Browsing by Subject "MEMBRANE-LIPIDS"

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  • Postila, Pekka A.; Róg, Tomasz (2020)
    Synaptic neurotransmission is generally considered as a function of membrane-embedded receptors and ion channels in response to the neurotransmitter (NT) release and binding. This perspective aims to widen the protein-centric view by including another vital component—the synaptic membrane—in the discussion. A vast set of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments indicate that NTs are divided into membrane-binding and membrane-nonbinding categories. The binary choice takes place at the water-membrane interface and follows closely the positioning of the receptors’ binding sites in relation to the membrane. Accordingly, when a lipophilic NT is on route to a membrane-buried binding site, it adheres on the membrane and, then, travels along its plane towards the receptor. In contrast, lipophobic NTs, which are destined to bind into receptors with extracellular binding sites, prefer the water phase. This membrane-based sorting splits the neurotransmission into membrane-independent and membrane-dependent mechanisms and should make the NT binding into the receptors more efficient than random diffusion would allow. The potential implications and notable exceptions to the mechanisms are discussed here. Importantly, maintaining specific membrane lipid compositions (MLCs) at the synapses, especially regarding anionic lipids, affect the level of NT-membrane association. These effects provide a plausible link between the MLC imbalances and neurological diseases such as depression or Parkinson’s disease. Moreover, the membrane plays a vital role in other phases of the NT life cycle, including storage and release from the synaptic vesicles, transport from the synaptic cleft, as well as their synthesis and degradation.
  • Naafs, B. D. A.; Inglis, G. N.; Zheng, Y.; Amesbury, M. J.; Biester, H.; Bindler, R.; Blewett, J.; Burrows, M. A.; del Castillo Torres, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Cohen, A. D.; Evershed, R. P.; Feakins, S. J.; Galka, M.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Gandois, L.; Gray, D. M.; Hatcher, P. G.; Honorio Coronado, E. N.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Huguet, A.; Kononen, M.; Laggoun-Defarge, F.; Lahteenoja, O.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marchant, R.; McClymont, E.; Pontevedra-Pombal, X.; Ponton, C.; Pourmand, A.; Rizzuti, A. M.; Rochefort, L.; Schellekens, J.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Pancost, R. D. (2017)
    Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are membrane-spanning lipids from Bacteria and Archaea that are ubiquitous in a range of natural archives and especially abundant in peat. Previous work demonstrated that the distribution of bacterial branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) in mineral soils is correlated to environmental factors such as mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH. However, the influence of these parameters on brGDGT distributions in peat is largely unknown. Here we investigate the distribution of brGDGTs in 470 samples from 96 peatlands around the world with a broad mean annual air temperature (-8 to 27 degrees C) and pH (3-8) range and present the first peat-specific brGDGT-based temperature and pH calibrations. Our results demonstrate that the degree of cyclisation of brGDGTs in peat is positively correlated with pH, pH = 2.49 x CBTpeat + 8.07 (n = 51, R-2 = 0.58, RMSE = 0.8) and the degree of methylation of brGDGTs is positively correlated with MAAT, MAAT(peat) (degrees C) = 52.18 x MBT'(5me) - 23.05 (n = 96, R-2 = 0.76, RMSE = 4.7 degrees C). These peat-specific calibrations are distinct from the available mineral soil calibrations. In light of the error in the temperature calibration (similar to 4.7 degrees C), we urge caution in any application to reconstruct late Holocene climate variability, where the climatic signals are relatively small, and the duration of excursions could be brief. Instead, these proxies are well-suited to reconstruct large amplitude, longer-term shifts in climate such as deglacial transitions. Indeed, when applied to a peat deposit spanning the late glacial period (similar to 15.2 kyr), we demonstrate that MAAT(peat) yields absolute temperatures and relative temperature changes that are consistent with those from other proxies. In addition, the application of MAAT(peat) to fossil peat (i.e. lignites) has the potential to reconstruct terrestrial climate during the Cenozoic. We conclude that there is clear potential to use brGDGTs in peats and lignites to reconstruct past terrestrial climate. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Bacle, Amelie; Buslaev, Pavel; Garcia-Fandino, Rebeca; Favela-Rosales, Fernando; Ferreira, Tiago Mendes; Fuchs, Patrick F. J.; Gushchin, Ivan; Javanainen, Matti; Kiirikki, Anne M.; Madsen, Jesper J.; Melcr, Josef; Rodriguez, Paula Milan; Miettinen, Markus S.; Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Papadopoulos, Chris G.; Peon, Antonio; Piggot, Thomas J.; Pineiro, Angel; Virtanen, Salla (2021)
    Interest in lipid interactions with proteins and other biomolecules is emerging not only in fundamental biochemistry but also in the field of nanobiotechnology where lipids are commonly used, for example, in carriers of mRNA vaccines. The outward-facing components of cellular membranes and lipid nanoparticles, the lipid headgroups, regulate membrane interactions with approaching substances, such as proteins, drugs, RNA, or viruses. Because lipid headgroup conformational ensembles have not been experimentally determined in physiologically relevant conditions, an essential question about their interactions with other biomolecules remains unanswered: Do headgroups exchange between a few rigid structures, or fluctuate freely across a practically continuous spectrum of conformations? Here, we combine solid-state NMR experiments and molecular dynamics simulations from the NMRlipids Project to resolve the conformational ensembles of headgroups of four key lipid types in various biologically relevant conditions. We find that lipid headgroups sample a wide range of overlapping conformations in both neutral and charged cellular membranes, and that differences in the headgroup chemistry manifest only in probability distributions of conformations. Furthermore, the analysis of 894 protein-bound lipid structures from the Protein Data Bank suggests that lipids can bind to proteins in a wide range of conformations, which are not limited by the headgroup chemistry. We propose that lipids can select a suitable headgroup conformation from the wide range available to them to fit the various binding sites in proteins. The proposed inverse conformational selection model will extend also to lipid binding to targets other than proteins, such as drugs, RNA, and viruses.
  • Lehmann, Philipp; Westberg, Melissa; Tang, Patrik; Lindstrom, Leena; Kakela, Reijo (2020)
    During winter insects face energetic stress driven by lack of food, and thermal stress due to sub-optimal and even lethal temperatures. To survive, most insects living in seasonal environments such as high latitudes, enter diapause, a deep resting stage characterized by a cessation of development, metabolic suppression and increased stress tolerance. The current study explores physiological adaptations related to diapause in three beetle species at high latitudes in Europe. From an ecological perspective, the comparison is interesting since one species (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is an invasive pest that has recently expanded its range into northern Europe, where a retardation in range expansion is seen. By comparing its physiological toolkit to that of two closely related native beetles (Agelastica alniandChrysolina polita) with similar overwintering ecology and collected from similar latitude, we can study if harsh winters might be constraining further expansion. Our results suggest all species suppress metabolism during diapause and build large lipid stores before diapause, which then are used sparingly. In all species diapause is associated with temporal shifts in storage and membrane lipid profiles, mostly in accordance with the homeoviscous adaptation hypothesis, stating that low temperatures necessitate acclimation responses that increase fluidity of storage lipids, allowing their enzymatic hydrolysis, and ensure integral protein functions. Overall, the two native species had similar lipidomic profiles when compared to the invasive species, but all species showed specific shifts in their lipid profiles after entering diapause. Taken together, all three species show adaptations that improve energy saving and storage and membrane lipid fluidity during overwintering diapause. While the three species differed in the specific strategies used to increase lipid viscosity, the two native beetle species showed a more canalized lipidomic response, than the recent invader. Since close relatives with similar winter ecology can have different winter ecophysiology, extrapolations among species should be done with care. Still, range expansion of the recent invader into high latitude habitats might indeed be retarded by lack of physiological tools to manage especially thermal stress during winter, but conversely species adapted to long cold winters may face these stressors as a consequence of ongoing climate warming.
  • Hermansson, Martin; Hanninen, Satu; Hokynar, Kati; Somerharju, Pentti (2016)
    Mammalian cells maintain the glycerophospholipid (GPL) compositions of their membranes nearly constant. To achieve this, GPL synthesis and degradation must be coordinated. There is strong evidence that A-type phospholipases (PLAs) are key players in homeostatic degradation of GPLs, but the identities of the PLAs involved have not been established. However, some members of the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins (PNPLAs) have been implicated. Accordingly, we knocked down all the PNPLAs significantly expressed in human HeLa cells using RNA interference and then determined whether the turnover of the major glycerophospholipids is affected by using mass spectrometry and metabolic labeling with stable isotope labeled precursors. Knockdown of PNPLA9, PNPLA6 or PNPLA4 significantly (30-50%) reduced the turnover of phosphatidylcholine, ethanolamine and-serine. In a notable contrast, turnover of phosphatidylinositol was not significantly affected by the knockdown of any PNPLA. Depletion of PNPLA9 and PNPLA4 also inhibited G(0)/G(1) G(1) to S cell cycle progression, which could thus be regulated by GPL turnover. These results strongly suggest that PNPLA9, -6 and -4 play a key role in GPL turnover and homeostasis in human cells. A hypothetical model suggesting how these enzymes could recognize the relative concentration of the different GPLs is proposed. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.