OC progression due to the development of omental metastasis in the abdominal cavity. The aim of our study was to assess the therapeutic role of various enzymes involved in lipid metabolism regulation or synthesis, in different subtypes of OC represented by cell lines as well as patient-derived cancer cell cultures (PDCs). We show that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a cholesterol-regulating enzyme, plays a pro-survival role in OC and targeting its expression impairs cancer cell growth. We also tested a small library of metabolic and mTOR-targeting drugs to identify drug vulnerabilities specific to various subtypes of OC. Our results show that in OC cell lines and PDCs the second generation of mTOR inhibitors such as AZD8055, vistusertib, dactolisib and sapanisertib, have higher cytotoxic activity compared to the first generation mTOR inhibitors such as rapalogs. These results suggest that, in the era of precision medicine, it is possible to target the metabolic pathway in OC and identify subtype-specific drug vulnerabilities that could be advanced to the clinic. Background: Dysregulated lipid metabolism is emerging as a hallmark in several malignancies, including ovarian cancer (OC). Specifically, metastatic OC is highly dependent on lipid-rich omentum. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of targeting lipid metabolism in OC. For this purpose, we studied the role of PCSK9, a cholesterol-regulating enzyme, in OC cell survival and its downstream signaling. We also investigated the cytotoxic efficacy of a small library of metabolic (n = 11) and mTOR (n = 10) inhibitors using OC cell lines (n = 8) and ex vivo patient-derived cell cultures (PDCs, n = 5) to identify clinically suitable drug vulnerabilities. Targeting PCSK9 expression with siRNA or PCSK9 specific inhibitor (PF-06446846) impaired OC cell survival. In addition, overexpression of PCSK9 induced robust AKT phosphorylation along with increased expression of ERK1/2 and MEK1/2, suggesting a pro-survival role of PCSK9 in OC cells. Moreover, our drug testing revealed marked differences in cytotoxic responses to drugs targeting metabolic pathways of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC) PDCs. Our results show that targeting PCSK9 expression could impair OC cell survival, which warrants further investigation to address the dependency of this cancer on lipogenesis and omental metastasis. Moreover, the differences in metabolic gene expression and drug responses of OC PDCs indicate the existence of a metabolic heterogeneity within OC subtypes, which should be further explored for therapeutic improvements.
  • Niestroj, Lisa-Marie; Du, Juanjiangmeng; Nothnagel, Michael; May, Patrick; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark J.; Nürnberg, Peter; Blümcke, Ingmar; Lal, Dennis (2018)
    Objective Increasing availability of surgically resected brain tissue from patients with focal epilepsy and focal cortical dysplasia or low-grade glioneuronal tumors has fostered large-scale genetic examination. However, assessment of pathogenicity of germ line and somatic variants remains difficult. Here, we present a state-of-the-art evaluation of reported genes and variants associated with epileptic brain lesions. Methods Results We critically reevaluated the pathogenicity for all neuropathology-associated variants reported to date in the PubMed and ClinVar databases, including 101 neuropathology-associated missense variants encompassing 11 disease-related genes. We assessed gene variant tolerance and classified all identified missense variants according to guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). We further extended the bioinformatic variant prediction by introducing a novel gene-specific deleteriousness ranking for prediction scores. Application of ACMG guidelines and in silico gene variant tolerance analysis classified only seven of 11 genes to be likely disease-associated according to the reported disease mechanism, whereas 61 (60.4%) of 101 variants of those genes were classified as of uncertain significance, 37 (36.6%) as being likely pathogenic, and 3 (3%) as being pathogenic. Significance We concluded that the majority of neuropathology-associated variants reported to date do not have enough evidence to be classified as pathogenic. Interpretation of lesion-associated variants remains challenging, and application of current ACMG guidelines is recommended for interpretation and prediction.
  • Lilius, Tuomas O.; Viisanen, Hanna; Jokinen, Viljami; Niemi, Mikko; Kalso, Eija A.; Rauhala, Pekka V. (2018)
    Ketamine and its primary metabolite norketamine attenuate morphine tolerance by antagonising N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Ketamine is extensively metabolized to several other metabolites. The major secondary metabolite (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (6-hydroxynorketamine) is not an NMDA antagonist. However, it may modulate nociception through negative allosteric modulation of 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. We studied whether 6-hydroxynorketamine could affect nociception or the effects of morphine in acute or chronic administration settings. Male Sprague Dawley rats received subcutaneous 6-hydroxynorketamine or ketamine alone or in combination with morphine, as a cotreatment during induction of morphine tolerance, and after the development of tolerance induced by subcutaneous minipumps administering 9.6 mg morphine daily. Tail flick, hot plate, paw pressure and rotarod tests were used. Brain and serum drug concentrations were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ketamine (10 mg/kg), but not 6-hydroxynorketamine (10 and 30 mg/kg), enhanced antinociception and decreased rotarod performance following acute administration either alone or combined with morphine. Ketamine efficiently attenuated morphine tolerance. Acutely administered 6-hydroxynorketamine increased the brain concentration of morphine (by 60%), and brain and serum concentrations of 6-hydroxynorketamine were doubled by morphine pre-treatment. This pharmacokinetic interaction did not, however, lead to altered morphine tolerance. Co-administration of 6-hydroxynorketamine 20 mg/kg twice daily did not influence development of morphine tolerance. Even though morphine and 6-hydroxynorketamine brain concentrations were increased after co-administration, the pharmacokinetic interaction had no effect on acute morphine nociception or tolerance. These results indicate that 6-hydroxynorketamine does not have antinociceptive properties or attenuate opioid tolerance in a similar way as ketamine.
  • Koponen, Annika; Pan, Guoping; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ralko, Arthur; Taskinen, Juuso H.; Arora, Amita; Kosonen, Riikka; Kari, Otto K.; Ndika, Joseph; Ikonen, Elina; Cho, Wonhwa; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2020)
    Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2), a cholesterol-PI(4,5)P(2)countercurrent transporter, was recently identified as a novel regulator of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)content in HeLa cells. Here, we investigate the role of ORP2 in endothelial cell (EC) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)distribution, angiogenic signaling, and angiogenesis. We show that ORP2 knock-down modifies the distribution of cholesterol accessible to a D4H probe, between late endosomes and the PM. Depletion of ORP2 from ECs inhibits their angiogenic tube formation capacity, alters the gene expression of angiogenic signaling pathways such as VEGFR2, Akt, mTOR, eNOS, and Notch, and reduces EC migration, proliferation, and cell viability. We show that ORP2 regulates the integrity of VEGFR2 at the PM in a cholesterol-dependent manner, the depletion of ORP2 resulting in proteolytic cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases, and reduced activity of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling. We demonstrate that ORP2 depletion increases the PM PI(4,5)P(2)coincident with altered F-actin morphology, and reduces both VEGFR2 and cholesterol in buoyant raft membranes. Moreover, ORP2 knock-down suppresses the expression of the lipid raft-associated proteins VE-cadherin and caveolin-1. Analysis of the retinal microvasculature in ORP2 knock-out mice generated during this study demonstrates the subtle alterations of morphology characterized by reduced vessel length and increased density of tip cells and perpendicular sprouts. Gene expression changes in the retina suggest disturbance of sterol homeostasis, downregulation of VE-cadherin, and a putative disturbance of Notch signaling. Our data identifies ORP2 as a novel regulator of EC cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)homeostasis and cholesterol-dependent angiogenic signaling.
  • Cuppens, Tine; Annibali, Daniela; Coosemans, An; Trovik, Jone; ter Haar, Natalja; Colas, Eva; Garcia-Jimenez, Angel; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kruitwagen, Roy P. M.; Brinkhuis, Mariel; Zikan, Michal; Dundr, Pavel; Huvila, Jutta; Carpen, Olli; Haybaeck, Johannes; Moinfar, Farid; Salvesen, Helga B.; Stukan, Maciej; Mestdagh, Carole; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Massuger, Leonardus F.; Mallmann, Michael R.; Wardelmann, Eva; Mints, Miriam; Verbist, Godelieve; Thomas, Debby; Gomme, Ellen; Hermans, Els; Moerman, Philippe; Bosse, Tjalling; Amant, Frederic (2017)
    Purpose: Uterine sarcomas are rare and heterogeneous tumors characterized by an aggressive clinical behavior. Their high rates of recurrence and mortality point to the urgent need for novel targeted therapies and alternative treatment strategies. However, no molecular prognostic or predictive biomarkers are available so far to guide choice and modality of treatment. Experimental Design: We investigated the expression of several druggable targets (phospho-S6(S240) ribosomal protein, PTEN, PDGFR-alpha, ERBB2, and EGFR) in a large cohort of human uterine sarcoma samples (288), including leiomyosarcomas, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, undifferentiated uterine sarcomas, and adenosarcomas, together with 15 smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), 52 benign uterine stromal tumors, and 41 normal uterine tissues. The potential therapeutic value of the most promising target, p-S6(S240), was tested in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) leiomyosarcoma models. Results: In uterine sarcomas and STUMPs, S6S240 phosphorylation (reflecting mTOR pathway activation) was associated with higher grade (P = 0.001) and recurrence (P = 0.019), as shown by logistic regression. In addition, p-S6(S240) correlated with shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.034). Treatment with a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor significantly reduced tumor growth in 4 of 5 leiomyosarcoma PDX models (with tumor shrinkage in 2 models). Remarkably, the 4 responding models showed basal p-S6(S240) expression, whereas the nonresponding model was scored as negative, suggesting a role for p-S6(S240) in response prediction to PI3K/mTOR inhibition. Conclusions: Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition represents an effective therapeutic strategy in uterine leiomyosarcoma, and p-S6(S240) expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to treatment. (C)2017 AACR.
  • Haltia, Ulla-Maija; Andersson, Noora; Yadav, Bhagwan; Farkkila, Anniina; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Kankainen, Matti; Tang, Jing; Butzow, Ralf; Riska, Annika; Leminen, Arto; Heikinheimo, Markku; Kallioniemi, Olli; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero; Anttonen, Mikko (2017)
    Objective. Resistance to standard chemotherapy poses a major clinical problem in the treatment of ovarian cancer patients. Adult-type granulosa cell tumor (AGCT) is a unique ovarian cancer subtype for which efficient treatment options are lacking in advanced disease. To this end, systematic drug response and transcriptomics profiling were performed to uncover new therapy options for AGCTs. Methods. The responses of three primary and four recurrent AGCTs to 230 anticancer compounds were screened in vitro using a systematic drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) platform, coupled with mRNA sequencing. The responses of the AGCTs were compared with those of human granulosa luteal cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results. Patient-derived AGCT cells showed selective sensitivity to the Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib. A combination of either dasatinib or an mTOR-inhibitor everolimus with paclitaxel resulted in synergistic inhibition of AGCT cell viability. The key kinase targets of dasatinib and members of the mTOR pathway were constantly expressed at mRNA and protein levels, indicating multikinase signal addictions in the AGCT cells. Transcriptomic characterization of the tumors revealed no known oncogenic mutations, suggesting that the drug sensitivity of AGCTs was rather conveyed by selective target expression. Conclusions. We used a systematic functional approach to reveal novel treatment options for a unique gynecological cancer. The selective synergy found between taxanes and dasatinib or mTOR inhibitors warrants further clinical investigations of these combinations in relapsed or aggressive AGCTs and demonstrate that high throughput drug screening and molecular profiling can provide an effective approach to uncover new therapy options. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.