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  • Junno, Niina Marjut; Koivisto, Emilia Anna-Liisa; Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio; Malehmir, Alireza; Wijns, Chris; Montonen, Markku (2020)
    The Kevitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, located within the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in northern Finland, hosts a large, disseminated Ni-Cu-PGE sulphide deposit. A three-dimensional seismic reflection survey was conducted over the Kevitsa intrusion in 2010 primarily for open-pit mine planning and for deep mineral exploration purposes. In the Kevitsa three-dimensional seismic data, laterally continuous reflections are observed within a constrained region within the intrusion. In earlier studies, it has been suggested that this internal reflectivity mainly originates from contacts between the tops and more sulphide-rich bottoms of smaller scale, internally differentiated magma layers that represent a spectrum of olivine pyroxenites. However, this interpretation is not unequivocally supported by the borehole data. In this study, data mining, namely the Self-Organizing Map analysis, of extensive Kevitsa borehole data is used to investigate the possible causes for the observed internal reflectivity within the Kevitsa intrusion. Modelling of the effect of mineralization and alteration on the reflectivity properties of Kevitsa rock types, based on average modal compositions of the rock types, is presented to support the results of the Self-Organizing Map analysis. Based on the results, we suggest that the seismic reflectivity observed within the Kevitsa intrusion can possibly be attributed to alteration, and may also be linked to the presence of sulphide minerals.
  • Singh, Brij; Malinowski, Michal; Hlousek, Felix; Koivisto, Emilia; Heinonen, Suvi; Hellwig, Olaf; Buske, Stefan; Chamarczuk, Michal; Juurela, Sanna (2019)
    A 10.5 km(2) 3D seismic survey was acquired over the Kylylahti mine area (Outokumpu mineral district, eastern Finland) as a part of the COGITO-MIN (COst-effective Geophysical Imaging Techniques for supporting Ongoing MINeral exploration in Europe) project, which aimed at the development of cost-effective geophysical imaging methods for mineral exploration. The cost-effectiveness in our case was related to the fact that an active-source 3D seismic survey was accomplished by using the receiver spread originally designed for a 3D passive survey. The 3D array recorded Vibroseis and dynamite shots from an active-source 2D seismic survey, from a vertical seismic profiling experiment survey, as well as some additional "random" Vibroseis and dynamite shots made to complement the 3D source distribution. The resulting 3D survey was characterized by irregular shooting geometry and relatively large receiver intervals (50 m). Using this dataset, we evaluate the effectiveness of the standard time-imaging approach (post-stack and pre-stack time migration) compared to depth imaging (standard and specialized Kirchhoff pre-stack depth migration, KPreSDM). Standard time-domain processing and imaging failed to convincingly portray the first 1500 m of the subsurface, which was the primary interest of the survey. With a standard KPreSDM, we managed to obtain a good image of the base of the Kylylahti formation bordering the extent of the mineralization-hosting Outokumpu assemblage rocks, but otherwise the image was very noisy in the shallower section. The specialized KPreSDM approach (i.e., coherency-based Fresnel volume migration) resulted in a much cleaner image of the shallow, steeply dipping events, as well as some additional deeper reflectors, possibly representing repetition of the contact between the Outokumpu assemblage and the surrounding Kalevian metasediments at depth.
  • Riedel, Marko; Cosma, Calin; Enescu, Nicoleta; Koivisto, Emilia; Komminaho, Kari; Vaittinen, Katri; Malinowski, Michal (2018)
    Seismic reflection methods have been used for the exploration of mineral resources for several decades. However, despite their unmatched spatial resolution and depth penetration, they only have played a minor role in mineral discoveries so far. Instead, mining and exploration companies have traditionally focused more on the use of potential field, electric and electromagnetic methods. In this context, we present a case study of an underground Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) experiment, which was designed to image a (semi-)massive sulfide deposit located in the Kylylahti polymetallic mine in eastern Finland. For the measurement, we used a conventional VSP with three-component geophones and a novel fiber-optic Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) system. Both systems were deployed in boreholes located nearby the target sulfide deposit, and used in combination with an active seismic source that was fired from within the underground tunnels. With this setup, we successfully recorded seismic reflections from the deposit and its nearby geological contrasts. The recording systems provided data with a good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. In addition to the measurements, we generated a realistic synthetic dataset based on a detailed geological model derived from extensive drilling data and petrophysical laboratory analysis. Specific processing and imaging of the acquired and synthetic datasets yielded high-resolution reflectivity images. Joint analysis of these images and cross-validation with lithological logging data from 135 nearby boreholes led to successful interpretation of key geological contacts including the target sulfide mineralization. In conclusion, our experiment demonstrates the value of in-mine VSP measurements for detailed resource delineation in a complex geological setting. In particular, we emphasize the potential benefit of using fiber-optic DAS systems, which provide reflection data at sufficient quality with less logistical effort and a higher acquisition rate. This amounts to a lower total acquisition cost, which makes DAS a valuable tool for future mineral exploration activities.