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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine (2020)
    Although subsistence hunting is cross-culturally an activity led and practiced mostly by men, a rich body of literature shows that in many small-scale societies women also engage in hunting in varied and often inconspicuous ways. Using data collected among two contemporary forager-horticulturalist societies facing rapid change (the Tsimane' of Bolivia and the Baka of Cameroon), we compare the technological and social characteristics of hunting trips led by women and men and analyze the specific socioeconomic characteristics that facilitate or constrain women's engagement in hunting. Results from interviews on daily activities with 121 Tsimane' (63 women and 58 men) and 159 Baka (83 women and 76 men) show that Tsimane' and Baka women participate in subsistence hunting, albeit using different techniques and in different social contexts than men. We also found differences in the individual and household socioeconomic profiles of Tsimane' and Baka women who hunt and those who do not hunt. Moreover, the characteristics that differentiate hunter and non-hunter women vary from one society to the other, suggesting that gender roles in relation to hunting are fluid and likely to change, not only across societies, but also as societies change.
  • Vuori, Matti A.; Harald, Kennet; Jula, Antti; Valsta, Liisa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Salomaa, Veikko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2020)
    Aims: The objective was to evaluate whether sodium intake, assessed with the gold standard 24-h urinary collections, was related to long-term incidence of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods:A cohort of 4630 individuals aged 25-64 years collected 24-h urine samples in 1979-2002 and were followed up to 14 years for the incidence of any CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, heart failure (HF) and DM event, and death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between the baseline salt intake and incident events and adjusted for baseline age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, prevalent DM, and stratified by sex and cohort baseline year. Results: During the follow-up, we observed 423 deaths, 424 CVD events (288 CHD events, 142 strokes, 139 HF events) and 161 DM events. Compared with the highest quartile of salt intake, persons in the lowest quartile had a lower incidence of CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.95,p = .02), CHD (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.42-0.94],p = .02) and DM (HR 0.52 [95% CI 0.31-0.87],p = .01). The results were non-significant for mortality, HF, and stroke. Conclusion: High sodium intake is associated with an increased incidence of CVD and DM.
  • Finndiane Study Grp (2018)
    Background and aims: Increased arterial stiffness contributes to diabetic vascular complications. We identified dietary factors related to arterial stiffness in individuals with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and results: Altogether, 612 participants (40% men, mean +/- standard deviation age 45 +/- 13 years) completed a validated diet questionnaire and underwent measurements of arterial stiffness. Of these, 470 additionally completed a food record. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns from the diet questionnaires, and nutrient intakes were calculated from food record entries. Arterial stiffness was measured by applanation tonometry. Of the seven dietary factors formed, the factor scores of "Full-fat cheese and eggs" and "Sweet" patterns were negatively associated with measures of arterial stiffness. In the multivariable macronutrient substitution models, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with higher aortic mean arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. When carbohydrates were consumed in place of proteins, higher aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index were recorded. Replacing energy from alcohol with proteins, was associated with lower aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index. Relative distributions of dietary fatty acids were neutral with respect to the measures of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: The macronutrient distribution of the diet is likely to affect the resilience of the arteries. Our observations suggest that reducing energy intake from carbohydrates and alcohol may be beneficial. These observations, especially those dealing with dietary patterns, need to be confirmed in a longitudinal study. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Akbaraly, Tasnime; Wurtz, Peter; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.; Haapakoski, Rita; Lehto, Maili; Desrumaux, Catherine; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mikkilä, Vera; Hingorani, Aroon; Humphries, Steve E.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Raitakari, Olli; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    Diet may modify metabolomic profiles towards higher or lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to identify metabolite profiles associated with high adherence to dietary recommendations-the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) - and the extent to which metabolites associated with AHEI also predict incident CVD. Relations between AHEI score and 80 circulating lipids and metabolites, quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics, were examined using linear regression models in the Whitehall II study (n = 4824, 55.9 +/- 6.1 years, 28.0% women) and were replicated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1716, 37.7 +/- 5.0 years, 56.3% women). We used Cox models to study associations between metabolites and incident CVD over the 15.8-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study. After adjustment for confounders, higher AHEI score (indicating healthier diet) was associated with higher degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FA) and higher ratios of polyunsaturated FA, omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid relative to total FA in both Whitehall II and Young Finns studies. A concordance of associations of metabolites with higher AHEI score and lower CVD risk was observed in Whitehall II. Adherence to healthy diet seems to be associated with specific FA that reduce risk of CVD.
  • Nyberg, Solja T.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Sabia, Severine; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Goldberg, Marcel; Heikkila, Katriina; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Lallukka, Tea; Lindbohm, Joni; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Shipley, Martin J.; Sipila, Pyry N.; Stenholm, Sari; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Hamer, Mark; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika (2020)
    This cohort study examines disease-free life-years in participants with varying combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Question Are different combinations of lifestyle factors associated with years lived without chronic diseases? Findings In a multicohort study of 116 & x202f;043 participants, a statistically significant association between overall healthy lifestyle score and an increased number of disease-free life-years was noted. Of 16 different lifestyle profiles studied, the 4 that were associated with the greatest disease-free life years included body mass index lower than 25 and at least 2 of 3 factors: never smoking, physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption. Meaning Various healthy lifestyle profiles appear to be associated with extended gains in life lived without type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and cancer. Importance It is well established that selected lifestyle factors are individually associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but how combinations of these factors are associated with disease-free life-years is unknown. Objective To estimate the association between healthy lifestyle and the number of disease-free life-years. Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective multicohort study, including 12 European studies as part of the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium, was performed. Participants included 116 & x202f;043 people free of major noncommunicable disease at baseline from August 7, 1991, to May 31, 2006. Data analysis was conducted from May 22, 2018, to January 21, 2020. Exposures Four baseline lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were each allocated a score based on risk status: optimal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), or poor (0 points) resulting in an aggregated lifestyle score ranging from 0 (worst) to 8 (best). Sixteen lifestyle profiles were constructed from combinations of these risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures The number of years between ages 40 and 75 years without chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results Of the 116 & x202f;043 people included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 43.7 (10.1) years and 70 & x202f;911 were women (61.1%). During 1.45 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up, 12.5 years; range, 4.9-18.6 years), 17 & x202f;383 participants developed at least 1 chronic disease. There was a linear association between overall healthy lifestyle score and the number of disease-free years, such that a 1-point improvement in the score was associated with an increase of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.83-1.08) disease-free years in men and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.75-1.02) years in women. Comparing the best lifestyle score with the worst lifestyle score was associated with 9.9 (95% CI 6.7-13.1) additional years without chronic diseases in men and 9.4 (95% CI 5.4-13.3) additional years in women (P <.001 for dose-response). All of the 4 lifestyle profiles that were associated with the highest number of disease-free years included a body-mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and at least 2 of the following factors: never smoking, physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption. Participants with 1 of these lifestyle profiles reached age 70.3 (95% CI, 69.9-70.8) to 71.4 (95% CI, 70.9-72.0) years disease free depending on the profile and sex. Conclusions and Relevance In this multicohort analysis, various healthy lifestyle profiles appeared to be associated with gains in life-years without major chronic diseases.
  • Khemiri, Lotfi; Larsson, Henrik; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Jayaram-Lindstrom, Nitya; Latvala, Antti (2020)
    Aims To assess whether parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with lower cognitive ability in offspring, and whether the association is independent of shared genetic factors. Design A population family-based cohort study utilizing national Swedish registries. Linear regression with increased adjustment of covariates was performed in the full population. In addition, the mechanism of the association was investigated with children-of-sibling analyses using fixed-effects regression with three types of sibling parents with increasing genetic relatedness (half-siblings, full siblings and monozygotic twins). Setting and participants A total of 3 004 401 people born in Sweden between 1951 and 1998. Measurements The exposure variable was parental SUD, operationalized as having a parent with life-time SUD diagnosis or substance-related criminal conviction in the National Patient Register or Crime Register, respectively. Outcomes were cognitive test score at military conscription and final school grades when graduating from compulsory school. Covariates included in the analyses were sex, birth year, parental education, parental migration status and parental psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Findings In the full population, parental SUD was associated with decreased cognitive test stanine scores at conscription [4.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.55-4.57] and lower Z-standardized school grades (-0.43, 95% CI = -0.43 to -0.42) compared to people with no parental SUD (cognitive test: 5.17, 95% CI = 5.17-5.18; grades: 0.09, 95% CI = 0.08-0.09). There was evidence of a dose-response relationship, in that having two parents with SUD (cognitive test: 4.17, 95% CI = 4.15-4.20; grades: -0.83, 95% CI = -0.84 to -0.82) was associated with even lower cognitive ability than having one parent with SUD (cognitive test: 4.60, 95% CI = 4.59-4.60; grades: -0.38, 95% CI = -0.39 to -0.380). In the children-of-siblings analyses when accounting for genetic relatedness, these negative associations were attenuated, suggestive of shared underlying genetic factors. Conclusions There appear to be shared genetic factors between parental substance use disorder (SUD) and offspring cognitive function, suggesting that cognitive deficits may constitute a genetically transmitted risk factor in SUD.
  • Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2014)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. RESULTS: PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.
  • Strandberg, T. E.; von Bonsdorff, M.; Strandberg, A.; Pitkala, K.; Raikkonen, K. (2017)
    Introduction: There are few longitudinal studies of relationships between vacation and later health outcomes. We studied these during a 26-year follow-up of the Helsinki Businessmen Study. Methods: In 1974, at mean age of 47 years, 2741 members of a cohort of executives and businessmen born 1919-1934 were clinically examined and reported their annual vacation time (dichotomized >21 [n = 2001]vs. Results: At baseline, shorter vacation was associated with longer work time, higher BMI, more coffee consumption and worse SRH. During the 26-year follow-up, 778 men out of 2741 (28.4%) had died. Shorter annual vacation was associated with higher mortality with curves starting to diverge after 18 years of follow-up, (fully adjusted hazard ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.55, P = 0.005). In old age, shorter vacation in midlife was tentatively associated with worse general health. Conclusions: Shorter vacation time in midlife was associated with characteristics related to lifestyle and with worse perceived health status, and predicted mortality up to old age in men. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Talibov, Madar; Sormunen, Jorma; Hansen, Johnni; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Martinsen, Jan-Ivar; Sparen, Per; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero (2018)
    Objective: The aim of this case-control study was to assess the effect of occupational benzene exposure on the risk of colorectal cancer, including its subtypes. Methods: The study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Cases were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort. Five controls per case were selected from the same cohort, matched for country, birth year, and sex. Occupational benzene exposure for each study participant was estimated by linking their job titles to country specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation and wood dust. Results: Increased risk was observed for all colorectal cancer (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.18) for the high decile of cumulative benzene exposure, indicating a statistically significant dose-response relationship. This excess risk was mainly seen in ascending colon (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43), and transversal colon (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.41). The ORs in the highest exposure category were markedly higher in women than in men in all subsites of colon and rectum. Conclusion: This study showed an association between workplace benzene exposure and colorectal cancer. The risk was restricted to ascending and transversal colon, and was the strongest among women.
  • Fischer, Krista; Kettunen, Johannes; Wurtz, Peter; Haller, Toomas; Havulinna, Aki S.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Esko, Tonu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Maegi, Reedik; Smit, Steven; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Perola, Markus; Metspalu, Andres (2014)
  • Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2020)
    Purpose Most studies examining the associations between body composition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older age have been cross-sectional and analyzed only fat or lean mass. Hence, it is poorly known whether fat and lean mass are independently associated with subsequent changes in HRQoL. We investigated whether baseline lean and fat mass are associated with changes in HRQoL over a 10-year period in older adults. Methods We studied 1044 men and women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (age 57-70 years at baseline). Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to derive baseline fat mass index (FMI, fat mass/height(2)) and lean mass index (lean mass/height(2)), dichotomized at sex-specific medians. HRQoL was assessed using RAND 36-item Health Survey at baseline and follow-up 10 years later. Results When controlled for lean mass and adjusted for potential confounders, high baseline FMI was associated with a greater decline in general health (standardized regression coefficient [beta] = - 0.13, p = 0.001), physical functioning (beta = - 0.11, p = 0.002), role physical (beta = - 0.13, p = 0.003), vitality (beta = - 0.08, p = 0.027), role emotional (beta = - 0.12, p = 0.007), and physical component score (beta = - 0.14, p <0.001). High baseline FMI was also associated with low HRQoL in all physical domains at baseline (beta: from - 0.38 to - 0.10). Lean mass was not strongly associated with HRQoL at baseline or change in HRQoL. Conclusion In older community-dwelling adults, higher fat mass is, independent of lean mass, associated with lower physical HRQoL and greater decline in HRQoL. Prevention of adiposity may contribute to preservation of a good quality of life in older age.
  • Palmu, Samuel; Kuneinen, Susanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Korhonen, Päivi E. (2021)
    Background and aims: Current guidelines on prediabetes and diabetes (T2D) recommend to regularly perform an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on subjects at risk of T2D. However, it is not known why women tend to have relatively higher 2-h post-load plasma (2hPG) glucose concentrations during OGTT than men. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there are sex differences in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2hPG concentrations in relation to body size in apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects with normal glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that sex differences in glucose tolerance are physiological and related to different body surface area (BSA) in men and women. Methods and results: A 2-h 75 g OGTT was performed on 2010 subjects aged 45-70 years. Their BSA was calculated using the Mosteller formula. Men and women were separately divided into five BSA levels. Within the normal 2hPG range, women had higher mean 2hPG concentrations during the OGTT than men in all BSA levels estimated by sex-standardized BSA (p for linearity < 0.001). BSA adjusted for age, waist circumference, leisure-time physical activity, and smoking, showed an inverse association with 2hPG concentration in both sexes. Mean FPG concentrations were higher in men than in women. Conclusions: Body size has a negative inverse association with 2hPG concentration in an OGTT even within a physiological plasma glucose range. This may cause underestimation of glucose disorders in individuals with larger BSA and overestimation in individuals with smaller BSA when using an OGTT. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Italian Diabetes Society, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • PRIAS Study Grp; Drost, Frank-Jan H.; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Remmers, Sebastiaan; van der Poel, Henk G.; Bangma, Chris H.; Roobol, Monique J. (2018)
    Background: Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) appears to provide excellent long-term PCa-specific and overall survival. The choice for AS as initial treatment is mainly based on avoiding side effects from invasive treatment; but AS entails regular check-ups and the possibility of still having to switch or deciding to switch to invasive treatment. Here, we assessed the long-term follow-up data from AS in real life clinical practices. Methods: Data from the first 500 men, enrolled in PRIAS before July 2008 by 30 centers across 8 countries, were analyzed to provide long-term follow-up results. Men were advised to be regularly examined with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations, and prostate biopsies. Men were advised to switch to invasive treatment if they had disease reclassification [Gleason score (GS) >= 3+ 4 on biopsy, more than two positive biopsy cores, a stage higher than cT2] or a PSA-doubling time of 0-3 years. We assessed time on AS, outcomes and reasons for discontinuing AS, and rates of potential unnecessary biopsies and treatments. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.5 years. During this period, 325 (65%) men discontinued after a median of 2.3 years and 121 (24%) men had no recent (> 1 year) data-update after a median of 7.3 years. The remaining 54 (11%) men were confirmed to be still on AS. Most men discontinued based on protocol advice; 38% had other reasons. During follow-up, 838 biopsy sessions were performed of which 79% to 90% did not lead to reclassification, depending on the criteria. Of the 325 discontinued men, 112 subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), 126 underwent radiotherapy, 57 switched to watchful waiting (WW) or died, and 30 had another or unknown treatment. RP results were available of 99 men: 34% to 68%, depending on definition, had favorable outcomes; 50% of unfavorable the outcomes occurred in the first 2 years. Of the 30 (6%) men who died, 1 man died due to PCa. Conclusions: These data, reflecting real life clinical practice, show that more than half of men switched to invasive treatment within 2.3 years, indicating limitations to the extent in which AS is able to reduce the adverse effects of overdiagnosis. Therefore, despite guidelines stating that PCa diagnosis must be uncoupled from treatment, it remains important to avoid overdiagnosing PCa as much as possible.
  • Hernesniemi, Jussi A.; Sipilä, Kalle; Tikkakoski, Antti; Tynkkynen, Juho; Mishra, Pashupati; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Nikus, Kjell; Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika (2020)
    Objective To evaluate whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and heart rate recovery (HRR) associate with the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) independently of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods The Finnish Cardiovascular Study is a prospective clinical study of patients referred to clinical exercise testing in 2001-2008 and follow-up until December 2013. Patients without pacemakers undergoing first maximal or submaximal exercise testing with cycle ergometer were included (n=3776). CRF in metabolic equivalents (METs) was estimated by achieving maximal work level. HRR was defined as the reduction in heart rate 1 min after maximal exertion. Adjudication of SCD was based on death certificates. LVEF was measured for clinical indications in 71.4% of the patients (n=2697). Results Population mean age was 55.7 years (SD 13.1; 61% men). 98 SCDs were recorded during a median follow-up of 9.1 years (6.9-10.7). Mean CRF and HRR were 7.7 (SD 2.9) METs and 25 (SD 12) beats/min/min. Both CRF and HRR were associated with the risk of SCD in the entire study population (HR(CRF)0.47 (0.37-0.59), p Conclusions CRF and HRR are significantly associated with the risk of SCD regardless of LVEF.
  • Jyrkinen, Marjut; Väkiparta, Maria; Lämsä, Anna-Maija (2019)
    Purpose This paper focuses on how gendered processes of working life are (re)constructed and are also challenged discursively in paid and volunteer care and work in reception centers. The purpose of this paper is to show how caring work with asylum seekers can both enhance the traditional gender order and challenge it through enabling men to have opportunities to care. Design/methodology/approach The data were produced through qualitative interviews among paid workers and volunteers in reception centers, and analyzed through a discourse analysis approach. Findings Three discourses of care and work were identified: a discourse on solidarity and care; a discourse on control and order; and a discourse on caring men. The findings show that traditional attitudes toward gender are easily discerned in other cultures, but not as easily recognized in the everyday processes near at hand. Gender order is retained through traditional roles, which also reflects conventional attitudes in a society often seen as a model country for equality. However, change is possible, and one core issue is the need to involve men in care work and caring in general. Social implications - The findings can be applicable to the deconstruction of traditional gender order in working life; to the disclosure of gendered xenophobia in work with asylum seekers, in particular through dialogue with "Others"; and to the enabling of care by men. Originality/value Little previous research has been done on care in reception centers and care as a gendered activity with value. In the future many countries are likely to encounter increases in asylum seekers, and therefore, intersections of gender and ethnicity are of importance in societies as regards migration, work and care.
  • Stenholm, Sari; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Aalto, Ville; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Background: Retirement is a major life transition affecting health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. Methods: A multiwave cohort study repeated every 4 years and data linkage to records from retirement registers. Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w(-3), w(-2), w(-1)), and one to three times after (w(+1), w(+2), w(+3)) retirement. Results: During the 4-year retirement transition (w(+1), vs. w(-1)) men showed decline in BMI, which was most marked among men with sedentary work (-0.18 kg/m(2), 95% CI -.30 to -0.05). In contrast, BMI increased during retirement transition in women and was most marked among women with diverse (0.14 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20) or physically heavy work (0.31 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45). Physical activity during leisure time or commuting to work, alcohol consumption or smoking did not explain the observed changes during retirement transition. Conclusions: In this study statutory retirement was associated with small changes in BMI. Weight loss was most visible in men retiring from sedentary jobs and weight gain in women retiring from diverse and physically heavy jobs.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Stenholm, Sari; Heinonen, Olli J.; Pulakka, Anna; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2018)
    This study aims to examine the association between change in physical activity over time and accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. Four consecutive surveys (Time 1 to 4) were conducted with 4-year intervals in 1997-2013 (the Finnish Public Sector study). Physical activity of 15,634 cardio-metabolically healthy participants (mean age 43.3 (SD 8.7) years, 85% women) was assessed using four-item survey measure and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hours in Time 1, 2, and 3. At each time point, participants were categorised into low (<14 MET-h/week), moderate (>= 14 to<30 MET-h/week), or high (>= 30MET-h/week) activity level and change in physical activity levels between Time 1 and 3 (over 8 years) was determined. The outcome was the number of incident cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity) at Time 4. Cumulative logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to maintenance of low physical activity, increase in physical activity from low baseline activity level was associated with decreased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors in a dose-response manner (cumulative odds ratio [cOR]= 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90 for low-to-moderate and cOR= 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.89 for low-to-high, P for trend 0.0007). Decrease in physical activity level from high to low was associated with increased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors (cOR= 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.01) compared to those who remained at high activity level. Thus even a modest long-term increase in physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiometabolic risk whereas decrease in physical activity was related to increased risk.
  • Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Mänty, Minna; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2016)
    Background: Disability retirement is an economic, public health and work life issue causing costs for employees, workplaces and society. Adopting physical activity at middle-age has been associated with reduced risk of sickness absence and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine how changes over time in leisure time physical activity are associated with subsequent disability retirement among midlife employees. Methods: The Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline (phase 1) mail questionnaire survey data were collected in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. A phase 2 survey was conducted in 2007 (N = 3943). Respondents were classified into three groups: 1. low-active ( = 14 MET-hours/week in moderate-intensity physical activity) and 3. vigorously active (> = 14 MET-hours/week including vigorous physical activity) at both phases. This yielded nine groups for describing stability and change of leisure time physical activity. Disability retirement data were derived from the registry of the Finnish Centre for Pensions until the end of 2013. A Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for covariates. Results: During the follow-up, 264 (6.7 %) participants retired due to disability. Compared with those who were persistently low-active, those who increased their physical activity from low to vigorous had a lower risk of subsequent disability retirement (HR = 0.38, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.97) when adjusting for age, gender, occupational social class, strenuousness of work, smoking and binge drinking. Similarly, compared with those who were persistently moderately active, those increasing from moderate to vigorous (HR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.28-0.86) had a reduced risk. In contrast, those decreasing their physical activity from vigorous to low (HR = 2.42, 95 % CI = 1. 32-4.41) or moderate (HR = 1.70, 95 % CI = 1.03-2.82) had an increased risk, compared with those who were persistently vigorously active. Adjusting for BMI, limiting longstanding illness and prior sickness absence somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions: Adopting vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced risk of disability retirement. Promoting vigorous physical activity among midlife employees may help prevent disability retirement.
  • Seiluri, Tina; Lahti, Jouni Markku Mikael; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea (2011)
    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is known to have health benefits across population groups. However, less is known about changes over time in socioeconomic differences in leisure-time physical activity and the reasons for the changes. We hypothesised that class differences in leisure-time physical activity would widen over time due to declining physical activity among the lower occupational classes. We examined whether occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity change over time in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged women and men. We also examined whether a set of selected covariates could account for the observed changes. METHODS: The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort mail surveys; the respondents were 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki at baseline in 2000-2002 (n = 8960, response rate 67%). Follow-up questionnaires were sent to the baseline respondents in 2007 (n = 7332, response rate 83%). The outcome measure was leisure-time physical activity, including commuting, converted to metabolic equivalent tasks (MET). Socioeconomic position was measured by occupational class (professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers). The covariates included baseline age, marital status, limiting long-lasting illness, common mental disorders, job strain, physical and mental health functioning, smoking, body mass index, and employment status at follow-up. Firstly the analyses focused on changes over time in age adjusted prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. Secondly, logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates of changes in occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. RESULTS: At baseline there were no occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity. Over the follow-up leisure-time physical activity increased among those in the higher classes and decreased among manual workers, suggesting the emergence of occupational class differences at follow-up. Women in routine non-manual and manual classes and men in the manual class tended to be more often physically inactive in their leisure-time (<14 MET hours/week) and to be less often active (>30 MET hours/week) than those in the top two classes. Adjustment for the covariates did not substantially affect the observed occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational class differences in leisure-time physical activity emerged over the follow-up period among both women and men. Leisure-time physical activity needs to be promoted among ageing employees, especially among manual workers.