Browsing by Subject "MAMMALIAN-CELLS"

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  • Rantala, Juha K.; Makela, Rami; Aaltola, Anna-Riina; Laasola, Petra; Mpindi, John-Patrick; Nees, Matthias; Saviranta, Petri; Kallioniemi, Olli (2011)
  • Verbeeren, Jens; Verma, Bhupendra; Niemela, Elina H.; Yap, Karen; Makeyev, Eugene V.; Frilander, Mikko J. (2017)
    Cellular homeostasis of the minor spliceosome is regulated by a negative feed-back loop that targets U11-48K and U11/U12-65K mRNAs encoding essential components of the U12-type intron-specific U11/U12 di-snRNP. This involves interaction of the U11 snRNP with an evolutionarily conserved splicing enhancer giving rise to unproductive mRNA isoforms. In the case of U11/U12-65K, this mechanism controls the length of the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). We show that this process is dynamically regulated in developing neurons and some other cell types, and involves a binary switch between translation-competent mRNAs with a short 3'UTR to non-productive isoforms with a long 3'UTR that are retained in the nucleus or/and spliced to the downstream amylase locus. Importantly, the choice between these alternatives is determined by alternative terminal exon definition events regulated by conserved U12-and U2-type 50 splice sites as well as sequence signals used for pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation. We additionally show that U11 snRNP binding to the U11/U12-65K mRNA species with a long 3'UTR is required for their nuclear retention. Together, our studies uncover an intricate molecular circuitry regulating the abundance of a key spliceosomal protein and shed new light on the mechanisms limiting the export of non-productively spliced mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
  • Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide (2017)
    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples, consisting of a variety of primary cells, tissues, cell lines, and time series samples during cell activation and development, were subjected to a uniform pipeline of CAGE data production. The analysis pipeline started by measuring RNA extracts to assess their quality, and continued to CAGE library production by using a robotic or a manual workflow, single molecule sequencing, and computational processing to generate frequencies of transcription initiation. Resulting data represents the consequence of transcriptional regulation in each analyzed state of mammalian cells. Non-overlapping peaks over the CAGE profiles, approximately 200,000 and 150,000 peaks for the human and mouse genomes, were identified and annotated to provide precise location of known promoters as well as novel ones, and to quantify their activities.
  • Scifo, Enzo; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Debski, Janusz; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Kesti, Tapio; Dadlez, Michal; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc H.; Jalanko, Anu; Lalowski, Maciej (2013)
  • Kainu, Ville; Hermansson, Martin; Somerharju, Pentti (2010)
  • Steringer, Julia P.; Lange, Sascha; Cujova, Sabina; Sachi, Radek; Poojari, Chetan; Lolicato, Fabio; Beutel, Oliver; Mueller, Hans-Michael; Unger, Sebastian; Coskun, Uenal; Honigmann, Alf; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Hof, Martin; Freund, Christian; Nickel, Walter (2017)
    FGF2 is secreted from cells by an unconventional secretory pathway. This process is mediated by direct translocation across the plasma membrane. Here, we define the minimal molecular machinery required for FGF2 membrane translocation in a fully reconstituted inside-out vesicle system. FGF2 membrane translocation is thermodynamically driven by PI(4,5)P-2-induced membrane insertion of FGF2 oligomers. The latter serve as dynamic translocation intermediates of FGF2 with a subunit number in the range of 8-12 FGF2 molecules. Vectorial translocation of FGF2 across the membrane is governed by sequential and mutually exclusive interactions with PI(4,5)P-2 and heparan sulfates on opposing sides of the membrane. Based on atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a mechanism that drives PI(4,5)P-2 dependent oligomerization of FGF2. Our combined findings establish a novel type of self-sustained protein translocation across membranes revealing the molecular basis of the unconventional secretory pathway of FGF2.
  • Pfisterer, Simon G.; Peranen, Johan; Ikonen, Elina (2016)
    Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the present information related to the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes, with a focus on Nieman-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cholesterol delivery toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We review data suggesting that several pathways may operate in parallel, including membrane transport routes and membrane contact sites (MCSs). Recent findings There is increasing appreciation that MCSs provide an important mechanism for intermembrane lipid transfer. In late endosome-ER contacts, three protein bridges involving oxysterol binding protein related protein (ORP) 1L-vesicle associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) D3-VAP and ORP5-NPC1 proteins have been reported. How much they contribute to the flux of LDL-cholesterol to the ER is currently open. Studies for lipid transfer via MCSs have been most advanced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, a new sterol-binding protein family conserved between yeast and man was identified. Its members localize at MCSs and were named lipid transfer protein anchored at membrane contact sites (Lam) proteins. In yeast, sterol transfer between the ER and the yeast lysosome may be facilitated by a Lam protein. Summary Increasing insights into the role of MCSs in directional sterol delivery between membranes propose that they might provide routes for LDL-cholesterol transfer to the ER. Future work should reveal which specific contacts may operate for this, and how they are controlled by cholesterol homeostatic machineries.
  • Rämö, Olli; Kumar, Darshan; Gucciardo, Erika; Joensuu, Merja; Saarekas, Maiju; Vihinen, Helena; Belevich, Ilya; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Qian, Kui; Auvinen, Petri; Jokitalo, Eija (2016)
    Reticulons (RTNs) are a large family of membrane associated proteins with various functions. NOGO-A/RTN4A has a well-known function in limiting neurite outgrowth and restricting the plasticity of the mammalian central nervous system. On the other hand, Reticulon 4 proteins were shown to be involved in forming and maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) tubules. Using comparative transcriptome analysis and qPCR, we show here that NOGO-B/RTN4B and NOGO-A/RTN4A are simultaneously expressed in cultured epithelial, fibroblast and neuronal cells. Electron tomography combined with immunolabelling reveal that both isoforms localize preferably to curved membranes on ER tubules and sheet edges. Morphological analysis of cells with manipulated levels of NOGO-B/RTN4B revealed that it is required for maintenance of normal ER shape; over-expression changes the sheet/tubule balance strongly towards tubules and causes the deformation of the cell shape while depletion of the protein induces formation of large peripheral ER sheets.
  • Kentala, Henriikka; Koponen, Annika; Vihinen, Helena; Pirhonen, Juho; Liebisch, Gerhard; Pataj, Zoltan; Kivelä, Annukka; Li, Shiqian; Karhinen, Leena; Jääskeläinen, Eeva; Andrews, Robert; Meriläinen, Leena; Matysik, Silke; Ikonen, Elina; Zhou, You; Jokitalo, Eija; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2018)
    ORP2 is a ubiquitously expressed OSBP-related protein previously implicated in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)lipid droplet (LD) contacts, triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism, cholesterol transport, adrenocortical steroidogenesis, and actin-dependent cell dynamics. Here, we characterize the role of ORP2 in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by employing ORP2-knockout (KO) hepatoma cells (HuH7) generated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The ORP2-KO and control HuH7 cells were subjected to RNA sequencing, analyses of Akt signaling, carbohydrate and TG metabolism, the extracellular acidification rate, and the lipidome, as well as to transmission electron microscopy. The loss of ORP2 resulted in a marked reduction of active phosphorylated Akt(Ser473) and its target Glycogen synthase kinase 3(Ser9), consistent with defective Akt signaling. ORP2 was found to form a physical complex with the key controllers of Akt activity, Cdc37, and Hsp90, and to co-localize with Cdc37 and active Akt(Ser473) at lamellipodial plasma membrane regions, in addition to the previously reported ER-LD localization. ORP2-KO reduced glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, mRNA-encoding glycolytic enzymes, and SREBP-1 target gene expression, and led to defective TG synthesis and storage. ORP2-KO did not reduce but rather increased ER-LD contacts under basal culture conditions and interfered with their expansion upon fatty acid loading. Together with our recently published work (Kentala et al. in FASEB J 32:1281-1295, 2018), this study identifies ORP2 as a new regulatory nexus of Akt signaling, cellular energy metabolism, actin cytoskeletal function, cell migration, and proliferation.
  • Levanova, Alesia; Poranen, Minna M. (2018)
    RNA interference (RNAi), which is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from viral genome or its replicative intermediates, is a natural antiviral defense in plants, fungi, and invertebrates. Whether RNAi naturally protects humans from viral invasion is still a matter of debate. Nevertheless, exogenous siRNAs are able to halt viral infection in mammals. The current review critically evaluates the production of antiviral siRNAs, delivery techniques to the infection sites, as well as provides an overview of antiviral siRNAs in clinical trials.
  • Mutso, Margit; Nikonov, Andrei; Pihlak, Arno; Zusinaite, Eva; Viru, Liane; Selyutina, Anastasia; Reintamm, Tonu; Kelve, Merike; Saarma, Mart; Karelson, Mati; Merits, Andres (2015)
    The inhibitory potency of an antisense oligonucleotide depends critically on its design and the accessibility of its target site. Here, we used an RNA interference-guided approach to select antisense oligonucleotide target sites in the coding region of the highly structured hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genome. We modified the conventional design of an antisense oligonucleotide containing locked nucleic acid (LNA) residues at its termini (LNA/DNA gapmer) by inserting 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) residues into the central DNA region. Obtained compounds, designed with the aim to analyze the effects of 8-oxo-dG modifications on the antisense oligonucleotides, displayed a unique set of properties. Compared to conventional LNA/DNA gapmers, the melting temperatures of the duplexes formed by modified LNA/DNA gapmers and DNA or RNA targets were reduced by approximately 1.6-3.3 degrees C per modification. Comparative transfection studies showed that small interfering RNA was the most potent HCV RNA replication inhibitor (effective concentration 50 (EC50) : 0.13 nM), whereas isosequential standard and modified LNA/DNA gapmers were approximately 50-fold less efficient (EC50 : 5.5 and 7.1 nM, respectively). However, the presence of 8-oxo-dG residues led to a more complete suppression of HCV replication in transfected cells. These modifications did not affect the efficiency of RNase H cleavage of antisense oligonucleotide: RNA duplexes but did alter specificity, triggering the appearance of multiple cleavage products. Moreover, the incorporation of 8-oxo-dG residues increased the stability of antisense oligonucleotides of different configurations in human serum.
  • Pfisterer, Simon; Gateva, Gergana; Horvath, Peter; Pirhonen, Juho; Salo, Veijo T.; Karhinen, Leena; Varjosalo, Markku; Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Lappalainen, Pekka; Ikonen, Elina (2017)
    Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular organelles specialized in triacylglycerol (TG) storage undergoing homotypic clustering and fusion. In non-adipocytic cells with numerous LDs this is balanced by poorly understood droplet dissociation mechanisms. We identify non-muscle myosin IIa (NMIIa/MYH-9) and formin-like 1 (FMNL1) in the LD proteome. NMIIa and actin filaments concentrate around LDs, and form transient foci between dissociating LDs. NMIIa depletion results in decreased LD dissociations, enlarged LDs, decreased hydrolysis and increased storage of TGs. FMNL1 is required for actin assembly on LDs in vitro and for NMIIa recruitment to LDs in cells. We propose a novel acto-myosin structure regulating lipid storage: FMNL1-dependent assembly of myosin II-functionalized actin filaments on LDs facilitates their dissociation, thereby affecting LD surface-to-volume ratio and enzyme accessibility to TGs. In neutrophilic leucocytes from MYH9-related disease patients NMIIa inclusions are accompanied by increased lipid storage in droplets, suggesting that NMIIa dysfunction may contribute to lipid imbalance in man.
  • Halldorsson, Steinar; Li, Sai; Li, Mengqiu; Harlos, Karl; Bowden, Thomas A.; Huiskonen, Juha T. (2018)
    Entry of enveloped viruses relies on insertion of hydrophobic residues of the viral fusion protein into the host cell membrane. However, the intermediate conformations during fusion remain unknown. Here, we address the fusion mechanism of Rift Valley fever virus. We determine the crystal structure of the Gn glycoprotein and fit it with the Gc fusion protein into cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of the virion. Our analysis reveals how the Gn shields the hydrophobic fusion loops of the Gc, preventing premature fusion. Electron cryotomography of virions interacting with membranes under acidic conditions reveals how the fusogenic Gc is activated upon removal of the Gn shield. Repositioning of the Gn allows extension of Gc and insertion of fusion loops in the outer leaflet of the target membrane. These data show early structural transitions that enveloped viruses undergo during host cell entry and indicate that analogous shielding mechanisms are utilized across diverse virus families.
  • Saarikangas, Juha; Caudron, Fabrice (2017)
    Organisms rely on correctly folded proteins to carry out essential functions. Proteinquality controlfactors guard proteostasis and prevent protein misfolding. When quality control fails and in response to diverse stresses, many proteins start to accumulate at specific deposit sites that maintain cellular organization andprotect the functionality of coalescing proteins. These transitions involve dedicated proteins that promote coalescence and are facilitated by endo-membranes and cytoskeletal platforms. Moreover, several proteins make use of weak multivalent interactions or conformational templating to drive the formation of large-scale assemblies. Formation of such assemblies is often associated with a change in biochemical activity that can be used by cells to execute biochemical decisions in a localized manner during development and adaption. Since all assembly types impact cell physiology, their localization and dynamics need to be tightly regulated. Interestingly, at least some of the regulatory mechanisms are shared by functional membrane-less organelles and assemblies of terminally aggregated proteins. Furthermore, constituents of functional assemblies can aggregate and become non-functional during aging. Here we present the current knowledge as to how coalescing protein assemblies are spatially organized in cells and we postulate that failures in their spatial confinement might underscore certain aspects of aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
  • Li, Xuan; Matilainen, Olli; Jin, Congyu; Glover-Cutter, Kira M.; Holmberg, C.I; Blackwell, T. Keith (2011)
  • Paakinaho, Ville; Lempiäinen, Joanna K.; Sigismondo, Gianluca; Niskanen, Einari A.; Malinen, Marjo; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Varjosalo, Markku; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Palvimo, Jorma J. (2021)
    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an essential transcription factor (TF), controlling metabolism, development and immune responses. SUMOylation regulates chromatin occupancy and target gene expression of GR in a locus-selective manner, but the mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Here, we identify the protein network around chromatin-bound GR by using selective isolation of chromatin-associated proteins and show that the network is affected by receptor SUMOylation, with several nuclear receptor coregulators and chromatin modifiers preferring interaction with SUMOylation-deficient GR and proteins implicated in transcriptional repression preferring interaction with SUMOylation-competent GR. This difference is reflected in our chromatin binding, chromatin accessibility and gene expression data, showing that the SUMOylation-deficient GR is more potent in binding and opening chromatin at glucocorticoid-regulated enhancers and inducing expression of target loci. Blockage of SUMOylation by a SUMO-activating enzyme inhibitor (ML-792) phenocopied to a large extent the consequences of GR SUMOylation deficiency on chromatin binding and target gene expression. Our results thus show that SUMOylation modulates the specificity of GR by regulating its chromatin protein network and accessibility at GR-bound enhancers. We speculate that many other SUMOylated TFs utilize a similar regulatory mechanism.