Browsing by Subject "METABOLIC SYNDROME"

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  • Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora Karoliina; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero Olavi; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar (2016)
    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P-for trend 0.005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values <0.01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.
  • Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Kankaanpaa, Anna; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppanen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2016)
    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (20092011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.
  • Kanerva, Noora; Harald, Kennet; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Maukonen, Mirkka; Haukkala, Ari; Jousilahti, Pekka (2018)
    Studies indicate that the healthy Nordic diet may improve heart health, but its relation to weight change is less clear. We studied the association between the adherence to the healthy Nordic diet and long-term changes in weight, BMI and waist circumference. Furthermore, the agreement between self-reported and measured body anthropometrics was examined. The population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic Determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome Study in 2007 included 5024 Finns aged 25-75 years. The follow-up was conducted in 2014 (n 3735). One-third of the participants were invited to a health examination. The rest were sent measuring tape and written instructions along with questionnaires. The Baltic Sea Diet Score (BSDS) was used to measure adherence to the healthy Nordic diet. Association of the baseline BSDS and changes in BSDS during the follow-up with changes in body anthropometrics were examined using linear regression analysis. The agreement between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics was determined with Bland-Altman analysis. Intra-class correlation coefficients between self-reported and nurse-measured anthropometrics exceeded 0.95. The baseline BSDS associated with lower weight (beta = -0.056, P = 0.043) and BMI (beta = -0.021, P=0.031) over the follow-up. This association was especially evident among those who had increased their BSDS. In conclusion, both high initial and improved adherence to the healthy Nordic diet may promote long-term weight maintenance. The self-reported/measured anthropometrics were shown to have high agreement with nurse-measured values which adds the credibility of our results.
  • Eriksson, Mia D.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Salonen, Minna K.; Mikkola, Tuija M.; Kajantie, Eero; Wasenius, Niko; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Laine, Merja K. (2021)
    Background: Millions of people live with depression and its burden of disease. Depression has an increased comorbidity and mortality that has remained unexplained. Studies have reported connections between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and various disease processes, including mental health. The present study evaluated associations between AGEs, depressive symptoms, and types of depressive symptoms. Methods: From the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, 815 participants with a mean age of 76 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Characteristics regarding self-reported lifestyle and medical history, as well as blood tests were obtained along with responses regarding depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Mental Health Inventory-5. Each participant had their AGE level measured non-invasively with skin autofluorescence (SAF). Statistical analyses looked at relationships between types of depressive symptoms and AGE levels by sex. Results: Of women, 27% scored >= 10 on the BDI and 18% of men, respectively. Men had higher crude AGE levels (mean [standard deviation], arbitrary units) (2.49 [0.51]) compared to women (2.33 [0.46]) (p < 0.001). The highest crude AGE levels were found in those with melancholic depressive symptoms (2.61 [0.57]), followed by those with non-melancholic depressive symptoms (2.45 [0.45]) and those with no depressive symptoms (2.38 [0.49]) (p = 0.013). These findings remained significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: The current study shows an association between depressive symptoms and higher AGE levels. The association is likely part of a multi-factorial effect, and hence no directionality, causality, or effect can be inferred solely based on the results of this study.
  • Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A.; Thomes, Paul G.; Schrum, Laura W.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai (2017)
    This paper is based upon the "8th Charles Lieber's Satellite Symposium" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism Annual Meeting, on June 25, 2016 at New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. The integrative symposium investigated different aspects of alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD) as well as non alcohol -induced liver disease (NAFLD) and possible repair. We revealed the basic aspects of alcohol metabolism that may be responsible for the development of liver disease as well as the factors that determine the amount, frequency and which type of alcohol misuse leads to liver and gastrointestinal diseases. We aimed to (1) describe the immuno-pathology of ALD, (2) examine the role of genetics in the development of alcoholic hepatitis (ASH) and NAFLD, (3) propose diagnostic markers of ASH and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), (4) examine age and ethnic differences as well as analyze the validity of some models, (5) develop common research tools and biomarkers to study alcohol-induced effects, 6) examine the role of alcohol in oral health and colon and gastrointestinal cancer and (7) focus on factors that aggravate the severity of organ-damage. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterizes ALD and NAFLD. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD with simple fatty infiltrations and chronic alcoholic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular.and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus were discussed. Dysregulation of metabolism, as a result of ethanol exposure, in the intestine leads to colon carcinogenesis. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota have been suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of the metabolic syndrome in the aging population, have been presented. The symposium addressed mechanisms and biomarkers of alcohol induced damage to different organs, as well as the role of the microbiome in this dialog. The microbiota regulates and acts as a key element in harmonizing immune responses at intestinal mucosal surfaces. It is known that microbiota is an inducer of proinflammatory T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in the intestine. The signals at the sites of inflammation mediate recruitment and differentiation in order to remove inflammatory inducers and promote tissue homeostasis restoration. The change in the intestinal microbiota also influences the change in obesity and regresses the liver steatosis. Evidence on the positive role of moderate alcohol consumption on heart and metabolic diseases as well on reducing steatosis have been looked up. Moreover nutrition as a therapeutic intervention in alcoholic liver disease has been discussed. In addition to the original data, we searched the literature (2008-2016) for the latest publication on the described subjects. In order to obtain the updated data we used the usual engines (Pub Med and Google Scholar). The intention of the eighth symposia was to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mantyla, Teemu; Mantere, Outi; Raij, Tuukka T.; Kieseppa, Tuula; Laitinen, Hanna; Leiviska, Jaana; Torniainen, Minna; Tuominen, Lauri; Vaarala, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2015)
    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with inflammatory and brain structural changes, but few studies have investigated whether systemic inflammation associates with brain structural changes in FEP. Thirty-seven FEP patients (median 27 days on antipsychotic medication), and 19 matched controls were recruited. Serum levels of 38 chemokines and cytokines, and cardiovascular risk markers were measured at baseline and 2 months later. We collected T1-and diffusion-weighted MRIs with a 3 T scanner from the patients at baseline. We analyzed the association of psychosis-related inflammatory markers with gray and white matter (WM) volume using voxel-based morphometry and WM diffusion using tract-based spatial statistics with whole-brain and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. FEP patients had higher CCL22 and lower TGFa, CXCL1, CCL7, IFN-alpha 2 and ApoA-I than controls. CCL22 decreased significantly between baseline and 2 months in patients but was still higher than in controls. The association between inflammatory markers and FEP remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, smoking and BMI. We did not observe a correlation of inflammatory markers with any symptoms or duration of antipsychotic treatment. Baseline CCL22 levels correlated negatively with WM volume and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity bilaterally in the frontal lobes in ROI analyses. Decreased serum lan association between circulating chemokine levels and WM in FEP patients. Interestingly, CCL22 has been previously implicated in autoimmune diseases associated with WM pathology. The results suggest that an altered activation of innate immunity may contribute to WM damage in psychotic disorders.evel of ApoA-I was associated with smaller volume of the medial temporal WM. In whole-brain analyses, CCL22 correlated positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, and CXCL1 associated negatively with fractional anisotropy and positively with mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in several brain regions. This is the first report to demonstrate
  • Benetos, Athanase; Bulpitt, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Mirko; Ungar, Andrea; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Cherubini, Antonio; Redon, Josep; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Dominiczak, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Mancia, Giuseppe (2016)
  • Karppanen, Tiina; Kaartokallio, Tea; Klemetti, Miira M.; Heinonen, Seppo; Kajantie, Eero; Kere, Juha; Kivinen, Katja; Pouta, Anneli; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Laivuori, Hannele (2016)
    Background: Preeclampsia is a common and heterogeneous vascular syndrome of pregnancy. Its genetic risk profile is yet unknown and may vary between individuals and populations. The rs4606 3'UTR polymorphism of the Regulator of G-protein signaling 2 gene (RGS2) in the mother has been implicated in preeclampsia as well as in the development of chronic hypertension after preeclampsia. The RGS2 protein acts as an inhibitor of physiological vasoconstrictive pathways, and a low RGS2 level is associated with hypertension and obesity, two conditions that predispose to preeclampsia. We genotyped the rs4606 polymorphism in 1339 preeclamptic patients and in 697 controls from the Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (FINNPEC) cohort to study the association of the variant with preeclampsia. Results: No association between rs4606 and preeclampsia was detected in the analysis including all women. However, the polymorphism was associated with preeclampsia in a subgroup of overweight women (body mass index >= 25 kg/m(2), and <30 kg/m(2)) (dominant model; odds ratio, 1.64; 95 % confidence interval, 1.10-2.42). Conclusions: Our results suggest that RGS2 might be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia particularly in overweight women and contribute to their increased risk for hypertension and other types of cardiovascular disease later in life.
  • Kovanen, Leena; Saarikoski, Sirkku Talvikki; Aromaa, Arpo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Partonen, Timo (2010)
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Kantojärvi, Katri; Männistö, Ville; But, Anna; Salomaa, Veikko; Niiranen, Teemu; Färkkilä, Martti; Luukkonen, Panu; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Jula, Antti (2022)
    Arterial hypertension (HTA) is associated with liver disease, but causality remains unclear. We investigated whether genetic predisposition to HTA is associated with liver disease in the population, and if antihypertensive medication modifies this association. Participants of the Finnish health-examination surveys, FINRISK 1992-2012 and Health 2000 (n = 33,770), were linked with national electronic healthcare registers for liver-related outcomes (K70-K77, C22.0) and with the drug reimbursement registry for new initiation of antihypertensive medication during follow-up. Genetic predisposition to HTA was defined by polygenic risk scores (PRSs). During a median 12.9-year follow-up (409,268.9 person-years), 441 liver-related outcomes occurred. In the fully-adjusted Cox-regression models, both measured systolic blood pressure and clinically defined HTA were associated with liver-related outcomes. PRSs for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with liver-related outcomes (HR/SD 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, and 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25, respectively). In the highest quintile of the systolic blood pressure PRS, new initiation of antihypertensive medication was associated with reduced rates of liver-related outcomes (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.97). HTA and a genetic predisposition for HTA are associated with liver-related outcomes in the population. New initiation of antihypertensive medication attenuates this association in persons with high genetic risk for HTA.
  • Ahola, Aila J; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims: Depressive mood negatively affects self-care practices, and thereby increases the risk of long-term complications. Not much is known about the association between depressive symptoms and dietary intake in patients with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Subjects (n = 976, 41% men, age 48 +/- 14 years) were participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaire-entries by exploratory factor analysis. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated from food records. In the same record, participants also reported the results of their daily blood glucose monitoring. Associations between BDI score and selfcare variables were analysed using generalized linear regression. For macronutrients, a substitution model was applied. Results: TWo dietary patterns ("Fish and vegetables", and "Traditional") negatively associated with the BDI score. Instead, an increase in the "Sweet" pattern score was positively associated with depressive symptomatology. Of the macronutrients, favouring protein over carbohydrates or fats associated with lower depression scores. Higher blood glucose selfmonitoring frequency and higher variability of the measurements were positively associated with the BDI score. However, no association was observed between depressive symptoms and the mean of the blood glucose measurements. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are reflected in the dietary intake and the selfmonitoring of blood glucose, in type 1 diabetes. Whether depression, via compromised self-care practices, negatively affect long-term outcomes in this patient group has to be the subject of future studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Radzeviciene, Lina; Zaharenko, Linda; Bulum, Tomislav; Skrebinska, Sabine; Prakapiene, Edita; Blaslov, Kristina; Roso, Vinko; Rovite, Vita; Pirags, Valdis; Duvnjak, Lea; Sokolovska, Jelizaveta; Verkauskiene, Rasa; Forsblom, Carol (2020)
    Aims: To investigate the association between depressive symptomatology and health markers in type 1 diabetes. Methods: Four countries from the InterDiane Consortium had adopted the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study protocol, including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Associations between depression symptomatology, diabetes complications (diabetic nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE]) and vascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome, body mass index, glycaemic control) were investigated. Results: In a sample of 1046 participants (Croatia n = 99; Finland n = 314; Latvia n = 315; Lithuania n = 318), 13.4% displayed symptoms of depression (BDI score 16) with no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of depression among the cohorts. The highest rates of diabetic nephropathy (37.1%) and proliferative retinopathy (36.3%) were observed in Lithuania. The rates of MACE and metabolic syndrome were highest in Finland. In joint analyses, individuals exhibiting depression symptomatology had higher HbA(1c) (79 vs. 72 mmol/mol, p <0.001) and higher triglyceride concentration (1.67 vs. 1.28 mmol/l, p <0.001), than those without. In the multivariable model, BDI score was positively associated with the presence of diabetic nephropathy, proliferative retinopathy, MACE, and metabolic syndrome and its triglyceride component. Moreover, BDI score was positively associated with the number of metabolic syndrome components, triglyceride concentration, and HbA(1c). Conclusions: Comorbid depression should be considered a relevant factor explaining metabolic problems and vascular outcomes. Causality cannot be inferred from this crosssectional study. (c) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Seppala, Jussi; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kampman, Olli; Leiviska, Jaana; Mannisto, Satu; Mantyselka, Pekka; Oksa, Heikki; Ovaskainen, Yrj; Viikki, Merja; Vanhala, Mauno; Seppala, Jussi (2013)
  • Shiri, Rahman; Heliovaara, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Liira, Helena Johanna; Viikari-Juntura, Eira (2011)
  • Carslake, David; Fraser, Abigail; May, Margaret T.; Palmer, Tom; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Davey Smith, George (2019)
  • Vuorinen, Miika; Männistö, Ville T.; Salomaa, Veikko; Britton, Annie; Jula, Antti; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Perola, Markus; Åberg, Fredrik (2022)
    Background and Aims Diabetes is associated with advanced liver disease and predicts mortality regardless of the primary aetiology of the liver disease. Even a family history of diabetes has been linked to advanced liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the fraction of liver-related outcomes in the general population that are attributable to diabetes remains unclear. Methods The population attributable fraction (PAF) of diabetes for liver disease as a time-dependent exposure was estimated in the Finnish FINRISK study (n = 28 787) and the British Whitehall II study (n = 7855). We also assessed the predictive ability of a family history of diabetes for liver-related outcomes. Incident diabetes data were from drug purchase/reimbursement and healthcare registries (FINRISK) or follow-up examinations (Whitehall II). Incident severe liver outcomes were identified through linkage with national healthcare registries. Results Diabetes was associated with a two-fold risk of liver-related outcomes in both the FINRISK (HR, 1.92; p < .001) and Whitehall II (HR, 2.37; p < .001) cohorts, and this remained significant after adjusting for multiple confounders. PAF analyses demonstrated that diabetes explained 12-14% of the risk for severe liver-related outcomes after 10 and 20 years of follow-up. Also, maternal diabetes increased the risk of liver-related outcomes in the FINRISK (HR, 1.43; p = .044) and Whitehall II (HR, 2.04; p = .051) cohorts. Conclusion Approximately 12%-14% of severe liver-related outcomes are attributable to diabetes at the population level. The association between maternal diabetes and liver disease might suggest a mitochondrial genetic mechanism.
  • Pirila, Satu; Taskinen, Mervi; Turanlahti, Maila; Kajosaari, Merja; Makitie, Outi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M.; Viljakainen, Heli (2014)
  • Biesiekierski, Jessica R.; Jalanka, Jonna; Staudacher, Heidi M. (2019)
    Dietary intervention is a challenge in clinical practice because of inter-individual variability in clinical response. Gut microbiota is mechanistically relevant for a number of disease states and consequently has been incorporated as a key variable in personalised nutrition models within the research context. This paper aims to review the evidence related to the predictive capacity of baseline microbiota for clinical response to dietary intervention in two specific health conditions, namely, obesity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical trials and larger predictive modelling studies were identified and critically evaluated. The findings reveal inconsistent evidence to support baseline microbiota as an accurate predictor of weight loss or glycaemic response in obesity, or as a predictor of symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome, in dietary intervention trials. Despite advancement in quantification methodologies, research in this area remains challenging and larger scale studies are needed until personalised nutrition is realistically achievable and can be translated to clinical practice.
  • Karvonen, Risto; Sipola, Marika; Kiviniemi, Antti; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Eriksson, Johan G.; Tulppo, Mikko; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero (2019)
    Objective To evaluate cardiac autonomic function in adults born preterm. Study design We studied the association between prematurity and cardiac autonomic function using heart rate variability measurements in 600 adults (mean age of 23.3 years) from a geographically based cohort in Northern Finland. There were 117 young adults born early preterm (= 37 weeks, controls). Autonomic function was analyzed by calculating time and frequency domain heart rate variability measurements using linear regression. Results Compared with controls, the mean difference in root mean square of successive differences (indicating cardiac vagal activity) was -12.0% (95% CI -22.2%, -0.5%, adjusted for sex, age, source cohort, and season P = .04) for the early preterm group and -7.8% (-16.8%, 2.0%, P = .12) for the late preterm group. Mean differences with controls in low frequency power (indicating cardiac vagal activity, including some sympathetic- and baroreflex-mediated effects) were -13.6% (-26.7%, 1.8%, P = .08) for the early pretermgroup and -16.4% (-27.0%, -4.3%, P = .01) for the late preterm group. Mean differences in high frequency power (quantifying cardiac vagal modulation in respiratory frequency) were -19.2% (-36.6%, 2.9%, P = .09) for the early preterm group and -13.8% (-29.4%, 5.3%, P = .15) for the late preterm group. Differences were attenuated when controlled for body mass index and physical activity. Conclusions Our results suggest altered autonomic regulatory control in adults born preterm, including those born late preterm. Altered autonomic regulatory control may contribute to increased cardiovascular risk in adults born preterm.
  • Liimatta, Jani; Utriainen, Pauliina; Laitinen, Tomi; Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo (2019)
    Context: Premature adrenarche (PA) is associated with childhood overweight and hyperinsulinemia; the long-term cardiometabolic outcome is unknown. Objective: To study cardiometabolic profile in adult women with previous PA. Design and participants: Thirty women with PA and 41 control subjects were followed from prepuberty to young adulthood. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and clinical and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. Results: There were no differences in the prevalence of MetS or in any parameters indicating dyslipidemia, hypertension, hepatosteatosis, atherosclerosis, or low-grade inflammation between the study groups. However, prevalence of insulin resistance (IR; P = 0.014) and acanthosis nigricans (P = 0.010) was higher in the PA group. Neither fasting glucose nor insulin concentrations differed between the study groups, but HbA1c [adjusted for body mass index (BMI) P = 0.011] and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = 0.044; BMI-adjusted P = nonsignificant) were higher in the PA group. Although BMI and fat percentage were comparable between the study groups, the PA group had higher central fat mass than the control group. In the whole study population, MetS and IR were associated with greater adult fat mass, but no prepubertal factors predicting later IR were found. Conclusion: PA does not seem to be associated with MetS, dyslipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, or low-grade inflammation in young adult women. However, some women with PA may be at an increased risk of unfavorable glucose metabolism, which is associated with increased central adiposity at adult age rather than determined by prepubertal factors. Copyright (C) 2019 Endocrine Society