Browsing by Subject "META-REGRESSION"

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  • Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Nurmi, Johanna; Crutzen, Rik; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa; Beattie, Marguerite; Dombrowski, Stephan (2018)
    Motivation is a proximal determinant of behaviour, and increasing motivation is central to most health behaviour change interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify features of physical activity interventions associated with favourable changes in three prominent motivational constructs: intention, stage of change and autonomous motivation. A systematic literature search identified 89 intervention studies (k=200; N=19,212) which assessed changes in these motivational constructs for physical activity. Intervention descriptions were coded for potential moderators, including behaviour change techniques (BCTs), modes of delivery and theory use. Random effects comparative subgroup analyses identified 18 BCTs and 10 modes of delivery independently associated with changes in at least one motivational outcome (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.74). Interventions delivered face-to-face or in gym settings, or which included the BCTs behavioural goal setting', self-monitoring (behaviour)' or behavioural practice/rehearsal', or which combined self-monitoring (behaviour) with any other BCT derived from control theory, were all associated with beneficial changes in multiple motivational constructs (effect sizes ranged from d=0.12 to d=0.46). Meta-regression analyses indicated that increases in intention and stage of change, but not autonomous motivation, were significantly related to increases in physical activity. The intervention characteristics associated with changes in motivation seemed to form clusters related to behavioural experience and self-regulation, which have previously been linked to changes in physical activity behaviour. These BCTs and modes of delivery merit further systematic study, and can be used as a foundation for improving interventions targeting increases in motivation for physical activity.
  • Stubbs, Brendon; Koyanagi, Ai; Hallgren, Mats; Firth, Joseph; Richards, Justin; Schuch, Felipe; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Veronese, Nicola; Lahti, Jouni; Vancampfort, Davy (2017)
    Background: Despite the known benefits of physical activity (PA) among people with anxiety, little is known about PA levels in people with anxiety at the population level. This study explored the global prevalence of anxiety and its association with PA. Methods: Cross-sectional, community-based data from the World Health Survey was analyzed. Prevalence of anxiety was estimated for 237,964 individuals (47 countries). PA was categorized as low, moderate, and high based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short form). The association between PA and anxiety was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Results: The overall global prevalence of anxiety was 11.4% (47 countries). Across 38 countries with available data on PA, 62.5%, 20.2%, and 17.3% of the sample engaged in high, moderate, and low levels of PA respectively. The prevalence of low physical activity in those with and without anxiety was 22.9% vs. 16.6% (p <0.001) (38 countries, n=184,920). In the pooled model adjusted for socio-demographics, depression, and country, individuals engaging in low PA (vs. high PA) had 1.32 (95% CI=1.17-1.47) times higher odds for anxiety than those with high PA. Female sex, older age, lower education and wealth, and depression were also associated with low PA. At the individual country level, there was a significant positive association between low PA and anxiety in 17 of the 38 countries. Conclusion: Low PA levels are associated with increased prevalence of anxiety. There is a need for longitudinal research to establish the directionality of the relationships observed.
  • Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Firth, Joseph; Hallgren, Mats; Schuch, Felipe; Lahti, Jouni; Rosenbaum, Simon; Ward, Philip B.; Mugisha, James; Carvalho, Andre F.; Koyanagi, Ai (2017)
    Background: There is a paucity of nationally representative data available on the correlates of physical activity (PA) among people with depression, especially in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, we investigated PA correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in this setting. Methods: World Health Survey data included 24,230 adults (43.1 +/- 16.1 years; 36.1% male) with ICD-10 diagnoses of depression including brief depressive episode and subsyndromal depression aged >= 18 years from 46 LMICs. PA was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Participants were dichotomised into low and moderate-to-high physically active groups. Associations between PA and a range of sociode-mographic, health behaviour and mental and physical health variables were examined using multivariable logistic regressions. Results: 34.8% of participants with depression were physically inactive. In the multivariate analyses, inactivity was associated with male sex, older age, not being married/cohabiting, high socio-economic status, unemployment, living in an urban setting, less vegetable consumption, and poor sleep/low energy. In addition, mobility difficulties and some somatic co-morbidity were associated with not complying with the 150 min per week moderate-to-vigorous PA recommendations. Conclusions: The current data provide guidance for future population level interventions across LMICs to help people with depression engage in regular PA.