Browsing by Subject "MEAT"

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  • Törmä, K.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M.; Lunden, J. (2019)
    Small-scale slaughterhouses (SHs) face many challenges, not least due to the requirements of food safety legislation. Food business operators' (FBOs') own-check system is very important for food safety, but its proper implementation can be quite difficult and laborious for small-scale SHs. In the European Union, the importance not only of food safety but also facilitation of local food production, including small-scale slaughtering, is highlighted. The aim of our study was to assess compliance with legislation of own-check systems, including six own-check programmes and HACCP, in small-scale SHs. The FBOs' opinions of the implementation of own-check systems were also sought to elucidate possible obstacles in implementation. Our results showed that the best compliance in own-check programmes was achieved in temperature of storage rooms and traceability. FBOs also evaluated these programmes as necessary. However, FBOs' perceived necessity of own-check programmes did not always lead to compliance, as was the case with labelling and HACCP. Instead, in HACCP laboriousness and compliance showed a negative correlation (p <0.05). In addition to laboriousness, costs of own-check programmes, specifically concerning microbiological sampling requirements, appeared to influence compliance, with many of the small-scale SHs poorly following sampling requirements. FBOs also noted the high costs of the non-edible by-product programme. Moreover, the results show that official veterinarians' assessment of compliance was significantly higher than that of the researcher, which warrants further investigation. This study reveals that many small-scale SHs in Finland struggle with food safety requirements. Amendments of some of the requirements to ease the burden of FBOs are proposed. HACCP in particular is suggested to be simplified. In addition, ways to improve food safety and official control in small-scale SHs are discussed.
  • Vartiainen, Outi; Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Niva, Mari; Väisänen, Pertti (2020)
    Introducing and increasing the use of insect-based foods as an alternative source of protein has recently aroused academic and commercial interest in Europe. In this research, we examined Finnish consumers' intentions to consume insect-based foods in the near future. As a theoretical background we used Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB), where individuals' intentions to change their behaviour are affected by their attitude (A), subjective norm (SN) and perceived behavioural control (PBC). The data was obtained by using an online questionnaire and convenience sampling. For measuring TPB-components a self-administered 58-item Likert-type questionnaire was used. Food neophobia (FN) was measured by using the food neophobia scale. Respondents' (n=564) intentions to consume insect-based foods were explained significantly (80%) by their A (beta=0.749, P
  • Mohan, Vathsala; Cruz, Cristina D.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Pitman, Andrew R.; Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Rivas, Lucia; Gilpin, Brent; Fletcher, Graham C. (2021)
    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen that causes systemic infection, fetal-placental infection in pregnant women causing abortion and stillbirth and meningoencephalitis in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyse L. monocytogenes from different sources from New Zealand (NZ) and to compare them with international strains. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to study the population structure of the NZ L. monocytogenes isolates and their relationship with the international strains. The NZ isolates formed unique clusters in PFGE, MLST and whole-genome SNP comparisons compared to the international isolates for which data were available. PFGE identified 31 AscI and 29 ApaI PFGE patterns with indistinguishable pulsotypes being present in seafood, horticultural products and environmental samples. Apart from the Asc0002:Apa0002 pulsotype which was distributed across different sources, other pulsotypes were site or factory associated. Wholegenome analysis of 200 randomly selected L. monocytogenes isolates revealed that lineage II dominated the NZ L. monocytogenes populations. MLST comparison of international and NZ isolates with lineage II accounted for 89% (177 of 200) of the total L. monocytogenes population, while the international representation was 45.3% (1674 of 3473). Rarefaction analysis showed that sequence type richness was greater in NZ isolates compared to international trend, however, it should be noted that NZ isolates predominantly came from seafood, horticulture and their respective processing environments or factories, unlike international isolates where there was a good mixture of clinical, food and environmental isolates.
  • Sauvala, Mikaela; Woivalin, Emma; Kivistö, Rauni; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Laaksonen, Sauli; Stephan, Roger; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2021)
    Game birds may carry zoonotic bacteria in their intestines and transmit them to hunters through bird handling or through the handling and consumption of contaminated meat. In this study, the prevalence of foodborne bacteria was screened from game bird faeces and mallard breast meat using PCR. The sampling occurred in southern Finland from August to December during the hunting season. Isolates were characterized by multi-locus sequence typing. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria and Escherichia coli counts were used to assess the microbial contamination of mallard meat. In total, 100 woodpigeon (Columba palumbus), 101 pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), 110 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and 30 teals (Anas crecca) were screened during the hunting season. Additionally, 100 mallard breast meat samples were collected. Campylobacter and Listeria were commonly detected in the faeces and Listeria on mallard meat. L. monocytogenes of sequence types associated with human listeriosis were frequently found in game bird faeces and on mallard meat. Good hygiene during game bird handling, storing the game bird meat frozen, and proper heat treatment are important measures to minimize the health risk for hunters and consumers.
  • Greis, M; Seppa, L; Venalainen, E. R; Lyytikainen, A; Tuorila, H (2018)
    Abstract The impact of iodized table salt on the sensory quality of wheat bread, bologna sausage and pickled cucumber was studied. Table salt (NaCl) content of the products was 1.7, 1.2 and 1.7 g/100 g, respectively. Iodine, added as potassium iodide (KI), was incorporated at levels 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg per kg table salt. Odor, flavor, appearance, and texture were evaluated using deviation from reference descriptive analysis (12 panelists, 4 replicates). Each sample was rated against the non-iodized reference sample (0 mg iodine). The retention of iodine during processing and storage was determined chemically. The iodine level 25 mg/kg, corresponding to current recommendations, did not cause sensory changes in tested products. In sausage, 50 and 100 mg/kg levels were associated with minor changes in texture and color. The maximum retention of iodine was 83% for bread, 98% for sausage, and 51% for cucumber. We did not find any sensory obstacle to using iodized table salt in industrial food production. Due to loss in manufacturing and inadequate intakes, iodine additions higher than currently recommended should be considered.
  • Laaksonen, Sauli; Jokelainen, Pikka; Pusenius, Jyrki; Oksanen, Antti (2017)
    Background: Slaughter reindeer are exposed to stress caused by gathering, handling, loading and unloading, and by conditions in vehicles during transport. These stress factors can lead to compromised welfare and trauma such as bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, and abnormal odour in carcasses, and causing condemnations in meat inspection and lower meat quality. We investigated the statistical association of slaughter transport distance with these indices using meat inspection data from years 2004-2016, including inspection of 669,738 reindeer originating from Finnish reindeer herding areas. Results: Increased stress and decreased welfare of reindeer, as indicated by higher incidence of carcass condemnation due to bruises or fractures, aspiration of rumen content, or abnormal odour, were positively associated with systems involving shorter transport distances to abattoirs. Significant differences in incidence of condemnations were also detected between abattoirs and reindeer herding cooperatives. Conclusions: This study indicates that in particular the short-distance transports of reindeer merit more attention. While the results suggest that factors associated with long distance transport, such as driver education, truck design, veterinary supervision, and specialist equipment, may be favourable to reducing pre-slaughter stress in reindeer when compared with short distance transport systems, which occur in a variety of vehicle types and may be done by untrained handlers. Further work is required to elucidate the causal factors to the current results.
  • Ellstrom, Patrik; Hansson, Ingrid; Nilsson, Anna; Rautelin, Hilpi; Engvall, Eva Olsson (2016)
    Background: Campylobacter cause morbidity and considerable economic loss due to hospitalization and post infectious sequelae such as reactive arthritis, Guillain Barr-and Miller Fischer syndromes. Such sequelae have been linked to C. jejuni harboring sialic acid structures in their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) layer of the cell wall. Poultry is an important source of human Campylobacter infections but little is known about the prevalence of sialylated C. jejuni isolates and the extent of transmission of such isolates to humans. Results: Genotypes of C. jejuni isolates from enteritis patients were compared with those of broiler chicken with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), to study the patterns of LOS biosynthesis genes and other virulence associated genes and to what extent these occur among Campylobacter genotypes found both in humans and chickens. Chicken and human isolates generally had similar distributions of the putative virulence genes and LOS locus classes studied. However, there were significant differences regarding LOS locus class of PFGE types that were overlapping between chicken and human isolates and those that were distinct to each source. Conclusions: The study highlights the prevalence of virulence associated genes among Campylobacter isolates from humans and chickens and suggests possible patterns of transmission between the two species.
  • Sihvo, H. -K.; Airas, N.; Linden, J.; Puolanne, E. (2018)
    In wooden breast myopathy (WBM) of broiler chickens, the pectoralis major muscles show abnormally hard consistency and microscopical myodegeneration of unknown aetiology. To date, previous studies have focused primarily on chronic WBM and ultrastructural descriptions of early WBM are lacking. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathogenesis of WBM by light microscopical morphometry of vessel density and the ultra structural description of early WBM changes with transmission electron microscopy. The pectoral vessel density was compared between unaffected chickens (n = 14) and two areas of focal WBM in affected chickens (n = 14). The transverse myofibre area per vessel was highest in the unaffected area of muscle from cases of focal WBM, significantly higher (P = 0.01) than in macroscopically unaffected tissue, indicating that relatively decreased blood supply may trigger the development of WBM. The ultrastructural study included unaffected chickens (n = 3), two areas offocal WBM from affected chickens (n = 3) and areas of diffuse WBM from affected chickens (n = 3). The morphologically least affected myofibres within the WBM lesion areas in light microscopy exhibited ultrastructural changes of increased sarcoplasmic reticulum diameter and mitochondrial hyperplasia. Such changes originate typically from osmotic imbalance, for which the most likely aetiologies in WBM include tissue hypoxia or myodegencration of the surrounding myofibres. The findings suggest that a relative reduction of blood supply in the major pectoral muscle occurs in the early phase of WBM, which may be linked to the ultrastructural changes of osmotic imbalance. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lyu, Jian; Ertbjerg, Per (2022)
    The subcellular distribution of calpain-1 and -2 and the proteolytical activity of myofibril-bound calpains in pork were investigated during 12 days cold storage. The content of sarcoplasmic calpain-1 decreased during storage while myofibril-bound calpain-1 content first increased (P < 0.05) to 17% of that of 12 h-sarcoplasmic calpain-1 on day 6 followed by a gradual decrease with subsequent storage, suggesting that calpain-1 gradually translocated from sarcoplasm to myofibrils during the initial 6 days of postmortem storage. Intact desmin decreased (P < 0.05) after incubation of myofibrils with 0.05 mM Ca2+, and this was more pronounced with 5 mM Ca2+ (P < 0.05). Ca2+ titration curves of day 6 myofibrils showed two distinct proteolytic activities becoming activated in the range 0.03 to 0.06 mM and 0.4 to 0.8 mM Ca2+, respectively. The results suggest that both calpain-1 and calpain-2 binds to myofibrils during storage and subsequently degrade structural proteins including desmin.
  • Jurgilevich, Alexandra; Birge, Traci; Kentala-Lehtonen, Johanna; Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Pietikäinen, Janna; Saikku, Laura; Schösler, Hanna (2016)
    Growing population and increased demand for food, inefficient resource use and food distribution, environmental impacts, and high rates of food wasted at all stages of the food system are all calling for transition towards more sustainable practices. In this article we apply the concept of circular economy to the case of a sustainable food system. Furthermore, we explore the transition towards a circular food system through the lens of socio-technical transition theory towards sustainability. We discuss challenges and potential solutions for the production stage (focusing on nutrient flow), the consumption stage (focusing on meat consumption), and food waste and surplus management and prevention.
  • Papies, Esther K.; Johannes, Niklas; Daneva, Teya; Semyte, Gintare; Kauhanen, Lina-Lotta (2020)
    The production of meat is a main contributor to current dangerous levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the shift to more plant-based diets is hampered by consumers finding meat-based foods more attractive than plant-based foods. How can plant-based foods best be described to increase their appeal to consumers? Based on the grounded cognition theory of desire, we suggest that descriptions that trigger simulations, or re-experiences, of eating and enjoying a food will increase the attractiveness of a food, compared to descriptions emphasizing ingredients. In Study 1, we first examined the descriptions of ready meals available in four large UK supermarkets (N = 240). We found that the labels of meat-based foods contained more references to eating simulations than vegetarian foods, and slightly more than plant-based foods, and that this varied between supermarkets. In Studies 2 and 3 (N = 170, N = 166, pre-registered), we manipulated the labels of plant-based and meat-based foods to either include eating simulation words or not. We assessed the degree to which participants reported that the description made them think about eating the food (i.e., induced eating simulations), and how attractive they found the food. In Study 2, where either sensory or eating context words were added, we found no differences with control labels. In Study 3, however, where simulation-based labels included sensory, context, and hedonic words, we found that simulation-based descriptions increased eating simulations and attractiveness. Moreover, frequent meat eaters found plant-based foods less attractive, but this was attenuated when plant-based foods were described with simulation-inducing words. We suggest that language that describes rewarding eating experiences can be used to facilitate the shift toward healthy and sustainable diets.