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  • Maignan, Fabienne; Abadie, Camille; Remaud, Marine; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Kohonen, Kukka-Maaria; Commane, Róisín; Wehr, Richard; Campbell, J. Elliott; Belviso, Sauveur; Montzka, Stephen A.; Raoult, Nina; Seibt, Ulli; Shiga, Yoichi P.; Vuichard, Nicolas; Whelan, Mary E.; Peylin, Philippe (2021)
    Land surface modellers need measurable proxies to constrain the quantity of carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilated by continental plants through photosynthesis, known as gross primary production (GPP). Carbonyl sulfide (COS), which is taken up by leaves through their stomates and then hydrolysed by photosynthetic enzymes, is a candidate GPP proxy. A former study with the ORCHIDEE land surface model used a fixed ratio of COS uptake to CO2 uptake normalised to respective ambient concentrations for each vegetation type (leaf relative uptake, LRU) to compute vegetation COS fluxes from GPP. The LRU approach is known to have limited accuracy since the LRU ratio changes with variables such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR): while CO2 uptake slows under low light, COS uptake is not light limited. However, the LRU approach has been popular for COS-GPP proxy studies because of its ease of application and apparent low contribution to uncertainty for regional-scale applications. In this study we refined the COS-GPP relationship and implemented in ORCHIDEE a mechanistic model that describes COS uptake by continental vegetation. We compared the simulated COS fluxes against measured hourly COS fluxes at two sites and studied the model behaviour and links with environmental drivers. We performed simulations at a global scale, and we estimated the global COS uptake by vegetation to be -756 Gg S yr(-1) , in the middle range of former studies (-490 to -1335 Gg S yr(-1)). Based on monthly mean fluxes simulated by the mechanistic approach in ORCHIDEE, we derived new LRU values for the different vegetation types, ranging between 0.92 and 1.72, close to recently published averages for observed values of 1.21 for C-4 and 1.68 for C-3 plants. We transported the COS using the monthly vegetation COS fluxes derived from both the mechanistic and the LRU approaches, and we evaluated the simulated COS concentrations at NOAA sites. Although the mechanistic approach was more appropriate when comparing to high-temporal-resolution COS flux measurements, both approaches gave similar results when transporting with monthly COS fluxes and evaluating COS concentrations at stations. In our study, uncertainties between these two approaches are of secondary importance compared to the uncertainties in the COS global budget, which are currently a limiting factor to the potential of COS concentrations to constrain GPP simulated by land surface models on the global scale.
  • Dewar, Roderick; Hölttä, Teemu; Salmon, Yann (2022)
    Experimental evidence that nonstomatal limitations to photosynthesis (NSLs) correlate with leaf sugar and/or leaf water status suggests the possibility that stomata adjust to maximise photosynthesis through a trade-off between leaf CO2 supply and NSLs, potentially involving source-sink interactions. However, the mechanisms regulating NSLs and sink strength, as well as their implications for stomatal control, remain uncertain. We used an analytically solvable model to explore optimal stomatal control under alternative hypotheses for source and sink regulation. We assumed that either leaf sugar concentration or leaf water potential regulates NSLs, and that either phloem turgor pressure or phloem sugar concentration regulates sink phloem unloading. All hypotheses led to realistic stomatal responses to light, CO2 and air humidity, including conservative behaviour for the intercellular-to-atmospheric CO2 concentration ratio. Sugar-regulated and water-regulated NSLs are distinguished by the presence/absence of a stomatal closure response to changing sink strength. Turgor-regulated and sugar-regulated phloem unloading are distinguished by the presence/absence of stomatal closure under drought and avoidance/occurrence of negative phloem turgor. Results from girdling and drought experiments on Pinus sylvestris, Betula pendula, Populus tremula and Picea abies saplings are consistent with optimal stomatal control under sugar-regulated NSLs and turgor-regulated unloading. Our analytical results provide a simple representation of stomatal responses to above-ground and below-ground environmental factors and sink activity.
  • Durand, Maxime; Stangl, Zsofia R.; Salmon, Yann; Burgess, Alexandra J.; Murchie, Erik H.; Robson, T. Matthew (2022)
    Sunflecks are transient patches of direct radiation that provide a substantial proportion of the daily irradiance to leaves in the lower canopy. In this position, faster photosynthetic induction would allow for higher sunfleck-use efficiency, as is commonly reported in the literature. Yet, when sunflecks are too few and far between, it may be more beneficial for shade leaves to prioritize efficient photosynthesis under shade. We investigated the temporal dynamics of photosynthetic induction, recovery under shade, and stomatal movement during a sunfleck, in sun and shade leaves of Fagus sylvatica from three provenances of contrasting origin. We found that shade leaves complete full induction in a shorter time than sun leaves, but that sun leaves respond faster than shade leaves due to their much larger amplitude of induction. The core-range provenance achieved faster stomatal opening in shade leaves, which may allow for better sunfleck-use efficiency in denser canopies and lower canopy positions. Our findings represent a paradigm shift for future research into light fluctuations in canopies, drawing attention to the ubiquitous importance of sunflecks for photosynthesis, not only in lower-canopy leaves where shade is prevalent, but particularly in the upper canopy where longer sunflecks are more common due to canopy openness.
  • Israel, David; Khan, Shandjida; Warren, Charles R; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Robson, T Matthew (2021)
    The roles of different plasma membrane aquaporins (PIPs) in leaf-level gas exchange of Arabidopsis thaliana were examined using knockout mutants. Since multiple Arabidopsis PIPs are implicated in CO2 transport across cell membranes, we focused on identifying the effects of the knockout mutations on photosynthesis, and whether they are mediated through the control of stomatal conductance of water vapour (g(s)), mesophyll conductance of CO2 (g(m)), or both. We grew Arabidopsis plants in low and high humidity environments and found that the contribution of PIPs to g s was larger under low air humidity when the evaporative demand was high, whereas any effect of a lack of PIP function was minimal under higher humidity. The pip2;4 knockout mutant had 44% higher g(s) than wild-type plants under low humidity, which in turn resulted in an increased net photosynthetic rate (A(net)). We also observed a 23% increase in whole-plant transpiration (E) for this knockout mutant. The lack of functional plasma membrane aquaporin AtPIP2;5 did not affect g(s) or E, but resulted in homeostasis of g(m) despite changes in humidity, indicating a possible role in regulating CO2 membrane permeability. CO2 transport measurements in yeast expressing AtPIP2;5 confirmed that this aquaporin is indeed permeable to CO2.