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  • Rentola, Raisa; Hästbacka, Johanna; Heinonen, Erkki; Rosenberg, Per H.; Häggblom, Tom; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the traditional method for measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In mechanically ventilated patients a continuous noninvasive monitoring of carbon dioxide would obviously be attractive. In the current study, we present a novel formula for noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide. Eighty-one datasets were collected from 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Eleven animals were mechanically ventilated without interventions. In the remaining eight pigs the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was manipulated. The new formula (Formula 1) is PaCO2 = PETCO2 + k(PETO2 - PaO2) where PaO2 was calculated from the oxygen saturation. We tested the agreements of this novel formula and compared it to a traditional method using the baseline PaCO2 - ETCO2 gap added to subsequently measured, end-tidal carbon dioxide levels (Formula 2). The mean difference between PaCO2 and calculated carbon dioxide (Formula 1) was 0.16 kPa (+/- SE 1.17). The mean difference between PaCO2 and carbon dioxide with Formula 2 was 0.66 kPa (+/- SE 0.18). With a mixed linear model excluding cases with cardiorespiratory collapse, there was a significant difference between formulae (p <0.001), as well as significant interaction between formulae and time (p <0.001). In this preliminary animal study, this novel formula appears to have a reasonable agreement with PaCO2 values measured with ABG analysis, but needs further validation in human patients.
  • HOT-ICU Investigators; Schjorring, Olav L.; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jorn; Lange, Theis; Keus, Frederik; Laake, Jon H.; Okkonen, Marjatta; Siegemund, Martin; Morgan, Matthew; Thormar, Katrin M.; Rasmussen, Bodil S. (2019)
    Background Acutely ill adults with hypoxaemic respiratory failure are at risk of life-threatening hypoxia, and thus oxygen is often administered liberally. Excessive oxygen use may, however, increase the number of serious adverse events, including death. Establishing the optimal oxygenation level is important as existing evidence is of low quality. We hypothesise that targeting an arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) of 8 kPa is superior to targeting a PaO2 of 12 kPa in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Methods The Handling Oxygenation Targets in the ICU (HOT-ICU) trial is an outcome assessment blinded, multicentre, randomised, parallel-group trial targeting PaO2 in acutely ill adults with hypoxaemic respiratory failure within 12 hours after ICU admission. Patients are randomised 1:1 to one of the two PaO2 targets throughout ICU stay until a maximum of 90 days. The primary outcome is 90-day mortality. Secondary outcomes are serious adverse events in the ICU, days alive without organ support and days alive out of hospital in the 90-day period; mortality, health-related quality-of-life at 1-year follow-up as well as 1-year cognitive and pulmonary function in a subgroup; and an overall health economic analysis. To detect or reject a 20% relative risk reduction, we aim to include 2928 patients. An interim analysis is planned after 90-day follow-up of 1464 patients. Conclusion The HOT-ICU trial will test the hypothesis that a lower oxygenation target reduces 90-day mortality compared with a higher oxygenation target in adult ICU patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure.
  • Mortensen, Camilla B.; Poulsen, Lone M.; Andersen-Ranberg, Nina C.; Perner, Anders; Lange, Theis; Estrup, Stine S.; Ebdrup, Bjorn H.; Egerod, Ingrid; Rasmussen, Bodil S.; Hästbacka, Johanna; Caballero, Jesus; Citerio, Giuseppe; Morgan, Matthew P. G.; Samuelson, Karin; Mathiesen, Ole (2020)
    Background Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired delirium is frequent and associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes for patients in ICUs. It therefore constitutes a major healthcare problem. Despite limited evidence, haloperidol is the most frequently used pharmacological intervention against ICU-acquired delirium. Agents intervening against Delirium in the ICU (AID-ICU) is an international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial investigates benefits and harms of treatment with haloperidol in patients with ICU-acquired delirium. The current pre-planned one-year follow-up study of the AID-ICU trial population aims to explore the effects of haloperidol on one-year mortality and health related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods The AID-ICU trial will include 1000 participants. One-year mortality will be obtained from the trial sites; we will validate the vital status of Danish participants using the Danish National Health Data Registers. Mortality will be analysed by Cox-regression and visualized by Kaplan-Meier curves tested for significance using the log-rank test. We will obtain HRQoL data using the EQ-5D instrument. HRQoL analysis will be performed using a general linear model adjusted for stratification variables. Deceased participants will be designated the worst possible value. Results We expect to publish results of this study in 2022. Conclusion We expect that this one-year follow-up study of participants with ICU-acquired delirium allocated to haloperidol vs. placebo will provide important information on the long-term consequences of delirium including the effects of haloperidol. We expect that our results will improve the care of this vulnerable patient group.
  • AID-ICU Cohort Study Co-authors; Loisa, Pekka (2018)
    We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use. We included 1260 patients from 99 ICUs in 13 countries. Delirium occurred in 314/1260 patients [25% (95% confidence interval 23-27)] of whom 145 received haloperidol [46% (41-52)]. Other interventions for delirium were benzodiazepines in 36% (31-42), dexmedetomidine in 21% (17-26), quetiapine in 19% (14-23) and olanzapine in 9% (6-12) of the patients with delirium. In the first 24 h in the ICU, all subtypes of delirium [hyperactive, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 29.7 (12.9-74.5); mixed 10.0 (5.0-20.2); hypoactive 3.0 (1.2-6.7)] and circulatory support 2.7 (1.7-4.3) were associated with haloperidol use. At 72 h after ICU admission, circulatory support remained associated with subsequent use of haloperidol, aOR 2.6 (1.1-6.9). Haloperidol use within 0-24 h and within 0-72 h of ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality [aOR 1.2 (0.5-2.5); p = 0.66] and [aOR 1.9 (1.0-3.9); p = 0.07], respectively. In our study, haloperidol was the main pharmacological agent used for delirium in adult patients regardless of delirium subtype. Benzodiazepines, other anti-psychotics and dexmedetomidine were other frequently used agents. Haloperidol use was not statistically significantly associated with increased 90-day mortality.
  • Wennervirta, Johanna E.; Särkelä, Mika O.K.; Kaila, Markus M.; Pettilä, Ville (2021)
    Background. Sedation of intensive care patients is needed for patient safety, but deep sedation is associated with adverse outcomes. Frontal electromyogram-based Responsiveness Index (RI) aims to quantify the level of sedation and is scaled 0-100 (low index indicates deep sedation). We compared RI-based sedation to Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale- (RASS-) based sedation. Our hypothesis was that RI-controlled sedation would be associated with increased total time alive without mechanical ventilation at 30 days without an increased number of adverse events. Methods. 32 critically ill adult patients with mechanical ventilation and administration of sedation were randomized to either RI- or RASS-guided sedation. Patients received propofol and oxycodone, if possible. The following standardized sedation protocol was utilized in both groups to achieve the predetermined target sedation level: either RI 40-80 (RI group) or RASS -3 to 0 (RASS group). RI measurement was blinded in the RASS group, and the RI group was blinded to RASS assessments. State Entropy (SE) values were registered in both groups. Results. RI and RASS groups did not differ in total time alive in 30 days without mechanical ventilation (p=0.72). The incidence of at least one sedation-related adverse event did not differ between the groups. Hypertension was more common in the RI group (p=0.01). RI group patients were in the target RI level 22% of the time and RASS group patients had 57% of scores within the target RASS level. The RI group spent significantly more time in their target sedation level than the RASS group spent in the corresponding RI level (p=0.03). No difference was observed between the groups (p=0.13) in the corresponding analysis for RASS. Propofol and oxycodone were administered at higher RI and SE values and lower RASS values in the RI group than in the RASS group. Conclusion. Further studies with a larger sample size are warranted to scrutinize the optimal RI level during different phases of critical illness.