Browsing by Subject "MESENCHYMAL STEM-CELLS"

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  • Ainola, Mari; Tomaszewski, Waclaw; Ostrowska, Barbara; Wesolowska, Ewa; Wagner, H. Daniel; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Sillat, Tarvo; Peltola, Emilia; Konttinen, Yrjo T. (2016)
    The aim was to develop a hybrid three-dimensional-tissue engineering construct for chondrogenesis. The hypothesis was that they support chondrogenesis. A biodegradable, highly porous polycaprolactone-grate was produced by solid freeform fabrication. The polycaprolactone support was coated with a chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet produced by electrospinning. Transforming growth factor-3-induced chondrogenesis was followed using the following markers: sex determining region Y/-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2 and collagen II and X in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunostaining. A polycaprolactone-grate and an optimized chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet supported cellular aggregation, chondrogenesis and matrix formation. In tissue engineering constructs, the sheets were seeded first with mesenchymal stem cells and then piled up according to the lasagne principle. The advantages of such a construct are (1) the cells do not need to migrate to the tissue engineering construct and therefore pore size and interconnectivity problems are omitted and (2) the cell-tight nanofibre sheet and collagen-fibre network mimic a cell culture platform for mesenchymal stem cells/chondrocytes (preventing escape) and hinders in-growth of fibroblasts and fibrous scarring (preventing capture). This allows time for the slowly progressing, multiphase true cartilage regeneration.
  • Vanlandewijck, Michael; He, Liqun; Mäe, Maarj A. Andaloussi; Andrae, Johanna; Ando, Koji; Del Gaudio, Francesca; Nahar, Khayrun; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Lavina, Barbara; Gouveia, Leonor; Sun, Ying; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Räsänen, Markus; Zarb, Yvette; Mochizuki, Naoki; Keller, Annika; Lendahl, Urban; Betsholtz, Christer (2018)
    Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, but our understanding of the cells that compose the cerebral vasculature is limited. Here, using vascular single-cell transcriptomics, we provide molecular definitions for the principal types of blood vascular and vessel-associated cells in the adult mouse brain. We uncover the transcriptional basis of the gradual phenotypic change (zonation) along the arteriovenous axis and reveal unexpected cell type differences: a seamless continuum for endothelial cells versus a punctuated continuum for mural cells. We also provide insight into pericyte organotypicity and define a population of perivascular fibroblast-like cells that are present on all vessel types except capillaries. Our work illustrates the power of single-cell transcriptomics to decode the higher organizational principles of a tissue and may provide the initial chapter in a molecular encyclopaedia of the mammalian vasculature.
  • Mäkitie, Riikka E.; Hackl, Matthias; Niinimäki, Riitta; Kakko, Sakari; Grillari, Johannes; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Context: WNT signaling is fundamental to bone health, and its aberrant activation leads to skeletal pathologies. The heterozygous missense mutation p.C218G in WNT1, a key WNT pathway ligand, leads to severe early-onset and progressive osteoporosis with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures. Despite the severe skeletal manifestations, conventional bone turnover markers are normal in mutation-positive patients. Objective: This study sought to explore the circulating microRNA (miRNA) pattern in patients with impaired WNT signaling. Design and Setting: A cross-sectional cohort study at a university hospital. Participants: Altogether, 12 mutation-positive (MP) subjects (median age, 39 years; range, 11 to 76 years) and 12 mutation-negative (MN) subjects (35 years; range, 9 to 59 years) from two Finnish families with WNT1 osteoporosis due to the heterozygous p.C218G WNT1 mutation. Methods and Main Outcome Measure: Serum samples were screened for 192 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Findings were compared between WNT1 MP and MN subjects. Results: The pattern of circulating miRNAs was significantly different in the MP subjects compared with the MN subjects, with two upregulated (miR-18a-3p and miR-223-3p) and six downregulated miRNAs (miR-22-3p, miR-31-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-143-5p, miR-423-5p, and miR-423-3p). Three of these (miR-22-3p, miR-34a-5p, and miR-31-5p) are known inhibitors of WNT signaling: miR-22-3p and miR-34a-5p target WNT1 messenger RNA, and miR-31-5p is predicted to bind to WNT1 3'UTR. Conclusions: The circulating miRNA pattern reflects WNT1 mutation status. The findings suggest that the WNT1 mutation disrupts feedback regulation between these miRNAs and WNT1, providing insights into the pathogenesis of WNT-related bone disorders. These miRNAs may have potential in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis.
  • Poustchi, Fatemeh; Amani, Hamed; Ahmadian, Zainab; Niknezhad, Seyyed Vahid; Mehrabi, Soraya; Santos, Hélder A.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali (2021)
    The complexity of hard‐to‐treat diseases strongly undermines the therapeutic potential of available treatment options. Therefore, a paradigm shift from monotherapy toward combination therapy has been observed in clinical research to improve the efficiency of available treatment options. The advantages of combination therapy include the possibility of synchronous alteration of different biological pathways, reducing the required effective therapeutic dose, reducing drug resistance, and lowering the overall costs of treatment. The tunable physical properties, excellent biocompatibility, facile preparation, and ease of administration with minimal invasiveness of injectable hydrogels (IHs) have made them excellent candidates to solve the clinical and pharmacological limitations of present systems for multitherapy by direct delivery of therapeutic payloads and improving therapeutic responses through the formation of depots containing drugs, genes, cells, or a combination of them in the body after a single injection. In this review, currently available methods for the design and fabrication of IHs are systematically discussed in the first section. Next, as a step toward establishing IHs for future multimodal synergistic therapies, recent advances in cancer combination therapy, wound healing, and tissue engineering are addressed in detail in the following sections. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with IHs for multitherapy are listed and further discussed.
  • Reichhardt, Martin P.; Lundin, Karolina; Lokki, A. Inkeri; Recher, Gaëlle; Vuoristo, Sanna; Katayama, Shintaro; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Kere, Juha; Meri, Seppo; Tuuri, Timo (2019)
    It is essential for early human life that mucosal immunological responses to developing embryos are tightly regulated. An imbalance of the complement system is a common feature of pregnancy complications. We hereby present the first full analysis of the expression and deposition of complement molecules in human pre-implantation embryos. Thus, far, immunological imbalance has been considered in stages of pregnancy following implantation. We here show that complement activation against developing human embryos takes place already at the pre-implantation stage. Using confocal microscopy, we observed deposition of activation products on healthy developing embryos, which highlights the need for strict complement regulation. We show that embryos express complement membrane inhibitors and bind soluble regulators. These findings show that mucosal complement targets human embryos, and indicate potential adverse pregnancy outcomes, if regulation of activation fails. In addition, single-cell RNA sequencing revealed cellular expression of complement activators. This shows that the embryonic cells themselves have the capacity to express and activate C3 and C5. The specific local embryonic expression of complement components, regulators, and deposition of activation products on the surface of embryos suggests that complement has immunoregulatory functions and furthermore may impact cellular homeostasis and differentiation at the earliest stages of life.
  • Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Awad, Shady Adnan; Tuomainen, Katja; Zhao, Yue; Salem, Abdelhakim; Parikka, Mataleena; Salo, Tuula (2017)
    The crosstalk between immune cells, cancer cells, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by cancer cells remains poorly understood. We created three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models using human leiomyoma discs and Myogel to study the effects of immune cells on highly (HSC-3) and less (SCC-25) invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) cell lines. Additionally, we studied the effects of EVs isolated from these cell lines on the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T and NK cells isolated from three healthy donors. Our analysis included the effects of these EVs on innate immunity in zebrafish larvae. Activated immune cells significantly decreased the proliferation of both OTSCC cell lines and associated with a diminished invasion area of HSC-3 cells. In general, EVs from SCC-25 increased the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T and NK cells more than those from HSC-3 cells. However, this effect varied depending on the source and the immune and cancer cell subgroups. In zebrafish, the amount of IL-13 mRNA was decreased by SCC-25 EVs. This study describes promising in vitro and in vivo models to investigate interactions between immune cells, cancer cells, and EVs.
  • Kemppi, H.; Finnilä, M.A.; Lorite, G.S.; Nelo, M.; Juuti, J.; Kokki, M.; Kokki, H.; Räsänen, Juha; Mobasheri, A.; Saarakkala, S. (2021)
    In tissue engineering, the scaffold topography influences the adhesion, proliferation, and function of cells. Specifically, the interconnected porosity is crucial for cell migration and nutrient delivery in 3D scaffolds. The objective of this study was to develop a 3D porous composite scaffold for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications by incorporating barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) into a poly-L/D-lactide copolymer (PLDLA) scaffold using the breath figure method. The porous scaffold fabrication utilised 96/04 PLDLA, dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and different types of BTNPs, including uncoated BTNPs, Al2O3-coated BTNPs, and SiO2-coated BTNPs. The BTNPs were incorporated into the polymer scaffold, which was subsequently analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The biocompatibility of each scaffold was tested using ovine bone marrow stromal stem cells. The cell morphology, viability, and proliferation were evaluated using FE-SEM, LIVE/DEAD staining, and Prestoblue assay. Porous 3D composite scaffolds were successfully produced, and it was observed that the incorporation of uncoated BTNPs increased the average pore size from 1.6 mu m (PLDLA) to 16.2 mu m (PLDLA/BTNP). The increased pore size in the PLDLA/BTNP scaffolds provided a suitable porosity for the cells to migrate inside the scaffold, while in the pure PLDLA scaffolds with their much smaller pore size, cells elongated on the surface. To conclude, the breath figure method was successfully used to develop a PLDLA/BTNP scaffold. The use of uncoated BTNPs resulted in a composite scaffold with an optimal pore size while maintaining the honeycomb-like structure. The composite scaffolds were biocompatible and yielded promising structures for future tissue engineering applications.
  • Sanz-Garcia, Andres; Oliver-De-La-Cruz, Jorge; Mirabet, Vicente; Gandia, Carolina; Villagrasa, Alejandro; Sodupe, Enrique; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen (2015)
    Heart disease, including valve pathologies, is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite the progress made thanks to improving transplantation techniques, a perfect valve substitute has not yet been developed: once a diseased valve is replaced with current technologies, the newly implanted valve still needs to be changed some time in the future. This situation is particularly dramatic in the case of children and young adults, because of the necessity of valve growth during the patient's life. Our review focuses on the current status of heart valve (HV) therapy and the challenges that must be solved in the development of new approaches based on tissue engineering. Scientists and physicians have proposed tissue-engineered heart valves (TEHVs) as the most promising solution for HV replacement, especially given that they can help to avoid thrombosis, structural deterioration and xenoinfections. Lastly, TEHVs might also serve as a model for studying human valve development and pathologies.
  • Syed, Mansoor; Das, Pragnya; Pawar, Aishwarya; Aghai, Zubair H.; Kaskinen, Anu; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Pryhuber, Gloria; Andersson, Sture; Bhandari, Vineet (2017)
    Hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI) is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in neonates, for which no specific preventive or therapeutic agent is available. Here we show that lung micro-RNA (miR)-34a levels are significantly increased in lungs of neonatal mice exposed to hyperoxia. Deletion or inhibition of miR-34a improves the pulmonary phenotype and BPD-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in BPD mouse models, which, conversely, is worsened by miR-34a overexpression. Administration of angiopoietin-1, which is one of the downstream targets of miR34a, is able to ameliorate the BPD pulmonary and PAH phenotypes. Using three independent cohorts of human samples, we show that miR-34a expression is increased in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and BPD. Our data suggest that pharmacologic miR-34a inhibition may be a therapeutic option to prevent or ameliorate HALI/BPD in neonates.
  • Carvalho, Tiago; Guedes, Gabriela; Sousa, Filipa L.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Santos, Hélder A. (2019)
    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a nanocellulose form produced by some nonpathogenic bacteria. BC presents unique physical, chemical, and biological properties that make it a very versatile material and has found application in several fields, namely in food industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. This review overviews the latest state-of-the-art usage of BC on three important areas of the biomedical field, namely delivery systems, wound dressing and healing materials, and tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. BC will be reviewed as a promising biopolymer for the design and development of innovative materials for the mentioned applications. Overall, BC is shown to be an effective and versatile carrier for delivery systems, a safe and multicustomizable patch or graft for wound dressing and healing applications, and a material that can be further tuned to better adjust for each tissue engineering application, by using different methods.
  • Şen, Karaman Didem; P., Sarparanta Mirkka; M., Rosenholm Jessica; J., Airaksinen Anu (2018)
    Abstract Recent progress in the development of silica? and silicon?based multimodality imaging nanoprobes has advanced their use in image?guided drug delivery, and the development of novel systems for nanotheranostic and diagnostic applications. As biocompatible and flexibly tunable materials, silica and silicon provide excellent platforms with high clinical potential in nanotheranostic and diagnostic probes with well?defined morphology and surface chemistry, yielding multifunctional properties. In vivo imaging is of great value in the exploration of methods for improving site?specific nanotherapeutic delivery by silica? and silicon?based drug?delivery systems. Multimodality approaches are essential for understanding the biological interactions of nanotherapeutics in the physiological environment in vivo. The aim here is to describe recent advances in the development of in vivo imaging tools based on nanostructured silica and silicon, and their applications in single and multimodality imaging.
  • Oroojalian, Fatemeh; Haghbin, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad; Hemmat, Nima; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Baghi, Hossein Bannazadeh; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Hamblin, Michael R. (2020)
    The emergence of the global pandemic caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has motivated scientists to find a definitive treatment or a vaccine against it in the shortest possible time. Current efforts towards this goal remain fruitless without a full understanding of the behavior of the virus and its adaptor proteins. This review provides an overview of the biological properties, functional mechanisms, and molecular components of SARS-CoV-2, along with investigational therapeutic and preventive approaches for this virus. Since the proteolytic cleavage of the S protein is critical for virus penetration into cells, a set of drugs, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, camostat mesylate have been tested in clinical trials to suppress this event. In addition to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the role of CD147 in the viral entrance has also been proposed. Mepolizumab has shown to be effective in blocking the virus's cellular entrance. Antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir, ritonavir, oseltamivir, darunavir, lopinavir, zanamivir, peramivir, and oseltamivir, have also been tested as treatments for COVID-19. Regarding preventive vaccines, the whole virus, vectors, nucleic acids, and structural subunits have been suggested for vaccine development. Mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells could also be used against SARS-CoV-2. All the above-mentioned strategies, as well as the role of nanomedicine for the diagnosis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, have been discussed in this review. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tang, Jincheng; Gu, Yong; Zhang, Hongbo; Wu, Liang; Xu, Yun; Mao, Jiannan; Xin, Tianwen; Ye, Tingjun; Deng, Lianfu; Cui, Wenguo; Santos, Hélder A.; Chen, Liang (2019)
    Biomimetic scaffolds have been extensively studied for guiding osteogenesis through structural cues. Inspired by the natural bone growth process, we have employed a hierarchical outer-inner dual reinforcing strategy, which relies on the interfacial ionic bond interaction between amine/calcium and carboxyl group, to build a nanofiber/particle dual strengthened hierarchical silk fibroin scaffold. The scaffold can provide applicable form of osteogenic structural cue and mimic the natural bone forming process. Owing to the active interaction between compositions located in the outer pore space and the inner pore wall, the scaffold has over 4 times improvement on mechanical property, followed by significant alteration on cell-scaffold interaction pattern, demonstrated by over 2 times’ elevation on the spreading area and enhanced osteogenic activity potentially involving activities of integrin, Vinculin and Yes-associated protein (YAP). In vivo performance of the scaffold identified the inherent osteogenic effect of structural cue, which promotes rapid and uniform regeneration. Overall, the hierarchical scaffold is promising in promoting uniform bone regeneration through its specific structural cue endowed by its micro-nano construction.
  • Patrikoski, Mimmi; Mannerström, Bettina; Miettinen, Susanna (2019)
    Adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are an ideal cell type for regenerative medicine applications, as they can easily be harvested from adipose tissue in large quantities. ASCs have excellent proliferation, differentiation, and immunoregulatory capacities that have been demonstrated in numerous studies. Great interest and investment have been placed in efforts to exploit the allogeneic use and immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of ASCs. However, bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies and moving into clinical practice remain a challenge. For the clinical translation of ASCs, several issues must be considered, including how to characterise such a heterogenic cell population and how to ensure their safety and efficacy. This review explores the different phases of in vitro and preclinical ASC characterisation and describes the development of appropriate potency assays. In addition, good manufacturing practice requirements are discussed, and cell-based medicinal products holding marketing authorisation in the European Union are reviewed. Moreover, the current status of clinical trials applying ASCs and the patent landscape in the field of ASC research are presented. Overall, this review highlights the applicability of ASCs for clinical cell therapies and discusses their potential.
  • Herbers, Elena; Patrikoski, Mimmi; Jokinen, Riikka; Wagner, Anita; Hassinen, Antti; Heinonen, Sini; Miettinen, Susanna; Peltoniemi, Hilkka; Pirinen, Eija; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2022)
    Mitochondrial dysfunction in white adipose tissue is strongly associated with obesity and its metabolic complications, which are important health challenges worldwide. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) are a promising tool to investigate the underlying mechanisms of such mitochondrial dysfunction and to subsequently provide knowledge for the development of treatments for obesity-related pathologies. A substantial obstacle in using hASCs is that the key compounds for adipogenic differentiation in vitro increase mitochondrial uncoupling, biogenesis, and activity, which are the signature features of brown adipocytes, thus altering the white adipocyte phenotype towards brown-like cells. Additionally, commonly used protocols for hASC adipogenic differentiation exhibit high variation in their composition of media, and a systematic comparison of their effect on mitochondria is missing. Here, we compared the five widely used adipogenic differentiation protocols for their effect on metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes to identify a protocol that enables in vitro differentiation of white adipocytes and can more faithfully recapitulate the white adipocyte phenotype observed in human adipose tissue. We developed a workflow that included functional assays and morphological analysis of mitochondria and lipid droplets. We observed that triiodothyronine- or indomethacin-containing media and commercially available adipogenic media induced browning during in vitro differentiation of white adipocytes. However, the differentiation protocol containing 1 mu M of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) agonist rosiglitazone prevented the browning effect and would be proposed for adipogenic differentiation protocol for hASCs to induce a white adipocyte phenotype. Preserving the white adipocyte phenotype in vitro is a crucial step for the study of obesity and associated metabolic diseases, adipose tissue pathologies, such as lipodystrophies, possible therapeutic compounds, and basic adipose tissue physiology.
  • Abu-Shahba, Ahmed; Gebraad, Arjen; Kaur, Sippy; Paananen, Riku O.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Mannerström, Bettina (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Insufficient vascularization hampers bone tissue engineering strategies for reconstructing large bone defects. Delivery of prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) is an interesting approach to upregulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by mimicking hypoxic stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α). This study assessed two PHIs: dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) and baicalein for their effects on human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (AT-MSCs). METHODS: Isolated AT-MSCs were characterized and treated with PHIs to assess the cellular proliferation response. Immunostaining and western-blots served to verify the HIF-1α stabilization response. The optimized concentrations for long-term treatment were tested for their effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, cytokine secretion, and osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs. Gene expression levels were evaluated for alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). In addition, stemness-related genes Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), Nanog homeobox (NANOG), and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) were assessed. RESULTS: PHIs stabilized HIF-1α in a dose-dependent manner and showed evident dose- and time dependent antiproliferative effects. With doses maintaining proliferation, DMOG and baicalein diminished the effect of osteogenic induction on the expression of RUNX2, ALPL, and COL1A1, and suppressed the formation of mineralized matrix. Suppressed osteogenic response of AT-MSCs was accompanied by an upregulation of stemness-related genes. CONCLUSION: PHIs significantly reduced the osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs and rather upregulated stemness-related genes. PHIs proangiogenic potential should be weighed against their longterm direct inhibitory effects on the osteogenic differentiation of AT-MSCs.
  • Hasan, Md Rakibul; Takatalo, Maarit; Ma, Hongqiang; Rice, Ritva; Mustonen, Tuija; Rice, David P. C. (2020)
    Mutations in the gene encoding Ras-associated binding protein 23 (RAB23) cause Carpenter Syndrome, which is characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities including polysyndactyly and defects in skull morphogenesis. To understand how RAB23 regulates skull development, we generated Rab23-deficient mice that survive to an age where skeletal development can be studied. Along with polysyndactyly, these mice exhibit premature fusion of multiple sutures resultant from aberrant osteoprogenitor proliferation and elevated osteogenesis in the suture. FGF10-driven FGFR1 signaling is elevated in Rab23(-/-) sutures with a consequent imbalance in MAPK, Hedgehog signaling and RUNX2 expression. Inhibition of elevated pERK1/2 signaling results in the normalization of osteoprogenitor proliferation with a concomitant reduction of osteogenic gene expression, and prevention of craniosynostosis. Our results suggest a novel role for RAB23 as an upstream negative regulator of both FGFR and canonical Hh-GLI1 signaling, and additionally in the non-canonical regulation of GLI1 through pERK1/2.
  • Puolakkainen, Tero; Rummukainen, Petri; Lehto, Jemina; Ritvos, Olli; Hiltunen, Ari; Saamanen, Anna-Marja; Kiviranta, Riku (2017)
    Fractures still present a significant burden to patients due to pain and periods of unproductivity. Numerous growth factors have been identified to regulate bone remodeling. However, to date, only the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used to enhance fracture healing in clinical settings. Activins are pleiotropic growth factors belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. We and others have recently shown that treatment with recombinant fusion proteins of activin receptors greatly increases bone mass in different animal models by trapping activins and other ligands thus inhibiting their signaling pathways. However, their effects on fracture healing are less known. Twelve-week old male C57Bl mice were subjected to a standardized, closed tibial fracture model. Animals were divided into control and treatment groups and were administered either PBS control or a soluble activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) intraperitoneally once a week for a duration of two or four weeks. There were no significant differences between the groups at two weeks but we observed a significant increase in callus mineralization in ActRIIB-Fc-treated animals by microcomputed tomography imaging at four weeks. Bone volume per tissue volume was 60%, trabecular number 55% and bone mineral density 60% higher in the 4-week calluses of the ActRIIB-Fc-treated mice (p<0.05 in all). Biomechanical strength of 4-week calluses was also significantly improved by ActRIIBFc treatment as stiffness increased by 64% and maximum force by 45% (p<0.05) compared to the PBS-injected controls. These results demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc treatment significantly improves healing of closed long bone fractures. Our findings support the previous reports of activin receptors increasing bone mass but also demonstrate a novel approach for using ActRIIB-Fc to enhance fracture healing.
  • Hafeez, Muhammad Nadeem; d'Avanzo, Nicola; Russo, Valentina; Di Marzio, Luisa; Cilurzo, Felisa; Paolino, Donatella; Fresta, Massimo; Barboni, Barbara; Santos, Helder A.; Celia, Christian (2021)
    The natural healing capacity of the tendon tissue is limited due to the hypovascular and cellular nature of this tissue. So far, several conventional approaches have been tested for tendon repair to accelerate the healing process, but all these approaches have their own advantages and limitations. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are interdisciplinary fields that aspire to develop novel medical devices, innovative bioscaffold, and nanomedicine, by combining different cell sources, biodegradable materials, immune modulators, and nanoparticles for tendon tissue repair. Different studies supported the idea that bioscaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potentiality. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of bioscaffolds for tendon regeneration and repairing. In this review, we provide an overview of the current basic understanding and material science in the field of bioscaffolds, nanomedicine, and tissue engineering for tendon repair.
  • Hancox, Zoe; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Yousaf, Safiyya; Saelnasab, Morvarid; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Sefat, Farshid (2020)
    Cornea tissue is in high demand by tissue donation centres globally, and thus tissue engineering cornea, which is the main topic of corneal translational medicine, can serve as a limitless alternative to a donated human cornea tissue. Tissue engineering aims to produce solutions to the challenges associated with conventional cornea tissue, including transplantation and use of human amniotic membrane (HAM), which have issues with storage and immune rejection in patients. Accordingly, by carefully selecting biomaterials and fabrication methods to produce these therapeutic tissues, the demand for cornea tissue can be met, with an improved healing outcome for recipients with less associated harmful risks. In this review paper, we aim to present the recent advancements in the research and clinical applications of cornea tissue, applications including biomaterial selection, fabrication methods, scaffold structure, cellular response to these scaffolds, and future advancements of these techniques.