Browsing by Subject "MELT"

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  • Wang, Qingkai; Li, Zhijun; Lu, Peng; Cao, Xiaowei; Leppäranta, Matti (2018)
    The kinetic coefficient of friction μk was measured for sea ice, stainless steel, and coated steel sliding on a natural sea ice cover. The effects of normal stress (3.10–8.11 kPa), ice columnar grain orientation (vertical and parallel to the sliding direction), sliding velocity (0.02–2.97 m·s–1), and contact material were investigated. Air temperature was higher than −5.0 °C for the test duration. The results showed a decline of μk with increasing normal stress with μk independent of ice grain orientation. The μk of different materials varied, partly due to distinct surface roughnesses, but all cases showed a similar increasing trend with increasing velocity because of the viscous resistance of melt-water film. The velocity dependence of μk was quantified using the rate- and state- dependent model, and μk was found to increase logarithmically with increasing velocity. In addition, μk obtained at higher air temperatures was greater than at lower temperatures. The stick-slip phenomenon was observed at a relatively high velocity compared with previous studies, which was partly due to the low-stiffness device used in the field. Based on the experimental data, the calculation of physical models can be compared.
  • Pooch, Fabian; Sliepen, Marjolein; Svedström, Kirsi J.; Korpi, Antti; Winnik, Francoise M.; Tenhu, Heikki (2018)
    Miscible block copolymers (BCPs) are rarely studied. When one or both components of such BCPs are semi-crystalline polymers, strong effects on the crystallization behavior can be expected. We present a study of 18 miscible BCPs comprised of poly(lactide) (PLLA, semi-crystalline and PDLLA, amorphous) and poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PiPOx, semi-crystalline) with PiPOx volume fractions of 0.14 <phi(PiPOx) <0.82. All BCPs exhibit a single glass transition and form a homogeneous melt. Mixing has a plasticizing effect on PiPOx and increases its crystallization rates (DSC). In contrast, the crystallization rates of PLLA are dramatically reduced, or in most cases entirely prevented. During isothermal crystallization at 130 degrees C, the crystallization rates of the BCPs were inverted in comparison with those of the parent homopolymers. Crystallization drives the BCPs to phase separate and the formed crystalline structure is that of the parent homopolymers. The fast crystallization of PiPOx confines the observed superstructure. The BCPs were studied on multiple length scales - from the atomic level (WAXS, IR spectroscopy) to the meso level (AFM, SAXS) and the macroscopic superstructure (polarized optical microscopy). A mechanism of the structure evolution is presented.
  • Moreau, Juulia-Gabrielle; Kohout, Tomas; Wünnemann, Kai; Halodova, Patricie; Haloda, Jakub (2019)
    Shock-darkening, the melting of metals and iron sulfides into a network of veins within silicate grains, altering reflectance spectra of meteorites, was previously studied using shock physics mesoscale modeling. Melting of iron sulfides embedded in olivine was observed at pressures of 40-50 GPa. This pressure range is at the transition between shock stage 5 (C-S5) and 6 (C-S6) of the shock metamorphism classification in ordinary and enstatite chondrites. To better characterize C-S5 and C-S6 with a mesoscale modeling approach and assess post-shock heating and melting, we used multi-phase (i.e. olivine/enstatite, troilite, iron, pores, and plagioclase) meshes with realistic configurations of grains. We carried out a systematic study of shock compression in ordinary and enstatite chondrites at pressures between 30 and 70 GPa. To setup mesoscale sample meshes with realistic silicate, metal, iron sulfide, and open pore shapes, we converted backscattered electron microscope images of three chondrites. The resolved macroporosity in meshes was 3-6%. Transition from shock C-S5 to C-S6 was observed through (1) the melting of troilite above 40 GPa with melt fractions of similar to 0.7-0.9 at 70 GPa, (2) the melting of olivine and iron above 50 GPa with melt fraction of similar to 0.001 and 0.012, respectively, at 70 GPa, and (3) the melting of plagioclase above 30 GPa (melt fraction of 1, at 55 GPa). Post-shock temperatures varied from similar to 540 K at 30 GPa to similar to 1300 K at 70 GPa. We also constructed models with increased porosity up to 15% porosity, producing higher post-shock temperatures (similar to 800 K increase) and melt fractions (similar to 0.12 increase) in olivine. Additionally we constructed a pre-heated model to observe post-shock heating and melting during thermal metamorphism. This model presented similar results (melting) at pressures 10-15 GPa lower compared to the room temperature models. Finally, we demonstrated dependence of post-shock heating and melting on the orientation of open cracks relative to the shock wave front. In conclusion, the modeled melting and post-shock heating of individual phases were mostly consistent with the current shock classification scheme (Stoffler et al., 1991, 2018).
  • Gong, Yongmei; Zwinger, Thomas; Åström, Jan; Altena, Bas; Schellenberger, Thomas; Gladstone, Rupert; Moore, John (2018)
    The marine-terminating outlet in Basin 3, Austfonna ice cap, has been accelerating since the mid-1990s. Stepwise multi-annual acceleration associated with seasonal summer speed-up events was observed before the outlet entered the basin-wide surge in autumn 2012. We used multiple numerical models to explore hydrologic activation mechanisms for the surge behaviour. A continuum ice dynamic model was used to invert basal friction coefficient distributions using the control method and observed surface velocity data between April 2012 and July 2014. This has provided input to a discrete element model capable of simulating individual crevasses, with the aim of finding locations where meltwater entered the glacier during the summer and reached the bed. The possible flow paths of surface meltwater reaching the glacier bed as well as those of meltwater produced at the bed were calculated according to the gradient of the hydraulic potential. The inverted friction coefficients show the "unplugging" of the stagnant ice front and expansion of low-friction regions before the surge reached its peak velocity in January 2013. Crevasse distribution reflects the basal friction pattern to a high degree. The meltwater reaches the bed through the crevasses located above the margins of the subglacial valley and the basal melt that is generated mainly by frictional heating flows either to the fast-flowing units or potentially accumulates in an overdeepened region. Based on these results, the mechanisms facilitated by basal meltwater production, crevasse opening and the routing of meltwater to the bed are discussed for the surge in Basin 3.
  • Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H. -R.; Kivekas, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G. (2015)
    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced the metamorphism of snow under strong sunlight in our experiments. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the natural snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles, the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir-observing satellite sees the darkest points, underestimating the albedo. Through a reciprocity argument, we predict that at noon, the albedo perturbation should be lower than in the morning or after-noon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.
  • Svensson, Jonas; Virkkula, Aki; Meinander, Outi; Kivekäs, Niku; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Järvinen, Onni; Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Gritsevich, Maria; Heikkila, Anu; Kontu, Anna; Neitola, Kimmo; Brus, David; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Anttila, Kati; Vehkamäki, Marko; Hienola, Anca; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Lihavainen, Heikki (2016)
    Soot has a pronounced effect on the cryosphere and experiments are still needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. This work presents a series of experiments to address this issue, with soot being deposited onto a natural snow surface after which the albedo changes were monitored. The albedo reduction was the most pronounced for the snow with higher soot content, and it was observed immediately following soot deposition. Compared with a previous laboratory study the effects of soot on the snow were not as prominent in outdoor conditions. During snowmelt, about 50% of the originally deposited soot particles were observed to remain at the snow surface. More detailed experiments are however needed to better explain soot's effect on snow and to better quantify this effect. Our albedo versus soot parameterization agreed relatively well with previously published relationships.