Browsing by Subject "MENTAL-HEALTH"

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  • Kellezi, Blerina; Guxholli, Aurora; Stevenson, Clifford; Ruth Helen Wakefield, Juliet; Bowe, Mhairi; Bridger, Kay (2021)
    Although Social Cure research shows the importance of family identification in one's ability to cope with stress, there remains little understanding of family responses to human rights violations. This is the first study to explore the role of family identity in the collective experience of such violations: meanings ascribed to suffering, family coping strategies, and family-based understandings of justice. Semi-structured interviews (N = 27) with Albanian dictatorship survivors were analysed using Social Identity Theory informed thematic analysis. The accounts reveal Social Cure processes at work, whereby family groups facilitated shared meaning-making, uncertainty reduction, continuity, resilience-building, collective self-esteem, and support, enhanced through common fate experiences. As well as being curative, families were contexts for Social Curse processes, as relatives shared suffering and consequences collectively, while also experiencing intergenerational injustice and trauma. Although seeking and achieving justice remain important, the preservation of family identity is one of the triumphs in these stories of suffering.
  • Stahlmann, Katharina; Hebestreit, Antje; DeHenauw, Stefaan; Hunsberger, Monica; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lissner, Lauren; Molnar, Denes; Ayala-Marin, Aleli M.; Reisch, Lucia A.; Russo, Paola; Tornaritis, Michael; Veidebaum, Toomas; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Bogl, Leonie H. (2020)
    Background There has been an increase in children growing up in non-traditional families, such as single-parent and blended families. Children from such families have a higher prevalence of obesity and poorer health outcomes, but research on the relationship with obesogenic behaviours is limited. Objectives Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are associations between family structures and obesogenic behaviours and related family rules in European children and adolescents. Methods The sample included 7664 children (mean age +/- SD: 10.9 +/- 2.9) from 4923 families who were participants of the multi-centre I.Family study (2013/2014) conducted in 8 European countries. Family structure was assessed by a detailed interview on kinship and household. Obesogenic behaviours (screen time, sleep duration, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)) and family rules (rules for computer and television, bedtime routine, availability of SSBs during meals) were determined by standardized questionnaires. Multilevel mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used to model the associations of family structure with obesogenic behaviours and family rules. Sex, age, parental education level, number of children and adults in the household and BMI z-score were covariates in the models. Two-parent biological families were set as the reference category. Results Children from single-parent families were less likely to have family rules regarding screen time (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40-0.94, p = 0.026) with higher reported hours of screen time per week (beta = 2.70 h/week, 95% CI: 1.39-4.00, p <0.001). The frequency of weekly SSB consumption differed by family structure in a sex-specific manner: girls from single-parent (beta = 3.19 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.91-5.47, p = 0.006) and boys from blended/adoptive families (beta = 3.01 frequency/week, 95% CI: 0.99-5.03, p = 0.004) consumed more SSBs. Sleep duration, bedtime routines and availability of SSBs during meals did not differ between children from these family structures. Parental education did not modify any of these associations. Conclusions Parents in non-traditional family structures appear to experience more difficulties in restricting screen time and the intake of SSBs in their children than parents in traditional two-parent family structures. Our findings therefore suggest that additional support and effective strategies for parents in non-traditional families may help to reduce obesogenic behaviours in children from such family types.
  • Lieslehto, Johannes; Rantanen, Noora; Oksanen, Lotta-Maria A. H.; Oksanen, Sampo A.; Kivimäki, Anne; Paju, Susanna; Pietiäinen, Milla; Lahdentausta, Laura; Pussinen, Pirkko; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Lehtonen, Lasse; Lallukka, Tea; Geneid, Ahmed; Sanmark, Enni (2022)
    During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) have faced unprecedented workloads and personal health risks leading to mental disorders and surges in sickness absence. Previous work has shown that interindividual differences in psychological resilience might explain why only some individuals are vulnerable to these consequences. However, no prognostic tools to predict individual HCW resilience during the pandemic have been developed. We deployed machine learning (ML) to predict psychological resilience during the pandemic. The models were trained in HCWs of the largest Finnish hospital, Helsinki University Hospital (HUS, N = 487), with a six-month follow-up, and prognostic generalizability was evaluated in two independent HCW validation samples (Social and Health Services in Kymenlaakso: Kymsote, N = 77 and the City of Helsinki, N = 322) with similar follow-ups never used for training the models. Using the most predictive items to predict future psychological resilience resulted in a balanced accuracy (BAC) of 72.7-74.3% in the HUS sample. Similar performances (BAC = 67-77%) were observed in the two independent validation samples. The models' predictions translated to a high probability of sickness absence during the pandemic. Our results provide the first evidence that ML techniques could be harnessed for the early detection of COVID-19-related distress among HCWs, thereby providing an avenue for potential targeted interventions.
  • Levola, Jonna M.; Sailas, Eila S.; Saamanen, Timo S.; Turunen, Leena M.; Thomson, Annika C. (2019)
    Background: The focus of emergency room (ER) treatment is on acute medical crises, but frequent users of ER services often present with various needs. The objectives of this study were to obtain information on persistent frequent ER service users and to determine reasons for their ER service use. We also sought to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses or ongoing use of psychiatric or substance use disorder treatment services were associated with persistent frequent ER visits. Methods: A cohort (n = 138) of persistent frequent ER service users with a total of 2585 ER visits during a two-year-period was identified. A content analysis was performed for 10% of these visits. Register data including International Classification of Primary Care 2 (ICPC-2) -codes and diagnoses were analyzed and multivariable models were created in order to determine whether psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial reasons for ER service use were associated with the number of ER visits after adjusting for covariates. Results: Patients who were younger, had a psychiatric diagnosis and engaged in ongoing psychiatric and other health services, had more ER visits than those who were not. Having a psychiatric diagnosis was associated with the frequency of ER visits in the multivariable models after adjusting for age, gender and ongoing use of psychiatric or substance use disorder treatment services. Reasons for ER-service use according to ICPC-2 -codes were inadequately documented. Conclusions: Patients with psychiatric diagnoses are overrepresented in this cohort of persistent frequent ER service users. More efficient treatments paths are needed for patients to have their medical needs met through regular appointments.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Remes, Jouko; Paananen, Markus; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2014)
  • Flykt, M. S.; Prince, M.; Vänskä, M.; Lindblom, J.; Minkkinen, J.; Tiitinen, A.; Poikkeus, P.; Biringen, Z.; Punamäki, R. L. (2022)
    STUDY QUESTION Does adolescent attachment to parents and peers differ between singletons and twins born with ART or natural conception (NC)? SUMMARY ANSWER Adolescent attachment anxiety with the father was higher among NC singletons than among ART and NC twins, whereas attachment avoidance with the father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons and NC twins. No differences were found in attachment to the mother, best friend or romantic partner. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Most studies have not found differences between ART and NC singletons in parent-adolescent relationships, but twin relationships may be more at risk. No previous study has examined all four groups in the same study, or specifically looked at attachment relationships. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was an 18-year, prospective and controlled longitudinal study with families of 496 ART singletons, 101 ART twin pairs, 476 NC singletons and 22 NC twin pairs. Families were recruited during the second trimester of pregnancy; the ART group was recruited from five infertility clinics in Finland and the control group was recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic during a routine visit. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Mothers and fathers gave background information for this study during pregnancy, and during the child's first year and early school age (7-8 years). For the ART group, infertility characteristics and prenatal medical information was also obtained from the patient registry of the infertility clinics. Children (originally 50% girls) filled in electronic questionnaires related to their attachment to mother, father, best friend and romantic partner (Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures) at 17-19 years of age. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Adolescent attachment anxiety to father was higher in NC singletons than in ART twins, P = 0.004 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.06. Adolescent attachment avoidance to father was higher in ART singletons than in NC singletons, P = 0.006 and marginally higher than in NC twins, P = 0.055. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION The sample size was small especially in the NC twin group and there was drop-out over the 18-year time period, especially among boys and families with lower parental education level. The study only included native Finnish-speaking families. The results could differ in a more diverse population. ART singletons were younger and had fewer siblings than ART twins and NC children, and ART and NC twins had more newborn health risks than ART and NC singletons. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The study adds to a growing body of evidence that neither ART treatments nor being a twin places mother-child relationships or peer relationships at long-term risk. However, in our study, which was the first to examine both ART and twinhood simultaneously, we found that there may be more problems in father-adolescent relationships, but only in ART singletons and only related to attachment avoidance. Our findings suggest that men, as well as women, should receive enough support in pre- and peri-natal health care during and after infertility treatments. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) This study was funded by Academy of Finland (grant number 2501308988), the Juho Vainio Foundation and the Finnish Cultural Foundation. The authors report no conflict of interest.
  • Savilahti, Emma M.; Lintula, Sakari; Häkkinen, Laura; Marttunen, Mauri; Granö, Niklas (2021)
    Background The COVID-19-pandemic and especially the physical distancing measures drastically changed the conditions for providing outpatient care in adolescent psychiatry. Methods We investigated the outpatient services of adolescent psychiatry in the Helsinki University Hospital (HUH) from 1/1/2015 until 12/31/2020. We retrieved data from the in-house data software on the number of visits in total and categorized as in-person or remote visits, and analysed the data on a weekly basis. We further analysed these variables grouped according to the psychiatric diagnoses coded for visits. Data on the number of patients and on referrals from other health care providers were available on a monthly basis. We investigated the data descriptively and with a time-series analysis comparing the pre-pandemic period to the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results The total number of visits decreased slightly at the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spring 2020. Remote visits sharply increased starting in 3/2020 and remained at a high level compared with previous years. In-person visits decreased in Spring 2020, but gradually increased afterwards. The number of patients transiently fell in Spring 2020. Conclusions Rapid switch to remote visits in outpatient care of adolescent psychiatry made it possible to avoid a drastic drop in the number of visits despite the physical distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Marttunen, Mauri (2019)
    Purpose: To explore whether sexual harassment experiences are more common among adolescents reporting romantic and erotic interests in the same sex and both sexes, when sociodemographic and mental health confounding are controlled for, and whether the associations are similar in both sexes and in different phases of adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among a nationally representative dataset of 25,147 boys and 25,257 girls in comprehensive school, and 33,231 boys and 36,765 girls in upper secondary education. Self-reports of experiences of sexual harassment, and emotional (depression) and behavioral (delinquency) symptoms were used. Results: All associations between sexual minority status and harassment diminished clearly when mental disorder dimensions were controlled for. In the comprehensive school sample (mean age 15.4 years), sexual harassment experiences were 4-7-fold more common among boys, and 1.5-3-fold among girls, with same-sex/both-sexes interest, compared to those interested exclusively in the opposite sex. In the upper secondary education sample (mean age 17.4 years), among boys, sexual harassment was reported 3-6-fold more commonly by those not exclusively heterosexually interested. Among older girls, a slight increase in sexual harassment experiences was seen among those interested in both sexes. Conclusions: Sexual harassment experiences are associated with sexual minority status, particularly among boys. Confounding by mental disorders needs to be accounted for when studying sexual minority status and sexual harassment.
  • Lazarides, Rebecca; Viljaranta, Jaana; Ranta, Mette; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2017)
    This longitudinal study aims to test the concept of transition preparedness in the context of educational transitions. The study investigates how adolescents' transition preparedness, conceptualized as their self-efficacy beliefs and their inoculation against setbacks, before an educational transition affect the adolescents' school value and effort related to educational goals after the transition through the effects on achievement goal orientations. Student data from three waves of a longitudinal study are used, first collected in 2004 (before the students' transition from comprehensive school to upper secondary education) and then collected twice after the transition. The students included in the analyses are those who participated at all three measurement points (N = 588; 49.5% girls; age M-TI = 15.01, SD = 0.13). Longitudinal structural equation modeling revealed that adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs (Time 1) positively predicted school value and effort (Time 3) through their effect on mastery goal orientation (Time 2). Furthermore, self-efficacy moderated the relation between performance-approach goal orientation (Time 1) on school value (Time 2). Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for enhancing adolescents' adaptive motivational development across educational transitions. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Eriksson, Mia D.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna K.; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kajantie, Eero; Wasenius, Niko; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Laine, Merja K. (2021)
    Background: Millions of people live with depression and its burden of disease. Depression has an increased comorbidity and mortality that has remained unexplained. Studies have reported connections between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and various disease processes, including mental health. The present study evaluated associations between AGEs, depressive symptoms, and types of depressive symptoms. Methods: From the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 815 participants with a mean age of 76 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Characteristics regarding self-reported lifestyle and medical history, as well as blood tests were obtained along with responses regarding depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mental Health Inventory-5. Each participant had their AGE level measured non-invasively with skin autofluorescence (SAF). Statistical analyses looked at relationships between types of depressive symptoms and AGE levels by sex. Results: Of women, 27% scored >= 10 on the BDI and 18% of men, respectively. Men had higher crude AGE levels (mean [standard deviation], arbitrary units) (2.49 [0.51]) compared to women (2.33 [0.46]) (p < 0.001). The highest crude AGE levels were found in those with melancholic depressive symptoms (2.61 [0.57]), followed by those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms (2.45 [0.45]) and those with no depressive symptoms (2.38 [0.49]) (p = 0.013). These findings remained significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The current study shows an association between depressive symptoms and higher AGE levels. The association is likely part of a multi-factorial effect, and hence no directionality, causality, or effect can be inferred solely based on the results of this study.
  • Quarto, Tiziana; Blasi, Giuseppe; Maddalena, Chiara; Viscanti, Giovanna; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Mangiulli, Ivan; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Bertolino, Alessandro; Curci, Antonietta (2016)
    The human ability of identifying, processing and regulating emotions from social stimuli is generally referred as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Within EI, Ability EI identifies a performance measure assessing individual skills at perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Previous models suggest that a brain "somatic marker circuitry" (SMC) sustains emotional sub-processes included in EI. Three primary brain regions are included: the amygdala, the insula and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Here, our aim was to investigate the relationship between Ability EI scores and SMC activity during social judgment of emotional faces. Sixty-three healthy subjects completed a test measuring Ability EI and underwent fMRI during a social decision task (i.e. approach or avoid) about emotional faces with different facial expressions. Imaging data revealed that EI scores are associated with left insula activity during social judgment of emotional faces as a function of facial expression. Specifically, higher EI scores are associated with greater left insula activity during social judgment of fearful faces but also with lower activity of this region during social judgment of angry faces. These findings indicate that the association between Ability EI and the SMC activity during social behavior is region- and emotionspecific.
  • Ahola, Aila J; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims: Depressive mood negatively affects self-care practices, and thereby increases the risk of long-term complications. Not much is known about the association between depressive symptoms and dietary intake in patients with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Subjects (n = 976, 41% men, age 48 +/- 14 years) were participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaire-entries by exploratory factor analysis. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated from food records. In the same record, participants also reported the results of their daily blood glucose monitoring. Associations between BDI score and selfcare variables were analysed using generalized linear regression. For macronutrients, a substitution model was applied. Results: TWo dietary patterns ("Fish and vegetables", and "Traditional") negatively associated with the BDI score. Instead, an increase in the "Sweet" pattern score was positively associated with depressive symptomatology. Of the macronutrients, favouring protein over carbohydrates or fats associated with lower depression scores. Higher blood glucose selfmonitoring frequency and higher variability of the measurements were positively associated with the BDI score. However, no association was observed between depressive symptoms and the mean of the blood glucose measurements. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are reflected in the dietary intake and the selfmonitoring of blood glucose, in type 1 diabetes. Whether depression, via compromised self-care practices, negatively affect long-term outcomes in this patient group has to be the subject of future studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Seilo, Noora; Paldanius, Susanna; Autio, Reija; Koskela, Tuomas; Kunttu, Kristina; Kaila, Minna (2022)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore how university students' participation in a two-staged health screening at the beginning of university studies associates with student health care utilisation in a 6-year follow-up. Design Nationwide, observational, register-based cohort study with a 6-year follow-up. Setting Student health care in Finland. Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) provides statutory student health services to university students in Finland. The two-staged health screening of FSHS includes the electronic health questionnaire (eHQ) provided annually to university entrants and a subsequent health check, when necessary, based on students eHQ response. Participants A national cohort of university entrants from the 2011-2012 academic year (N=15 723) was assessed. After exclusions the study population consisted of 12 972 students, n (female)=7368, n (male)=5604. Outcome measures The primary outcome measures were students' health service utilisation pattern obtained by clustering analyses method and the students' participation in different stages of the health examination process. Results Four distinguishable health care utilisation patterns were identified: (1) constant low use, (2) constant high use, (3) increasing use and (4) decreasing use. The students' OR for belonging to the constant high use group was significantly higher among females (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.5 to 4.6) and students who attended the health check (OR 4.7, 95% CI 3.9 to 5.6). Conclusions Participating in the two-staged health screening was associated with increase in health care utilisation. The process detects students with health problems.
  • Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen (2018)
    Importance Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. Objective To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. Design, Setting, and Participants This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive’s registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Exposures Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Main Outcomes and Measures Offspring’s initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Results Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in 2012 among survivors was 45.4 (6.58) years. Female offspring of mothers evacuated to Sweden during childhood had an elevated risk of psychiatric hospitalization (hazard ratio for any type of psychiatric disorder: 2.04 [95% CI, 1.04-4.01]; hazard ratio for mood disorder: 4.68 [95% CI, 1.92-11.42]). There was no excess risk of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder among women whose fathers were exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy during World War II or among men whose mothers or fathers were exposed. Conclusions and Relevance In a prior follow-up study of the Finnish evacuees, girls evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II were more likely to be hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder—in particular, a mood disorder—in adulthood than their nonevacuated sisters. The present study found that the offspring of these individuals were also at risk for mental health problems that required hospitalization and suggests that early-life adversities, including war-related exposures, may be associated with mental health disorders that persist across generations.
  • Pentikäinen, Emmi; Pitkäniemi, Anni; Siponkoski, Sini-Tuuli; Jansson, Maarit; Louhivuori, Jukka; Johnson, Julene K.; Paajanen, Teemu; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Background and objectives Choir singing has been associated with better mood and quality of life (QOL) in healthy older adults, but little is known about its potential cognitive benefits in aging. In this study, our aim was to compare the subjective (self-reported) and objective (test-based) cognitive functioning of senior choir singers and matched control subjects, coupled with assessment of mood, QOL, and social functioning. Research design and methods We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study in 162 healthy older (age >= 60 years) adults (106 choir singers, 56 controls), including measures of cognition, mood, social engagement, QOL, and role of music in daily life. The choir singers were divided to low (1-10 years, N = 58) and high (>10 years, N = 48) activity groups based on years of choir singing experience throughout their life span. A subcohort of 74 participants (39 choir singers, 35 controls) were assessed also with a neuropsychological testing battery. Results In the neuropsychological testing, choir singers performed better than controls on the verbal flexibility domain of executive function, but not on other cognitive domains. In questionnaires, high activity choir singers showed better social integration than controls and low activity choir singers. In contrast, low activity choir singers had better general health than controls and high activity choir singers. Discussion and implications In healthy older adults, regular choir singing is associated with better verbal flexibility. Long-standing choir activity is linked to better social engagement and more recently commenced choir activity to better general health.
  • Kortesoja, Laura; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja; Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Merikanto, Ilona (2020)
    The long-term effects of sleep on adolescent psychosocial well-being are mostly unknown, although insufficient sleep has been associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties in cross-sectional studies. With a five-year follow-up of Finnish adolescents (Time 1: n = 8834; Mean age = 13 years, 51.1% female, Time 2: n = 5315, Mean age = 15 years, 51.6% female, Time 3: n = 3712; Mean age = 17 years; 50.2% female), the purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relations between self-reported sleep duration, sleep problems, and emotional and behavioral difficulties during adolescence. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were assessed using The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measuring emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and total difficulties. Sleep duration was calculated by counting the hours between self-reported bedtime and wake-up time. Sleep problems were assessed with a single question about the general sleep problems. According to the cross-lagged models for sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties, the findings of this study indicate a developmental process during adolescence where, firstly, short sleep duration is a stronger predictor for current and prospective emotional and behavioral difficulties than vice versa. Secondly, increased emotional and behavioral difficulties expose adolescents to current and later sleep problems more strongly than reverse. Thus, the results show that short sleep duration predisposed to emotional and behavioral difficulties across adolescence, which then led to more prospective sleep problems. These findings suggest a developmental process where sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties are intertwined in shaping adolescents' health.
  • Linna, Milla S.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raevuori, Anu; Sihvola, Elina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Rissanen, Aila (2013)
  • Rissanen, Anne; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Sintonen, Harri; Roine, Risto (2019)
    BackgroundLittle is known about adolescents' perceptions about their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the course of routine adolescent psychiatric treatment. The aim of this 1-year follow-up study was to investigate HRQoL and changes in it among youths receiving adolescent psychiatric outpatient treatment.MethodsThe study comprised 158 girls and 82 boys aged 12-14years from 10 psychiatric outpatient clinics in one Finnish hospital district. Same-aged population controls (210 girls and 162 boys) were randomly collected from comprehensive schools. HRQoL was measured using the 16D instrument. The questionnaire was self-administered when the adolescents entered the polyclinics (=baseline), after a treatment period of 6months, and after 12months.ResultsThe mean age of respondents was 13.8years (SD 0.63). At baseline, the mean HRQoL score of both female and male outpatients was significantly lower than that of population controls (p
  • Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2017)
    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP.
  • Salonsalmi, Aino; Pietiläinen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2019)
    Background There is increasing evidence that childhood socioeconomic position and childhood adversities influence adult health. However, the potential contribution of these factors to disability retirement is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the associations between childhood adversities, parental education and disability retirement. Methods Data on parental education and childhood adversities were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey, conducted in 2000–02 among 40- to 60-year old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Data on disability retirement and their diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Centre of Pensions and followed until the end of 2016. The analyses included 5992 employees. The associations of parental education and childhood adversities with disability retirement due to any cause, musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders were analysed using Cox regression analysis. Results Low parental education was associated with an increased risk of disability retirement due to any cause (maternal education: HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.16–2.62; paternal education: 1.86, 1.38–2.51) and due to musculoskeletal diseases (maternal education: 4.44, 1.66–11.92; paternal education: 3.81, 2.02–7.17). However, adjustment for own education mainly abolished the associations. Economic difficulties in the childhood family, parental alcohol problems and having been bullied at school or by peers increased the risk of disability retirement due to all studied diagnostic groups, whereas parental death or divorce had no effect. Childhood illness (1.53, 1.20–1.95) and parental mental illness (1.68, 1.28–2.20) were associated with disability retirement due to any cause and due to mental disorders (1.65, 1.05–2.59; 3.60, 2.46–5.26). The associations between childhood adversities and disability retirement remained after adjustment for own education, whereas working conditions, and weight and health behaviours somewhat attenuated the associations. Conclusions Parental education and childhood adversities contributed to disability retirement even in midlife. Policy actions investing in children’s well-being might promote work ability in midlife.