Browsing by Subject "MATERNAL DEPRESSION"

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  • Czamara, Darina; Dieckmann, Linda; Roeh, Simone; Kraemer, Sarah; Rancourt, Rebecca C.; Sammallahti, Sara; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri; Henrich, Wolfgang; Plagemann, Andreas; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Braun, Thorsten; Entringer, Sonja (2021)
    Background Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a pivotal role in fetal programming. Antenatal treatment with synthetic GCs (sGCs) in individuals in danger of preterm labor is common practice. Adverse short- and long-term effects of antenatal sGCs have been reported, but their effects on placental epigenetic characteristics have never been systematically studied in humans. Results We tested the association between exposure to the sGC betamethasone (BET) and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) in 52 exposed cases and 84 gestational-age-matched controls. We fine-mapped associated loci using targeted bisulfite sequencing. The association of placental DNAm with gene expression and co-expression analysis on implicated genes was performed in an independent cohort including 494 placentas. Exposure to BET was significantly associated with lower placenta DNAm at an enhancer of FKBP5. FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 51) is a co-chaperone that modulates glucocorticoid receptor activity. Lower DNAm at this enhancer site was associated with higher expression of FKBP5 and a co-expressed gene module. This module is enriched for genes associated with preeclampsia and involved in inflammation and immune response. Conclusions Our findings suggest that BET exposure during pregnancy associates with few but lasting changes in placental DNAm and may promote a gene expression profile associated with placental dysfunction and increased inflammation. This may represent a pathway mediating GC-associated negative long-term consequences and health outcomes in offspring.
  • Malm, Heli; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian W.; Weissman, Myrna; Wickramaratne, Priya; Artama, Miia; Gingrich, Jay A.; Sourander, Andre (2016)
    Objective: To investigate the impact of gestational exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on offspring neurodevelopment. Method: This is a cohort study using national register data in Finland between the years 1996 and 2010. Pregnant women and their offspring were categorized into 4 groups: SSRI exposed (n = 15,729); exposed to psychiatric disorder, no antidepressants (n = 9,651); exposed to SSRIs only before pregnancy (n = 7,980); and unexposed to antidepressants and psychiatric disorders (n = 31,394). We investigated the cumulative incidence of offspring diagnoses of depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for the 4 groups from birth to 14 years, adjusting for confounders. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression among offspring exposed prenatally to SSRIs was 8.2% (95% CI = 3.1-13.3%) by age 14.9 years, compared with 1.9% (95% CI = 0.9-2.9%) in the psychiatric disorder, no medication group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.12-2.82; p=.02) and to 2.8% (95% CI = 1.4-4.3%) in the SSRI discontinued group (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.14-2.97; p=.01). Rates of anxiety, ASD, and ADHD diagnoses were comparable to rates in offspring of mothers with a psychiatric disorder but no medication during pregnancy. Comparing SSRI exposed to unexposed individuals, the HRs were significantly elevated for each outcome. Conclusion: Prenatal SSRI exposure was associated with increased rates of depression diagnoses in early adolescence but not with ASD or ADHD. Until confirmed, these findings must be balanced against the substantial adverse consequences of untreated maternal depression.
  • Toffol, Elena; Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Lahti, Jari; Tuovinen, Soile; Lipsanen, Jari; Villa, Pia M.; Laivuori, Hannele; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Whether infant regulatory behavior problems already in the first month of life indicate an increased risk of childhood neurobehavioral problems, and whether maternal depression in the postpartum and early childhood underpins these associations remain unclear. Altogether, 2049-2364 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Neonatal Perception Inventory on regulatory behavior problems at the infant's age of 15.6 days (SD 3.2, range 1-30), the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised on temperament at 6.5 months (SD 0.9, range 4.2-12.4), and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 on developmental milestones and the Child Behavior Checklist on behavioral problems at 3.5 years (SD 0.7, range 1.9-6.0). Maternal depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (infancy follow-ups) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (childhood follow-up). Father-rated infant temperament and paternal depressive symptoms were also available (n = 1474). Higher levels of infant regulatory behavior problems predicted higher levels of mother- and father-rated negative affectivity temperament (0.13 SD units per SD unit, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17; and 0.09, 0.04-0.14, respectively), lower levels of mother-rated orienting/regulation temperament (- 0.09, - 0.13 to - 0.05) and problem-solving skills (- 0.12, - 0.21 to - 0.04), and higher levels of Externalizing (0.07, 0.03-0.11) and Total behavioral problems (0.07, 0.03-0.11). Regulatory behaviors partially mediated the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Regulatory behavior problems already during the first month of life predict neurobehavioral outcomes, and partially mediate the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Our study may inform design of interventions aimed at timely prevention in children at risk.
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Merjonen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    We examined the intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship qualities in a population-based Finnish sample of 1418 participants (G2) and their mothers (G1). At baseline, G1 (Mage=38) reported qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 (age range 3-18). After 28years, G2 (Mage=39) rated the qualities of the parent-child relationship regarding their own children using the same questionnaire. Emotional warmth and acceptance were transmitted across generations even after controlling for demographic and family characteristics in both generations. The transmission was stronger for emotional warmth than acceptance. For emotional warmth, intergenerational transmission was stronger for men than women. The findings provide evidence for the long-term transmission of parenting quality across generations.
  • Liskola, Krista; Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Parental depressive symptoms have shown to be associated with offspring depression but much of the research has been focused on maternal depression. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which depressive symptoms of both parents associate with offspring depressive symptoms and whether social factors mediate these associations using data from adopted children with no shared genetic background. Data were derived from the Finnish Adoption survey study (a subsample of adopted children aged between 9 and 12years, n=548). Parental depressive symptoms were measured using short version of the General Health Questionnaire and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adoptees. Paternal depressive symptoms were related to the total CDI (B=0.33, p=0.05) and two dimensions of offspring depressive symptoms: negative mood (B=0.10, p=0.03) and interpersonal problems (B=0.06, p=0.009). These associations remained significant even when adjusted for child's age and gender, age at adoption, type of placement before adoption, continent of birth and adoptive family's SES. No associations were found between maternal and any dimensions of offspring depressive symptoms. No information about the mental health of biological parents was available. We interpret the results as demonstrating that intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms is not solely related to shared genes. Also, the results highlight the association of paternal depression with offspring depressive symptoms.
  • Salo, S. J.; Flykt, M.; Mäkelä, Jukka; Biringen, Z.; Kalland, M.; Pajulo, Marjukka; Punamaki, R. L. (2019)
    Aim: This randomised control trial (RCT) study examined the effectiveness of a mentalisation-based perinatal group intervention, Nurture and Play (NaP), in improving mother–infant interaction quality and maternal reflective functioning and in decreasing depressive symptoms. Background: Few preventive prenatal interventions have been developed for primary health care settings for mothers with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, previous prenatal intervention studies have only concentrated on reducing depressive symptoms and have not directly addressed enhancing optimal parenting qualities. Methods: The participants were 45 pregnant women with depressive symptoms. Women in the randomly assigned intervention group (n = 24) participated in the manualised, short-term NaP intervention group from pregnancy until the baby’s age of seven months, whereas control group women received treatment as usual (TAU). Maternal emotional availability (EA), reflective functioning (RF) and depressive symptoms were measured before the intervention and at the infants’ 12 months of age, and changes were evaluated using repeated measure analyses of variances (ANOVAs). Findings: The results showed that the intervention group displayed higher maternal sensitivity and RF and more reduction in depressive symptoms than the control group when babies were 12 months old. These findings provide preliminary support for the effectiveness of the NaP intervention.
  • Kiviruusu, Olli Hannu; Pietikäinen, Johanna T; Kylliäinen, Anneli; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Marttunen, Mauri; Paunio, Tiina; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2020)
    Objectives This study investigated trajectories of mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms from prenatal to 24 months postpartum. Prenatal correlates of the trajectories were also examined. Methods Mothers (N = 1670) and fathers (N = 1604) from the Finnish CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort, reported depressive symptoms at 32nd pregnancy week and 3, 8, and 24 months postpartum using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, 10-item). Profile analysis was used to group participants according to their longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms. Prenatal predictors (sociodemographic, health, substance use, sleep, and stress related factors, family atmosphere) of depressive symptom trajectories as well as association between parents’ trajectories were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Results For both mothers and fathers, a solution with three stable depressive symptom trajectories (low: 63.1% mothers and 74.9% fathers; moderate: 28.1% and 22.6%; high: 8.8% and 2.6%) was considered the best fitting and most informative. Insomnia, earlier depression, anxiousness, stressfulness, and poor family atmosphere predicted the moderate and high (compared to low) depressive symptom trajectories among both mothers and fathers in multivariate analyses. Mother's higher depressive symptom trajectory was significantly associated with father's higher symptom trajectory (p < 0.001). Limitations Number of cases in the high depressive symptom trajectory group among fathers was low. Conclusions Maternal and paternal depressive symptom trajectories from prenatal period up to two years postpartum seem stable, indicating the chronic nature of perinatal depressive symptoms. Mothers’ and fathers’ trajectories are associated with each other and their strongest predictors are common to both.