Browsing by Subject "MENTAL-ILLNESS"

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  • Vincent, John; Hovatta, Iiris; Frissa, Souci; Goodwin, Laura; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L.; Breen, Gerome; Powell, Timothy R. (2017)
    Background: Studies have provided evidence that both childhood maltreatment and depressive disorders are associated with shortened telomere lengths. However, as childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for depression, it remains unclear whether this may be driving shortened telomere lengths observed amongst depressed patients. Furthermore, it's unclear if the effects of maltreatment on telomere length shortening are more pervasive amongst depressed patients relative to controls, and consequently whether biological ageing may contribute to depression's pathophysiology. The current study assesses the effects of childhood maltreatment, depression case/control status, and the interactive effect of both childhood maltreatment and depression case/control status on relative telomere length (RTL). Method: DNA samples from 80 depressed subjects and 100 control subjects were utilized from a U.K. sample (ages 20-84), with childhood trauma questionnaire data available for all participants. RTL was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Univariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the effects of depression status, childhood maltreatment and depression by childhood maltreatment interactions on RTL. The false discovery rate (q <0.05) was used for multiple testing correction. Results: Analysis of depression case/control status showed no significant main effect on RTL. Four subtypes of childhood maltreatment also demonstrated no significant main effect on RTL, however a history of physical neglect did significantly predict shorter RTL in adulthood (F(1, 174)=7.559, p=0.007, q=0.042, Variance Explained=4.2%), which was independent of case/control status. RTL was further predicted by severity of physical neglect, with the greatest differences observed in older maltreated individuals ( > 50 years old). There were no significant depression case/control status by childhood maltreatment interactions. Limitations: A relatively small sample limited our power to detect interaction effects, and we were unable to consider depression chronicity or recurrence. Conclusion: Shortened RTL was specifically associated with childhood physical neglect, but not the other subtypes of maltreatment or depression case/control status. Our results suggest that the telomere-eroding effects of physical neglect may represent a biological mechanism important in increasing risk for ageing-related disorders. As physical neglect is more frequent amongst depressed cases generally, it may also represent a confounding factor driving previous associations between shorter RTL and depression case status.
  • Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D.; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia (2017)
    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people's endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders.
  • Soininen, Paivi; Putkonen, Hanna; Joffe, Grigori; Korkeila, Jyrki; Puukka, Pauli; Pitkanen, Anneli; Valimaki, Maritta (2013)
  • Thomson, Annika; Tiihonen, Jari; Miettunen, Jouko; Virkkunen, Matti; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    The rate of criminal reoffending among firesetters varies greatly. Our aim was to investigate firesetting and general criminal recidivism in a consecutive sample of Finnish males who were sent for a forensic psychiatric examination (FPE)(1) after committing firesetting offenses. We also wanted to evaluate the relationships between psychopathy and criminal recidivism, and between schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and criminal recidivism. The sample comprised 113 firesetters with a mean age of 32.8 years, and the average follow-up time was 16.9 years. The FPE statements of the firesetters were reviewed and psychiatric diagnoses were collected. The psychopathy assessments were based on the 20-item Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Information on reoffending was gathered from the Finnish National Police Register. During the follow-up 20 (18%) persons were registered for a new firesetting and 84 (74%) for any new offense. Firesetters with high traits (PCL-R 25) of psychopathy were more likely than those with low traits (PCL-R <25) to reoffend with any crime during the follow-up. The risk of general criminal recidivism was lower among firesetters with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder than among those with non-psychotic disorders. Conclusively, both firesetting and general criminal recidivism rates were high in this sample of offenders.
  • Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri (2017)
    Background: Increasing psychiatric disorders and alcohol intoxication challenge the pediatric emergency departments (PEDs) to which adolescents are referred owing to acute alcohol intoxication. Objective: This study examined the degree to which adolescents presenting to PED with alcohol intoxication or deliberate self-harm report symptoms of depression and how they differed from non-depressed patients in terms of alcohol use, perceived social support, psychological distress, self-esteem, and suicidal thoughts. Methods: In a sample of 138 adolescents, 12- to 16-years old (62 % females), we assessed the patients' psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. Before discharge, a consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient to evaluate possible suicidality and organized aftercare when necessary. The mediating data-driven hypothesis was examined. Adolescents scoring >= 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were deemed as screening positive for depression. Results: In 55% of participants, intoxication was by alcohol consumption. Deliberate self-harm was found in 17% of the participants. Of the 138 adolescents, 39 % scored positive on the BDI for depressive symptoms, occurring more commonly in girls. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables associated with depressive symptoms were female gender, high psychological distress, and low self-esteem. Symptoms of depression served as a mediator between gender and self-esteem and the blood alcohol level. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of identifying mood disorders, suicidality, and self-esteem among adolescents with acute alcohol intoxication at the PED. Intensive psychiatric evaluation in an emergency department is necessary in order to detect those adolescents requiring additional treatment and support.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Ella; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2019)
    Schizophrenia may affect a mother's ability to parent. We investigated out-of-home placements among children with a biological mother having schizophrenia, and their relation to maternal characteristics and adverse perinatal health outcomes of the offspring. For each Finnish woman born between 1 JAN 1965 - 31 DEC 1980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia before 31 DEC 2013 (n = 5214), five matched controls were randomly selected from the Finnish Central Population Register. Children born to these women were identified and followed till 31 DEC 2013. The Child Welfare Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations were used to gather information. Altogether 35.1% of children with an affected mother and 3.2% of control children were placed out of home during the follow-up. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of out-of-home placement among children with an affected mother was 12.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.80-13.46) when children with a non-affected mother served as a reference. Single motherhood (IRR 2.2, 95% CI 1.88-2.60) and maternal smoking (IRR 1.9, 95% CL 1.68-2.16), but not an adverse perinatal outcome of the offspring, increased the risk of out-of-home placement. To conclude, maternal schizophrenia is a strong risk factor for placement of children in out-of-home care.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: This national register-based study assesses obstetric and perinatal health outcomes in women with schizophrenia and their offspring. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women who were born in 19651980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia. For each case, five age-and place-of-birth-matched controls were obtained from the Central Population Register of Finland. They were followed from the day when the disorder was diagnosed in specialized health-care (the index day) until 31.12.2013. Information related to births was obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations. We focused on singleton pregnancies that led to a delivery after the index day. We restricted the analysis of deliveries in controls to those that occurred after the index day of the case. Maternal age, marital status, smoking status, sex of the newborn, and parity were used as covariates in adjusted models. Results: We identified 1162 singleton births among women with schizophrenia and 4683 among controls. Schizophrenic women had a 1.4-fold increased risk of induction of labor, delivery by cesarean section, and delivery by elective cesarean section. Regarding offspring, the risk of premature birth and the risk of low Apgar score at 1 min ( Conclusions: Schizophrenia associates with some specific delivery methods, but delivery complications are rare and their prevalence does not differ from that observed among community women. Maternal schizophrenia associates with some negative perinatal health outcomes of the offspring. (c) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Leivonen, Susanna; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.; Chudal, Roshan; Gyllenberg, David; Sucksdorff, Dan; Suominen, Auli; Voutilainen, Arja; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre (2017)
    Objective: To determine the associations between maternal and paternal psychiatric diagnoses and Tourette syndrome (TS)/chronic tic disorder (CT) in a nationwide study. Method: This nested case-control study linked data derived from three national registers. All singletons born and diagnosed with TS/CT in Finland between January 1991 and December 2010 were identified (n = 1,120) and matched to four controls (n = 4,299). Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between parental psychopathology and TS/CT. Results: Altogether, 24.9% of patients with TS/CT and 12.00/0 of controls had a mother with a psychiatric diagnosis. Similarly, 17.9% and 12.9% had a father with a psychiatric diagnosis. Any maternal and any paternal psychiatric diagnosis was associated with offspring TS/CT (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% CI 1.9-2.7 and OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.01-1.5, respectively). The association between maternal psychiatric diagnosis and TS/CT was stronger than that between paternal psychiatric diagnosis and TS/CT (p Conclusion: Parental psychiatric diagnoses (especially in the mother) are associated with diagnosed offspring TS/CT. Further studies are required before the results can be generalized to all children with TS/CT. The associations between maternal psychiatric disorders and TS may reflect both maternal specific environmental and/or genetic influences.
  • Orsolini, Laura; Rojnic Palavra, Irena; Papanti, Gabriele Duccio; Potocan, Matej; Quattrone, Diego; Martens, Matis; Sklenarova, Sandra; Levola, Jonna; Grichy, Leslie; Naughton, Sean; Grineviciene, Indre Kotryna; Kuiters, Jelly Petra; Gondek, Tomasz M.; Panfil, Anca-Livia; Borovcanin, Milica M.; San Roman Uria, Alberto; Biskup, Ewelina; Sonmez Gungor, Ekin; Casanova Dias, Marisa; Tomori, Sonila; Banjac, Visnja; Marinova-Djambazova, Petra; Pinto da Costa, Mariana (2021)
    Background: Although psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUDs) are a domain of mental health, addiction psychiatry is only formally recognized as a subspecialty in a few European countries, and there is no standardized training curriculum. Methods: A 76-item questionnaire was developed and disseminated through an online anonymous data-collecting system and hand-to-hand amongst psychiatric trainees from the 47 European countries of the Council of Europe plus Israel and Belarus. Results: 1,049/1,118 psychiatric trainees from 30 European countries completed the questionnaire. Fifty-nine-point nine percent of trainees stated to have training in addictions. Amongst the trainees who described having training in addictions, 43% documented a not well-structured training and 37% an unsatisfactory training, mainly due to poor acquired knowledge. Overall, 97% of trainees stated that addiction represents a core curriculum for their training. Overall, general adult psychiatric trainees reported a better knowledge in addictions, compared to trainees in child and adolescent psychiatry. Conclusion: Despite a growing spread of PSUDs in European countries, addiction psychiatry is a relatively poorly trained field within psychiatry training programs. Further research should investigate reasons for poor training and timings of the educational activities to optimize experiential education training in addiction psychiatry.
  • Dahoun, Tarik; Pardinas, Antonio F.; Veronese, Mattia; Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; Jauhar, Sameer; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Nosarti, Chiara; Korth, Carsten; Hennah, William; Walters, James; Prata, Diana; Howes, Oliver D. (2018)
    Whilst the role of the Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene in the aetiology of major mental illnesses is debated, the characterization of its function lends it credibility as a candidate. A key aspect of this functional characterization is the determination of the role of common non-synonymous polymorphisms on normal variation within these functions. The common allele (A) of the DISCI single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs821616 encodes a serine (ser) at the Ser704Cys polymorphism, and has been shown to increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein Kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) that stimulate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. We therefore set out to test the hypothesis that human ser (A) homozygotes would show elevated dopamine synthesis capacity compared with cysteine (cys) homozygotes and heterozygotes (TT and AT) for rs821616. [F-18]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) was used to index striatal dopamine synthesis capacity as the influx rate constant K-i(cer) in healthy volunteers DISC1 rs821616 ser homozygotes (N = 46) and healthy volunteers DISC1. rs821616 cys homozygotes and heterozygotes (N = 56), matched for age, gender, ethnicity and using three scanners. We found DISC1 rs821616 ser homozygotes exhibited a significantly higher striatal K-i(cer) compared with cys homozygotes and heterozygotes (P = 0.012) explaining 6.4% of the variance (partial eta(2) = 0.064). Our finding is consistent with its previous association with heightened activation of ERK1/2, which stimulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity for dopamine synthesis. This could be a potential mechanism mediating risk for psychosis, lending further credibility to the fact that DISC1. is of functional interest in the aetiology of major mental illness.