Browsing by Subject "METABOLIC-RATE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Zliobaite, Indre; Fortelius, Mikael (2020)
    The Red Queen's hypothesis portrays evolution as a never-ending competition for expansive energy, where one species' gain is another species' loss. The Red Queen is neutral with respect to body size, implying that neither small nor large species have a universal competitive advantage. Here we ask whether, and if so how, the Red Queen's hypothesis really can accommodate differences in body size. The maximum population growth in ecology clearly depends on body size-the smaller the species, the shorter the generation length, and the faster it can expand given sufficient opportunity. On the other hand, large species are more efficient in energy use due to metabolic scaling and can maintain more biomass with the same energy. The advantage of shorter generation makes a wide range of body sizes competitive, yet large species do not take over. We analytically show that individuals consume energy and reproduce in physiological time, but need to compete for energy in real time. The Red Queen, through adaptive evolution of populations, balances the pressures of real and physiological time. Modeling competition for energy as a proportional prize contest from economics, we further show that Red Queen's zero-sum game can generate unimodal hat-like patterns of species rise and decline that can be neutral in relation to body size.
  • Niitepõld, Kristjan; Boggs, Carol L. (2015)
    Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage), resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance), flight metabolic rate (flight capacity), egg number and composition (reproduction), and food intake across the adult lifespan. The flight treatment did not affect body mass or lifespan. Food intake increased sufficiently to offset the increased energy expenditure. Total egg number did not change, but flown females had higher early-life fecundity and higher egg dry mass than control females. Egg dry mass decreased with age in both treatments. Egg protein, triglyceride or glycogen content did not change with flight or age, but some components tracked egg dry mass. Flight elevated resting metabolic rate, indicating increased maintenance costs. Flight metabolism decreased with age, with a steeper slope for flown females. This may reflect accelerated metabolic senescence from detrimental effects of flight. These effects of a drawdown of nutrients via flight contrast with studies restricting adult nutrient input. There, fecundity was reduced, but flight capacity and lifespan were unchanged. The current study showed that when food resources were abundant, wing-monomorphic butterflies living in a continuous meadow landscape resisted flight-induced stress, exhibiting no evidence of a flight-fecundity or flight-longevity trade-off. Instead, flight changed the dynamics of energy use and reproduction as butterflies adopted a faster lifestyle in early life. High investment in early reproduction may have positive fitness effects in the wild, as long as food is available. Our results help to predict the effect of stressful conditions on the life history of insects living in a changing world.
  • DiLeo, Michelle F.; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2018)
    There is now clear evidence that species across a broad range of taxa harbor extensive heritable variation in dispersal. While studies suggest that this variation can facilitate demographic outcomes such as range expansion and invasions, few have considered the consequences of intraspecific variation in dispersal for the maintenance and distribution of genetic variation across fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine how landscape characteristics and individual variation in dispersal combine to predict genetic structure using genomic and spatial data from the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We used linear and latent factor mixed models to identify the landscape features that best predict spatial sorting of alleles in the dispersal-related gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We next used structural equation modeling to test if variation in Pgi mediated gene flow as measured by F-st at putatively neutral loci. In a year when the population was recovering following a large decline, individuals with a genotype associated with greater dispersal ability were found at significantly higher frequencies in populations isolated by water and forest, and these populations showed lower levels of genetic differentiation at neutral loci. These relationships disappeared in the next year when metapopulation density was high, suggesting that the effects of individual variation are context dependent. Together our results highlight that (1) more complex aspects of landscape structure beyond just the configuration of habitat can be important for maintaining spatial variation in dispersal traits and (2) that individual variation in dispersal plays a key role in maintaining genetic variation across fragmented landscapes.
  • Jin, Long; Yu, Jian Ping; Yang, Zai Jun; Merilä, Juha; Liao, Wen Bo (2018)
    Hibernation is an effective energy conservation strategy that has been widely adopted by animals to cope with unpredictable environmental conditions. The liver, in particular, plays an important role in adaptive metabolic adjustment during hibernation. Mammalian studies have revealed that many genes involved in metabolism are differentially expressed during the hibernation period. However, the differentiation in global gene expression between active and torpid states in amphibians remains largely unknown. We analyzed gene expression in the liver of active and torpid Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) using RNA-sequencing. In addition, we evaluated the differential expression of genes between females and males. A total of 1399 genes were identified as differentially expressed between active and torpid females. Of these, the expressions of 395 genes were significantly elevated in torpid females and involved genes responding to stresses, as well as contractile proteins. The expression of 1004 genes were significantly down-regulated in torpid females, most which were involved in metabolic depression and shifts in the energy utilization. Of the 715 differentially expressed genes between active and torpid males, 337 were up-regulated and 378 down-regulated. A total of 695 genes were differentially expressed between active females and males, of which 655 genes were significantly down-regulated in males. Similarly, 374 differentially expressed genes were identified between torpid females and males, with the expression of 252 genes (mostly contractile proteins) being significantly down-regulated in males. Our findings suggest that expression of many genes in the liver of B. gargarizans are down-regulated during hibernation. Furthermore, there are marked sex differences in the levels of gene expression, with females showing elevated levels of gene expression as compared to males, as well as more marked down-regulation of gene-expression in torpid males than females.
  • Zions, Michael; Meehan, Edward F.; Kress, Michael E.; Thevalingam, Donald; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kaila, Kai; Puskarjov, Martin; McCloskey, Dan P. (2020)
    African naked mole-rats were likely the first mammals to evolve eusociality, and thus required adaptations to conserve energy and tolerate the low oxygen (O-2) and high carbon dioxide (CO2) of a densely populated fossorial nest. As hypercapnia is known to suppress neuronal activity, we studied whether naked mole-rats might demonstrate energy savings in GABAergic inhibition. Using whole-colony behavioral monitoring of captive naked mole-rats, we found a durable nest, characterized by high CO2 levels, where all colony members spent the majority of their time. Analysis of the naked mole-rat genome revealed, uniquely among mammals, a histidine point variation in the neuronal potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2). A histidine missense substitution mutation at this locus in the human ortholog of KCC2, found previously in patients with febrile seizures and epilepsy, has been demonstrated to diminish neuronal Cl- extrusion capacity, and thus impairs GABAergic inhibition. Seizures were observed, without pharmacological intervention, in adult naked mole-rats exposed to a simulated hyperthermic surface environment, causing systemic hypocapnic alkalosis. Consistent with the diminished function of KCC2, adult naked mole-rats demonstrate a reduced efficacy of inhibition that manifests as triggering of seizures at room temperature by the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) positive allosteric modulator diazepam. These seizures are blocked in the presence of nest-like levels of CO2 and likely to be mediated through GABA(A)R activity, based on in vitro recordings. Thus, altered GABAergic inhibition adds to a growing list of adaptations in the naked mole-rat and provides a plausible proximate mechanism for nesting behavior, where a return to the colony nest restores GABA-mediated inhibition.
  • Newham, Elis; Gill, Pamela G.; Brewer, Philippa; Benton, Michael J.; Fernandez, Vincent; Gostling, Neil J.; Haberthur, David; Jernvall, Jukka; Kankaanpaa, Tuomas; Kallonen, Aki; Navarro, Charles; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Richards, Kelly; Brown, Kate Robson; Schneider, Philipp; Suhonen, Heikki; Tafforeau, Paul; Williams, Katherine A.; Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit; Corfe, Ian J. (2020)
    Despite considerable advances in knowledge of the anatomy, ecology and evolution of early mammals, far less is known about their physiology. Evidence is contradictory concerning the timing and fossil groups in which mammalian endothermy arose. To determine the state of metabolic evolution in two of the earliest stem-mammals, the Early Jurassic Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, we use separate proxies for basal and maximum metabolic rate. Here we report, using synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging of incremental tooth cementum, that they had maximum lifespans considerably longer than comparably sized living mammals, but similar to those of reptiles, and so they likely had reptilian-level basal metabolic rates. Measurements of femoral nutrient foramina show Morganucodon had blood flow rates intermediate between living mammals and reptiles, suggesting maximum metabolic rates increased evolutionarily before basal metabolic rates. Stem mammals lacked the elevated endothermic metabolism of living mammals, highlighting the mosaic nature of mammalian physiological evolution. Modern mammals are endothermic, but it has not been clear when this type of metabolism evolved. Here, Newham et al. analyse tooth and bone structure in Early Jurassic stem-mammal fossils to estimate lifespan and blood flow rates, which inform about basal and maximum metabolic rates, respectively, and show these stem-mammals had metabolic rates closer to modern ectothermic reptiles than to endothermic mammals.
  • Rosa, Elena; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2017)
    Organisms with complex life-cycles acquire essential nutrients as juveniles, and hence even a short-term food stress during development can impose serious fitness costs apparent in adults. We used the Glanville fritillary butterfly to investigate the effects of larval food stress on adult performance under semi-natural conditions in a population enclosure. We were specifically interested in whether the negative effects observed were due to body mass reduction only or whether additional effects unrelated to pupal mass were evident. The two sexes responded differently to the larval food stress. In females, larval food stress reduced pupal mass and reproductive performance. The reduced reproductive performance was partially mediated by pupal mass reduction. Food stressed females also had reduced within-patch mobility, and this effect was not dependent on pupal mass. Conversely, food stress had no effect on male pupal mass, suggesting a full compensation via prolonged development time. Nonetheless, food stressed males were less likely to sire any eggs, potentially due to changes in their territorial behavior, as indicated by food stress also increasing male within-patch mobility (i.e., patrolling behavior). When males did sire eggs, the offspring number and viability were unaffected by male food stress treatment. Viability was in general higher for offspring sired by lighter males. Our study highlights how compensatory mechanisms after larval food stress can act in a sex-specific manner and that the alteration in body mass is only partially responsible for the reduced adult performance observed.
  • Lehmann, Philipp; Westberg, Melissa; Tang, Patrik; Lindstrom, Leena; Kakela, Reijo (2020)
    During winter insects face energetic stress driven by lack of food, and thermal stress due to sub-optimal and even lethal temperatures. To survive, most insects living in seasonal environments such as high latitudes, enter diapause, a deep resting stage characterized by a cessation of development, metabolic suppression and increased stress tolerance. The current study explores physiological adaptations related to diapause in three beetle species at high latitudes in Europe. From an ecological perspective, the comparison is interesting since one species (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) is an invasive pest that has recently expanded its range into northern Europe, where a retardation in range expansion is seen. By comparing its physiological toolkit to that of two closely related native beetles (Agelastica alniandChrysolina polita) with similar overwintering ecology and collected from similar latitude, we can study if harsh winters might be constraining further expansion. Our results suggest all species suppress metabolism during diapause and build large lipid stores before diapause, which then are used sparingly. In all species diapause is associated with temporal shifts in storage and membrane lipid profiles, mostly in accordance with the homeoviscous adaptation hypothesis, stating that low temperatures necessitate acclimation responses that increase fluidity of storage lipids, allowing their enzymatic hydrolysis, and ensure integral protein functions. Overall, the two native species had similar lipidomic profiles when compared to the invasive species, but all species showed specific shifts in their lipid profiles after entering diapause. Taken together, all three species show adaptations that improve energy saving and storage and membrane lipid fluidity during overwintering diapause. While the three species differed in the specific strategies used to increase lipid viscosity, the two native beetle species showed a more canalized lipidomic response, than the recent invader. Since close relatives with similar winter ecology can have different winter ecophysiology, extrapolations among species should be done with care. Still, range expansion of the recent invader into high latitude habitats might indeed be retarded by lack of physiological tools to manage especially thermal stress during winter, but conversely species adapted to long cold winters may face these stressors as a consequence of ongoing climate warming.