Browsing by Subject "MATURITY"

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  • Stevenson, Nathan J.; Oberdorfer, Lisa; Tataranno, Maria-Luisa; Breakspear, Michael; Colditz, Paul B.; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Roberts, James A. (2020)
    Objective A major challenge in the care of preterm infants is the early identification of compromised neurological development. While several measures are routinely used to track anatomical growth, there is a striking lack of reliable and objective tools for tracking maturation of early brain function; a cornerstone of lifelong neurological health. We present a cot-side method for measuring the functional maturity of the newborn brain based on routinely available neurological monitoring with electroencephalography (EEG). Methods We used a dataset of 177 EEG recordings from 65 preterm infants to train a multivariable prediction of functional brain age (FBA) from EEG. The FBA was validated on an independent set of 99 EEG recordings from 42 preterm infants. The difference between FBA and postmenstrual age (PMA) was evaluated as a predictor for neurodevelopmental outcome. Results The FBA correlated strongly with the PMA of an infant, with a median prediction error of less than 1 week. Moreover, individual babies follow well-defined individual trajectories. The accuracy of the FBA applied to the validation set was statistically equivalent to the training set accuracy. In a subgroup of infants with repeated EEG recordings, a persistently negative predicted age difference was associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Interpretation The FBA enables the tracking of functional neurodevelopment in preterm infants. This establishes proof of principle for growth charts for brain function, a new tool to assist clinical management and identify infants who will benefit most from early intervention.
  • Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Hedeker, Donald; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Onywera, Vincent; Lambert, Estelle V.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Sarmiento, Olga; Matsudo, Victor; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Zhao, Pei; Hu, Gang; Olds, Timothy; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to describe children's daily compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations across a week in different parts of the world, and to identify individual-and school-level correlates that may explain differences in daily MVPA compliance. The sample included 6553 children aged 9-11 years from 12 countries, and multilevel statistical analyses were used, including both child-and school-level variables. Most children did not comply with the MVPA guidelines on a daily basis: Chinese children complied the least, whereas Finnish, Australian, Colombian, UK, and Kenyan children complied the most. Boys (rate ratio [RR] = 1.47) and children with higher unhealthy diet scores (RR = 1.08) complied more, but overweight/obese children (RR = 0.81), earlier maturing children (RR = 0.93), and those who spent more time in screen activities (RR = 0.98) and sleeping (RR = 0.96) had the lowest compliance. At the school level, children with access to playground or sport equipment (RR = 0.88, for both) tended to comply less, whereas those with access to a gymnasium outside the school hours complied more with the MVPA guidelines (RR = 1.14). Significant between-country differences in children's daily MVPA compliance were observed, reflecting not only site characteristics, but also the importance of individual traits and local school contexts.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ranta, Helena; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick (2019)
    Estimation of an individual's age has important applications in forensics. In young individuals, it often relies on separate evaluations of permanent teeth (PT) and third molars (TM) development. Here, we analysed the age prediction performance of combined information from PT and TM in an unusual sample of healthy Somalis, born and living in Finland. PT development was staged according to Demirjian et al. (Hum Biol, 1973) and TM development according to Kohler et al. (Ann Anat, 1994), using panoramic radiographs from 803 subjects (397 males, 406 females) aged 3-23years. A sex-specific Bayesian age-estimation model for the multivariate distribution of the stages conditional on age was fitted on PT, TM and PT and TM combined. The age-estimation performances were validated and quantified. The approach combining PT and TM only overestimated age with an ME of -0.031years in males and -0.011years in females, indicating the best age prediction performance.
  • Metsäniitty, Mari; Waltimo-Siren, Janna; Ranta, Helena; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick (2018)
    AimThe aim of the current study was to retrospectively collect dental panoramic radiographs from Somali children living in Finland, to use the radiographic data to develop a new age estimation model based on the model established by Willems et al. (J Forensic Sci 46(4):893-895, 2001), and to compare the age prediction performances of the Willems et al. model (WM) and the newly developed model.Material and methodsDental panoramic radiographs from 808 healthy Somalis born in Finland were selected. The development of the seven left mandibular permanent teeth, from the central incisor to the second molar, was staged according to Demirjian et al. (Hum Biol 45(2):211-227, 1973). Radiographs with all listed permanent teeth completely developed were excluded. The studied sample consisted of 635 subjects (311 females, 324 males) ranging in age from 4 to 18years. Kappa and weighted Kappa statistics were used to quantify intra- and inter-observer agreement in stage allocation. The collected dataset was used to validate the WM, constructed on a Belgian Caucasian reference sample, and to establish a Somali-specific age estimation model (SM) based on the WM. Both models were validated and their age prediction performances quantified using mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE).ResultsThe SM resulted in a slight underestimation of age when the sex groups were analysed separately or combined, with ME varying between 0.04 (standard deviation (SD) 1.01) and 0.05 (SD 1.04) years, MAE between 0.77 and 0.80years and RMSE between 1.01 and 1.04years. The WM statistically significantly underestimated the age of females, with an ME of 0.20 (SD 1.01) years (p=0.0006). For males, and for females and males combined, no statistically significant ME was observed.ConclusionThe WM and SM were similar in their age prediction performances, and the use of the WM in dental age assessment in the Somali population is justified.
  • Prokkola, Jenni M.; Åsheim, Eirik R.; Morozov, Sergey; Bangura, Paul; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Primmer, Craig R.; Aykanat, Tutku (2022)
    A better understanding of the genetic and phenotypic architecture underlying life-history variation is a longstanding aim in biology. Theories suggest energy metabolism determines life-history variation by modulating resource acquisition and allocation trade-offs, but the genetic underpinnings of the relationship and its dependence on ecological conditions have rarely been demonstrated. The strong genetic determination of age-at-maturity by two unlinked genomic regions (vgll3 and six6) makes Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) an ideal model to address these questions. Using more than 250 juveniles in common garden conditions, we quantified the covariation between metabolic phenotypes-standard and maximum metabolic rates (SMR and MMR), and aerobic scope (AS)-and the life-history genomic regions, and tested if food availability modulates the relationships. We found that the early maturation genotype in vgll3 was associated with higher MMR and consequently AS. Additionally, MMR exhibited physiological epistasis; it was decreased when late maturation genotypes co-occurred in both genomic regions. Contrary to our expectation, the life-history genotypes had no effects on SMR. Furthermore, food availability had no effect on the genetic covariation, suggesting a lack of genotype-by-environment interactions. Our results provide insights on the key organismal processes that link energy use at the juvenile stage to age-at-maturity, indicating potential mechanisms by which metabolism and life-history can coevolve.
  • Huuskonen, Arto; Jaakkola, Seija; Manni, Katariina (2020)
    Total mixed rations (TMR) based on grass silage (GS), triticale silage (TS), mixture of GS and TS, barley silage (BS) and mixture of GS and BS were fed to fifty Hereford (HF) and fifty Charolais (CH) bulls. The proportion (g kg(-1) dry matter [DM]) of the silages in the TMRs were as follows: (1) GS (600); (2) TS (600); (3) GS (300) and TS (300); (4) BS (600); (5) GS (300) and BS (300). Concentrate proportion was 400 g kg(-1) DM. According to feed analyses, the GS had 15 and 8% higher metabolizable energy (ME) concentration as well as 51 and 49% higher crude protein (CP) concentration compared to TS and BS, respectively. Average DM intake (DMI) on TS and BS containing diets was higher compared to GS as a sole forage (p=0.001). Compared to the TS based rations the use of BS rations increased daily DMI by 5% (p
  • Debes, Paul; Piavchenko, Nikolai; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Ovaskainen, Outi; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E.; Parre, Noora; Aykanat, Tutku; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2021)
    Sexual maturation timing is a life-history trait central to the balance between mortality and reproduction. Maturation may be triggered when an underlying compound trait, called liability, exceeds a threshold. In many different species and especially fishes, this liability is approximated by growth and body condition. However, environmental vs. genetic contributions either directly or via growth and body condition to maturation timing remain unclear. Uncertainty exists also because the maturation process can reverse this causality and itself affect growth and body condition. In addition, disentangling the contributions of polygenic and major loci can be important. In many fishes, males mature before females, enabling the study of associations between male maturation and maturation-unbiased female liability traits. Using 40 Atlantic salmon families, longitudinal common-garden experimentation, and quantitative genetic analyses, we disentangled environmental from polygenic and major locus (vgll3) effects on male maturation, and sex-specific growth and condition. We detected polygenic heritabilities for maturation, growth, and body condition, and vgll3 effects on maturation and body condition but not on growth. Longitudinal patterns for sex-specific phenotypic liability, and for genetic variances and correlations between sexes suggested that early growth and condition indeed positively affected maturation initiation. However, towards spawning time, causality appeared reversed for males whereby maturation affected growth negatively and condition positively via both the environmental and genetic effects. Altogether, the results indicate that growth and condition are useful traits to study liability for maturation initiation, but only until maturation alters their expression, and that vgll3 contributes to maturation initiation via condition.
  • Lappalainen, Jyrki; Malinen, Tommi; Vinni, Mika (2021)
    An accurate estimation of growth is crucial for any fish species that is a target in fishery. We applied a biphasic Lester model for pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) population that is a slow-growing one. In this model, age at maturity divide the growth into immature and matuire phases. Logistic regression models showed that both age and length were significant in males and females when using maturity as a dependent variable, and both of these variables differed between sexes. To estimate how the changes in used age at maturity affect the Lester model parameters, the effects of ages from 10% to 90% probability of maturity were analysed. The gonadosomatic index of males (max. 2%) and females (max. 8.6%) was used to select Lester models that also gave low estimates for the investments in reproduction (g). Low g values were found in the Lester models for ages from 60% to 90% probability of maturity in males, and from 30% to 70% in females.
  • Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2020)
    Abstract In species with complex life cycles, life history theory predicts that fitness is affected by conditions encountered in previous life history stages. Here, we use a four-year pedigree to investigate if time spent in two distinct life history stages has sex-specific reproductive fitness consequences in anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We determined the amount of years spent in fresh water as juveniles (freshwater age, FW, measured in years), and years spent in the marine environment as adults (sea age, SW, measured in sea winters) on 264 sexually mature adults collected on a river spawning ground. We then estimated reproductive fitness as the number of offspring (reproductive success) and the number of mates (mating success) using genetic parentage analysis (>5000 offspring). Sea age is significantly and positively correlated with reproductive and mating success of both sexes whereby older and larger individuals gained the highest reproductive fitness benefits (females: 62.2% increase in offspring/SW and 34.8% increase in mate number/SW; males: 201.9% offspring/SW and 60.3% mates/SW). Younger freshwater age was significantly related to older sea age and thus increased reproductive fitness, but only among females (females: -33.9% offspring/FW and -32.4% mates/FW). This result implies that females can obtain higher reproductive fitness by transitioning to the marine environment earlier. In contrast, male mating and reproductive success was unaffected by freshwater age and more males returned at a younger age than females despite the reproductive fitness advantage of later sea age maturation. Our results show that the timing of transitions between juvenile and adult phases has a sex-specific consequence on female reproductive fitness, demonstrating a life-history trade-off between maturation and reproduction in wild Atlantic salmon.