Browsing by Subject "METABOLITES"

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  • Limonte, Christine P.; Valo, Erkka; Montemayor, Daniel; Afshinnia, Farsad; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Costacou, Tina; Darshi, Manjula; Forsblom, Carol; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Groop, Per-Henrik; Miller, Rachel G.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Rossing, Peter; Sandholm, Niina; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Ye, Hongping; Zhang, Jing; Natarajan, Loki; de Boer, Ian H.; Sharma, Kumar (2020)
    Background: Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) demonstrate varied trajectories of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. The molecular pathways underlying rapid eGFR decline in T1D are poorly understood, and individual-level risk of rapid eGFR decline is difficult to predict. Methods: We designed a case-control study with multiple exposure measurements nested within 4 well-characterized T1D cohorts (FinnDiane, Steno, EDC, and CACTI) to identify biomarkers associated with rapid eGFR decline. Here, we report the rationale for and design of these studies as well as results of models testing associations of clinical characteristics with rapid eGFR decline in the study population, upon which "omics" studies will be built. Cases (n = 535) and controls (n = 895) were defined as having an annual eGFR decline of >= 3 and
  • van der Lugt, Benthe; van Beek, Adriaan A.; Aalvink, Steven; Meijer, Ben; Sovran, Bruno; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; Brandt, Renata M. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Steegenga, Wilma T.; Belzer, Clara (2019)
    BackgroundThe use of Akkermansia muciniphila as potential therapeutic intervention is receiving increasing attention. Health benefits attributed to this bacterium include an improvement of metabolic disorders and exerting anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of A. muciniphila is associated with a healthy gut in early mid- and later life. However, the effects of A. muciniphila on a decline in intestinal health during the aging process are not investigated yet. We supplemented accelerated aging Ercc1(-/7) mice with A. muciniphila for 10weeks and investigated histological, transcriptional and immunological aspects of intestinal health.ResultsThe thickness of the colonic mucus layer increased about 3-fold after long-term A. muciniphila supplementation and was even significantly thicker compared to mice supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Colonic gene expression profiles pointed towards a decreased expression of genes and pathways related to inflammation and immune function, and suggested a decreased presence of B cells in colon. Total B cell frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were not altered after A. muciniphila supplementation. Mature and immature B cell frequencies in bone marrow were increased, whereas B cell precursors were unaffected. These findings implicate that B cell migration rather than production was affected by A. muciniphila supplementation. Gene expression profiles in ileum pointed toward a decrease in metabolic- and immune-related processes and antimicrobial peptide production after A. muciniphila supplementation. Besides, A. muciniphila decreased the frequency of activated CD80(+)CD273(-) B cells in Peyer's patches. Additionally, the increased numbers of peritoneal resident macrophages and a decrease in Ly6C(int) monocyte frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes add evidence for the potentially anti-inflammatory properties of A. muciniphila.ConclusionsAltogether, we show that supplementation with A. muciniphila prevented the age-related decline in thickness of the colonic mucus layer and attenuated inflammation and immune-related processes at old age. This study implies that A. muciniphila supplementation can contribute to a promotion of healthy aging.
  • Pöhö, Paivi; Scholz, Karen; Kärkkäinen, Niina; Haapala, Markus; Räikkönen, Heikki; Kostiainen, Risto; Vaikkinen, Anu (2019)
    A new heated capillary photoionization (CPI) ion source design was developed to photoionize analytes inside a transfer capillary between a gas chromatograph (GC) and a mass spectrometer (MS). The CPI setup included a wide, oval-shaped vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) transparent magnesium fluoride (MgF2) window to maximize photoionization efficiency and thus sensitivity. The source contained a nitrogen housing around the ionization chamber inlet to avoid undesirable hydrolysis and oxidation reactions with ambient air and to maximize the proportion of formed molecular radical cations of analytes. The feasibility of the ion source was studied by analyzing 18 endogenous steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The method was validated and applied to human urine samples. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that a capillary photoionization ion source has been applied for quantitative analysis of biological samples. The GC-CPI-MS/MS method showed good chromatographic resolution (peak half-widths between 3.1 to 5.3 s), acceptable linearity (coefficient of determination between 0.981 to 0.996), and repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD%) between 5 to 18%). Limits of detection (LOD) were between 2 to 100 pg mL(-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were between 0.05 to 2 ng mL(-1). In total, 15 steroids were quantified either as a free steroid or glucuronide conjugate from the urine of volunteers. The new CPI source design showed excellent sensitivity for analysis of steroids in complex biological samples. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Welsh, Paul; Rankin, Naomi; Li, Qiang; Mark, Patrick B.; Würtz, Peter; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Marre, Michel; Poulter, Neil; Hamet, Pavel; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Sattar, Naveed (2018)
    Aims/hypotheses We aimed to quantify the association of individual circulating amino acids with macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a case-cohort study (N = 3587), including 655 macrovascular events, 342 microvascular events (new or worsening nephropathy or retinopathy) and 632 all-cause mortality events during follow-up, in a secondary analysis of the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study. For this study, phenylalanine, isoleucine, glutamine, leucine, alanine, tyrosine, histidine and valine were measured in stored plasma samples by proton NMR metabolomics. Hazard ratios were modelled per SD increase in each amino acid. Results In models investigating associations and potential mechanisms, after adjusting for age, sex and randomised treatment, phenylalanine was positively, and histidine inversely, associated with macrovascular disease risk. These associations were attenuated to the null on further adjustment for extended classical risk factors (including eGFR and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio). After adjustment for extended classical risk factors, higher tyrosine and alanine levels were associated with decreased risk of microvascular disease (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67, 0.91 and HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.76, 0.98, respectively). Higher leucine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.90), histidine (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.81, 0.99) and valine (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.70, 0.88) levels were associated with lower risk of mortality. Investigating the predictive ability of amino acids, addition of all amino acids to a risk score modestly improved classification of participants for macrovascular (continuous net reclassification index [NRI] +35.5%, p <0.001) and microvascular events (continuous NRI +14.4%, p = 0.012). Conclusions/interpretation We report distinct associations between circulating amino acids and risk of different major complications of diabetes. Low tyrosine appears to be a marker of microvascular risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of fundamental markers of kidney function.
  • Becker, Anna; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Itkonen, Outi (2021)
    Context: Patients with serotonin-secreting neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) have increased serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) concentrations. Serum 5HIAA thus serves as a biomarker in NEN. Objective: To evaluate an improved tandem mass spectrometric serum 5HIAA assay for diagnosis and follow-up of NEN in a clinical cohort. Design: A retrospective study during 2016-2018 at the Diagnostic Center and Department of Endocrinology at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Methods: Detailed patient data was obtained from 116 patients. Serum 5HIAA was analyzed by 2 different liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays with samples prepared either by protein precipitation or solid phase extraction. Twenty-four-hour urine 5HIAA samples (n = 33) were analyzed by amperometric LC, and the results were compared. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: We achieved 5 to 10 000 nmol/L linearity and Conclusion: Serum 5HIAA by LC-MS/MS after protein precipitation performs equally well for the diagnosis of NEN as urinary 5HIAA LC assay. The outcome and sensitivity for serum and 24-h urine assays are convergent. Due to much more reliable and convenient sampling, we recommend serum instead of 24-h urine 5HIAA for diagnosis and follow-up of NEN patients.
  • Lindström, Mikael; Tohmola, Niina; Renkonen, Risto; Hämäläinen, Esa; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Itkonen, Outi (2018)
    Background: Serotonin (5-hydroxytyramine) is a mediator of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction, and is secreted by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for serum serotonin to be used in NEN diagnostics and follow-up. Methods: We used serum samples from healthy volunteers (n = 31) and patients suspected or monitored for NEN (n = 98). Serotonin-D-4 internal standard was added to samples before solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification by LC-MS/MS. The effects of sample handling and preparation on serotonin stability were studied. Finally, we established a provisional reference range for serum serotonin and compared our assay with serum 5hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) for detection of NENs. Results: Our assay is sensitive and has a wide linear range (10-10,000 nmo1/1). Serum serotonin is stable for 7 days at room temperature and for 3 months at -20 degrees C. Sampling temperature is not critical. Normal range for serum serotonin was 270-1490 nmo1/1. We found that serum serotonin and 5-HIAA performed equally well as diagnostic tests for NENs. Conclusions: Our LC-MS/MS assay for serum serotonin is well suited for clinical research and patient diagnostics. Our results confirm that it can complement 5-HIAA in diagnosis of NENs.
  • Kauhanen, Dimple; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Koistinen, Kaisa M.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Sinisalo, Juha; Ekroos, Kim (2016)
    Monitoring the levels of the ceramides (Cer) d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1 and ratios thereof in human plasma empowers the prediction of fatal outcome of coronary artery disease (CAD). We describe a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methodology for clinical-scaled measurement of the four distinct ceramides. Rapid plasma precipitation was accomplished in 96-well format. Excellent extraction recoveries in the range of 98-109 % were achieved for each ceramide. Addition of corresponding D-7-labeled ceramide standards facilitated precise quantification of each plasma ceramide species utilizing a novel short 5-min LC-MS/MS method. Neither matrix interference nor carryover was observed. Robust intra- and inter-assay accuracy and precision <15 % at five different concentrations were obtained. Linear calibration lines with regressions, R (2) > 0.99, were achieved for all analytes. Short-term bench top, long-term plasma, and extract stability demonstrated that the distinct ceramides were stable in the conditions evaluated. The validity of the methodology was demonstrated by determining the precise ceramide concentrations in a small CAD case-control study. Thus, our LC-MS/MS methodology features simple sample preparation and short analysis time for accurate quantification of Cer d18:1/16:0, Cer d18:1/18:0, Cer d18:1/24:0, and Cer d18:1/24:1, designed for routine analysis.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Rasanen, Ilpo; Ojanperä, Ilkka; Thelander, Gunilla; Kronstrand, Robert; Vikingsson, Svante (2020)
    Flualprazolam is a novel designer benzodiazepine, structurally related to alprazolam, flubromazolam and triazolam. In the last couple of years, it has been frequently detected in seizures and in forensic cases in Sweden and Finland. However, there is a lack of published blood concentrations for the drug, which presents difficulties when assessing its relevance for the cause of death. A quantitative method for the determination of flualprazolam in post-mortem blood was developed and validated, and subsequently used to analyse samples from 33 deaths previously screened as testing positive for flualprazolam in Sweden and Finland. Most of the cases in the study were accidental deaths (61 %) or suicides (18 %). The median (range) flualprazolam concentration was 18.0 (3.0-68) ng/g. The majority of the deceased were male (82 %) and the median age was 30 years. The median age in the Swedish cases was significantly higher (35 years) than in the Finnish cases (23 years) (p <0.05). Poly-drug use and particularly the concomitant use of flualprazolam and opioids were very common in the study population. Most of the cases that were positive for flualprazolam were fatal poisonings by a drug (N = 23), and in 13 cases, flualprazolam was implicated in the cause of death. Combining the resources of two countries in which all post-mortem toxicology is centralised provided a more comprehensive insight into the toxicology of flualprazolam. Research on novel psychoactive substances, such as flualprazolam, is required in order to be able to provide scientific evidence on the risks of these new substances for drug administration and potential users. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jonsson, Martina; Jestoi, Marika; Anthoni, Minna; Welling, Annikki; Loivamaa, Iida; Hallikainen, Ville; Kankainen, Matti; Lysoe, Erik; Koivisto, Pertti; Peltonen, Kimmo (2016)
    The mycotoxin enniatin B, a cyclic hexadepsipeptide produced by the plant pathogen Fusarium, is prevalent in grains and grain-based products in different geographical areas. Although enniatins have not been associated with toxic outbreaks, they have caused toxicity in vitro in several cell lines. In this study, the cytotoxic effects of enniatin B were assessed in relation to cellular energy metabolism, cell proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in Balb 3T3 and HepG2 cells. The mechanism of toxicity was examined by means of whole genome expression profiling of exposed rat primary hepatocytes. Enniatin B altered cellular energy metabolism and reduced cell proliferation in Balb 3T3 and HepG2 cell lines. Furthermore, the proportion of apoptotic cell populations of Balb 3T3 cells slightly increased. On the other hand, enniatin B caused necrotic cell death in primary hepatocytes. Gene expression studies revealed the alteration of energy metabolism due to effects on mitochondrial organization and function and the assembly of complex I of the electron transport chain. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Haggman, J.; Christensen, J. M.; Mantysaari, E. A.; Juga, J. (2019)
    High-yielding cows may suffer from negative energy balance during early lactation, which can lead to ketosis and delayed ability of returning to cyclicity after calving. Fast recovery after calving is essential when breeding for improved fertility. Traditionally used fertility traits, such as the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI), have low heritabilities and are highly influenced by management decisions. Herd Navigator (TM) management program samples and analyses milk progesterone and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) automatically during milking. In this study, the genetic parameters of endocrine fertility traits (measured from milk progesterone) and hyperketonemia (measured from milk BHB) in early lactation were evaluated and compared with traditional fertility traits (CFI, interval from calving to the last insemination and interval from first to last insemination) and the milk yield in red dairy cattle herds in Finland. Data included observations from 14 farms from 2014 to 2017. Data were analyzed with linear animal models using DMU software and analyses were done for first parity cows. Heritability estimates for traditional fertility traits were low and varied between 0.03 and 0.07. Estimated heritabilities for endocrine fertility traits (interval from calving to the first heat (CFH) and commencement of luteal activity (C-LA)) were higher than for traditional fertility traits (0.19 to 0.33). Five slightly different hyperketonemia traits divided into two or three classes were studied. Linear model heritability estimates for hyperketonemia traits were low, however, when the threshold model was used for binary traits the estimates became slightly higher (0.07 to 0.15). Genetic correlation between CFH and C-LA for first parity cows was high (0.97) as expected since traits are quite similar. Moderate genetic correlations (0.47 to 0.52) were found between the endocrine fertility traits and early lactation milk yield. Results suggest that the data on endocrine fertility traits measured by automatic systems is a promising tool for improving fertility, specifically when more data is available. For hyperketonemia traits, dividing values into three classes instead of two seemed to work better. Based on the current study and previous studies, where higher heritabilities have been found for milk BHB traits than for clinical ketosis, milk BHB traits are a promising indicator trait for resistance to ketosis and should be studied more. It is important that this kind of data from automatic devices is made available to recording and breeding organizations in the future.
  • Ware, Jennifer J.; Chen, Xiangning; Vink, Jacqueline; Loukola, Anu; Minica, Camelia; Pool, Rene; Milaneschi, Yuri; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Chen, Jingchun; Peterson, Roseann E.; Auro, Kirsi; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Stiby, Alexander I.; Hemani, Gibran; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Korhonen, Tellervo; Heliovaara, Markku; Perola, Markus; Rose, Richard J.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Timpson, Nic; Wassenaar, Catherine A.; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Smith, George Davey; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Koskinen, Seppo; Spector, Timothy; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Salomaa, Veikko; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Munafo, Marcus R. (2016)
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex behavioural phenotypes such as cigarette smoking typically employ self-report phenotypes. However, precise biomarker phenotypes may afford greater statistical power and identify novel variants. Here we report the results of a GWAS meta-analysis of levels of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in 4,548 daily smokers of European ancestry. We identified a locus close to UGT2B10 at 4q13.2 (minimum p = 5.89 x 10(-10) for rs114612145), which was consequently replicated. This variant is in high linkage disequilibrium with a known functional variant in the UGT2B10 gene which is associated with reduced nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation activity, but intriguingly is not associated with nicotine intake. Additionally, we observed association between multiple variants within the 15q25.1 region and cotinine levels, all located within the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster or adjacent genes, consistent with previous much larger GWAS using self-report measures of smoking quantity. These results clearly illustrate the increase in power afforded by using precise biomarker measures in GWAS. Perhaps more importantly however, they also highlight that biomarkers do not always mark the phenotype of interest. The use of metabolite data as a proxy for environmental exposures should be carefully considered in the context of individual differences in metabolic pathways.
  • Omidi, Azam; Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2019)
    In lakes, cyanobacterial blooms are frequently associated with green algae and dominate the phytoplankton community in successive waves. In the present study, the interactions between Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 and Desmodesmus subspicatus were studied to clarify the probable ecological significance of algal secondary metabolites; focusing on the role of cyanotoxin ‘microcystin-LR’(MC-LR). A dialysis co-cultivation technique was applied where M. aeruginosa was grown inside and D. subspicatus was cultured outside of the dialysis tubing. The concentration of the intra- and extracellular MC-LR and the growth of two species were measured at different time points over a period of one month. Additionally, the growth of the two species in the culture filtrate of one another and the effect of the purified MC-LR on the growth of the green alga were studied. The results indicated that the co-existing species could affect each other depending on the growth phases. Despite the early dominance of D. subspicatus during the logarithmic phase,M. aeruginosa suppressed the growth of the green alga at the stationary phase, which coincided with increased MC production and release. However, the inhibitory effects of Microcystis might be related to its other extracellular metabolites rather than, or possibly in addition to, MC
  • Jalanka, Jonna; Mattila, Eero; Jouhten, Hanne; Hartman, Jorn; de Vos, Willem M.; Arkkila, Perttu; Satokari, Reetta (2016)
    Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). It restores the disrupted intestinal microbiota and subsequently suppresses C. difficile. The long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota and the recovery of mucosal microbiota, both of which have not been previously studied, are assessed herein. Further, the specific bacteria behind the treatment efficacy are also investigated. Methods: We performed a high-throughput microbiota profiling using a phylogenetic microarray analysis of 131 faecal and mucosal samples from 14 rCDI patients pre- and post-FMT during a 1-year follow-up and 23 samples from the three universal donors over the same period. Results: The FMT treatment was successful in all patients. FMT reverted the patients' bacterial community to become dominated by Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, the major anaerobic bacterial groups of the healthy gut. In the mucosa, the amount of facultative anaerobes decreased, whereas Bacteroidetes increased. Post-FMT, the patients' microbiota profiles were more similar to their own donors than what is generally observed for unrelated subjects and this striking similarity was retained throughout the 1-year follow-up. Furthermore, the universal donor approach allowed us to identify bacteria commonly established in all CDI patients and revealed a commonly acquired core microbiota consisting of 24 bacterial taxa. Conclusions: FMT induces profound microbiota changes, therefore explaining the high clinical efficacy for rCDI. The identification of commonly acquired bacteria could lead to effective bacteriotherapeutic formulations. FMT can affect microbiota in the long-term and offers a means to modify it relatively permanently for the treatment of microbiota-associated diseases.
  • Pryazhnikov, Evgeny; Mugantseva, Ekaterina; Casarotto, Plinio; Kolikova, Julia; Fred, Senem Merve; Toptunov, Dmytro; Afzalov, Ramil; Hotulainen, Pirta; Voikar, Vootele; Terry-Lorenzo, Ryan; Engel, Sharon; Kirov, Sergei; Castren, Eero; Khiroug, Leonard (2018)
    Ketamine, a well-known anesthetic, has recently attracted renewed attention as a fast-acting antidepressant. A single dose of ketamine induces rapid synaptogenesis, which may underlie its antidepressant effect. To test whether repeated exposure to ketamine triggers sustained synaptogenesis, we administered a sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine (10 mg/kg i.p.) once-daily for 5 days, and repeatedly imaged dendritic spines of the YFP-expressing pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake female mice using in vivo two-photon microscopy. We found that the spine formation rate became significantly higher at 72-132 h after the first ketamine injection (but not at 6-24 h), while the rate of elimination of pre-existing spines remained unchanged. In contrast to the net gain of spines observed in ketamine-treated mice, the vehicle-injected control mice exhibited a net loss typical for young-adult animals undergoing synapse pruning. Ketamine-induced spinogenesis was correlated with increased PSD-95 and phosphorylated actin, consistent with formation of new synapses. Moreover, structural synaptic plasticity caused by ketamine was paralleled by a significant improvement in the nest building behavioral assay. Taken together, our data show that subchronic low-dose ketamine induces a sustained shift towards spine formation.
  • Ruohtula, Terhi; de Goffau, Marcus C.; Nieminen, Janne K.; Honkanen, Jarno; Siljander, Heli; Hämäläinen, Anu-Maaria; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Ilonen, Jorma; Niemelä, Onni; Welling, Gjalt W.; Knip, Mikael; Harmsen, Hermie J.; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Recent studies suggest that the cross-talk between the gut microbiota and human immune system during the first year of life is an important regulator of the later development of atopic diseases. We explored the changes in the gut microbiota, blood regulatory T cells, and atopic sensitization in a birth-cohort of Estonian and Finnish children followed from 3 to 36 months of age. We describe here an infant Treg phenotype characterized by high Treg frequency, the maturation of Treg population characterized by a decrease in their frequency accompanied with an increase in the highly activated Treg cells. These changes in Treg population associated first with the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum followed by increasing colonization with butyrate producing bacteria. High bifidobacterial abundance in the neonatal microbiota appeared to be protective, while colonization with Bacteroides and E. coli was associated with later risk of allergy. Estonian children with lower risk of IgE mediated allergic diseases than Finnish children showed an earlier maturation of the gut microbiota, detected as earlier switch to an increasing abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, combined with an earlier maturation of Treg cell phenotype and total IgE production. The children with established allergic diseases by age 3 showed a decreased abundance of butyrate producing Faecalibacterium. These results suggest that as well as the maintenance of a bifidobacterial dominated gut microbiota is important during the first weeks of life, the overtake by butyrate producing bacteria seems to be a beneficial shift, which should not be postponed.
  • Valitalo, Pyry; Kokki, Merja; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Hooker, Andrew C.; Kokki, Hannu (2017)
    Purpose The aim of the current population pharmacokinetic study was to quantify oxycodone pharmacokinetics in children ranging from preterm neonates to children up to 7 years of age. Methods Data on intravenous or intramuscular oxycodone administration were obtained from three previously published studies (n = 119). The median [range] postmenstrual age of the subjects was 299 days [170 days-7.8 years]. A population pharmacokinetic model was built using 781 measurements of oxycodone plasma concentration. The model was used to simulate repeated intravenous oxycodone administration in four representative infants covering the age range from an extremely preterm neonate to 1-year old infant. Results The rapid maturation of oxycodone clearance was best described with combined allometric scaling and maturation function. Central and peripheral volumes of distribution were nonlinearly related to bodyweight. The simulations on repeated intravenous administration in virtual patients indicated that oxycodone plasma concentration can be kept between 10 and 50 ng/ml with a high probability when the maintenance dose is calculated using the typical clearance and the dose interval is 4 h. Conclustions Oxycodone clearance matures rapidly after birth, and between-subject variability is pronounced in neonates. The pharmacokinetic model developed may be used to evaluate different multiple dosing regimens, but the safety of repeated doses should be ensured.
  • Akhgari, Amir; Laakso, Into; Maaheimo, Hannu; Choi, Young Hae; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Rischer, Heiko (2019)
    Methyl jasmonate is capable of initiating or improving the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in plants and therefore has opened up a concept for the biosynthesis of valuable constituents. In this study, the effect of different doses of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation on the accumulation of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) in the hairy root cultures of the medicinal plant, Rhazya stricta throughout a time course (one-seven days) was investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out for targeted ten major non-polar alkaloids. Furthermore, overall alterations in metabolite contents in elicited and control cultures were investigated applying proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy. Methyl jasmonate caused dosage- and time course-dependent significant rise in the accumulation of TIAs as determined by GC-MS. The contents of seven alkaloids including eburenine, quebrachamine, fluorocarpamine, pleiocarpamine, tubotaiwine, tetrahydroalstonine, and ajmalicine increased compared to non-elicited cultures. However, MeJA-elicitation did not induce the accumulation of vincanine, yohimbine (isomer II), and vallesiachotamine. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) of H-1 NMR metabolic profiles revealed a discrimination between elicited hairy roots and control cultures with significant increase in total vindoline-type alkaloid content and elevated levels of organic and amino acids. In addition, elicited and control samples had different sugar and fatty acid profiles, suggesting that MeJA also influences the primary metabolism of R. stricta hairy roots. It is evident that methyl jasmonate is applicable for elevating alkaloid accumulation in "hairy root" organ cultures of R. strica.
  • Aernouts, Ben; Adriaens, Ines; Diaz-Olivares, Jose; Saeys, Wouter; Mantysaari, Paivi; Kokkonen, Tuomo; Mehtio, Terhi; Kajava, Sari; Lidauer, Paula; Lidauer, Martin H.; Pastell, Matti (2020)
    In high-yielding dairy cattle, severe postpartum negative energy balance is often associated with metabolic and infectious disorders that negatively affect production, fertility, and welfare. Mobilization of adipose tissue associated with negative energy balance is reflected through an increased level of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood plasma. Earlier, identification of negative energy balance through detection of increased blood plasma NEFA concentration required laborious and stressful blood sampling. More recently, attempts have been made to predict blood NEFA concentration from milk samples. In this study, we aimed to develop and validate a model to predict blood plasma NEFA concentration using the milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra that are routinely measured in the context of milk recording. To this end, blood plasma and milk samples were collected in wk 2, 3, and 20 postpartum for 192 lactations in 3 herds. The blood plasma samples were taken in the morning, and representative milk samples were collected during the morning and evening milk sessions on the same day. To predict plasma NEFA concentration from the milk MIR spectra, partial least squares regression models were trained on part of the observations from the first herd. The models were then thoroughly validated on all other observations of the first herd and on the observations of the 2 independent herds to explore their robustness and wide applicability. The final model could accurately predict blood plasma NEFA concentrations 1.2 mmol/L NEFA, the model clearly underestimated the true level. Additionally, we found that morning blood plasma NEFA levels were predicted with significantly higher accuracy using MIR spectra of evening milk samples compared with MIR spectra of morning samples, with root mean square error of prediction values of, respectively, 0.182 and 0.197 mmol/L, and R-2 values of 0.613 and 0.502. These results suggest a time delay between variations in blood plasma NEFA and related milk biomarkers. Based on the MIR spectra of evening milk samples, cows at risk for negative energy status, indicated by detrimental morning blood plasma NEFA levels (>0.6 mmol/L), could be identified with a sensitivity and specificity of, respectively, 0.831 and 0.800. As this model can be applied to millions of historical and future milk MIR spectra, it opens an opportunity for regular metabolic screening and improved resilience phenotyping.
  • Mian, P.; van Esdonk, M. J.; Olkkola, K. T.; de Winter, B. C. M.; Liukas, A.; Spriet, I.; Tibboel, D.; Petrovic, M.; Koch, B. C. P.; Allegaert, K. (2019)
    Aims Paracetamol is the analgesic most used by older people. The physiological changes occurring with ageing influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of paracetamol and its variability. We performed a population PK-analysis to describe the PK of intravenous (IV) paracetamol in fit older people. Simulations were performed to illustrate target attainment and variability of paracetamol exposure following current dosing regimens (1000 mg every 6 h, every 8 h) using steady-state concentration (Css-mean) of 10 mg l(-1) as target for effective analgesia. Methods A population PK-analysis, using NONMEM 7.2, was performed based on 601 concentrations of paracetamol from 30 fit older people (median age 77.3 years, range [61.8-88.5], body weight 79 kg [60-107]). All had received an IV paracetamol dose of 1000 mg (over 15 min) after elective knee surgery. Results A two-compartment PK-model best described the data. Volume of distribution of paracetamol increased exponentially with body weight. Clearance was not influenced by any covariate. Simulations of the standardized dosing regimens resulted in a C-ss of 9.2 mg l(-1) and 7.2 mg l(-1), for every 6 h and every 8 h respectively. Variability in paracetamol PK resulted in C-ss above 5.4 and 4.1 mg l(-1), respectively, in 90% of the population and above 15.5 and 11.7, respectively, in 10% at these dosing regimens. Conclusions The target concentration was achieved in the average patient with 1000 mg every 6 h, while every 8 h resulted in underdosing for the majority of the population. Furthermore, due to a large (unexplained) interindividual variability in paracetamol PK a relevant proportion of the fit older people remained either under- or over exposed.
  • Mesihää, Samuel; Rasanen, Ilpo; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2020)
    Purity assessment of seized material containing new psychoactive substances (NPS) is complicated without appropriate primary reference standards. Here we present a method for fast quantitative estimation of stimulant-type NPS with use of secondary reference standards, based on gas chromatography nitrogen chemiluminescence detection coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-NCD-APCI-QTOFMS). Quantification was based on the detector’s N-equimolar response to nitrogen and using two external nitrogen-containing calibrators, MDMA for prim- and sec- amines and α-PVP for tert- amines. Sample preparation involved dissolving the seized powdery material in an organic solvent mixture followed by acylation with N-methyl-bis-trifluoroacetamide (MBTFA). The method’s between-day accuracy and precision over a five-day period was measured for twenty-eight stimulants: the grand mean equimolarity was 91.9% (CV 5.5%), as compared with primary reference standards. The GC-NCD-APCI-QTOFMS method was applied to the purity estimation of forty-two seized powder samples previously found to contain stimulant-type NPS by appropriate methods. The quantitative results were compared to those obtained by an established method relying on liquid chromatography chemiluminescence detection (LC-CLND), the latter using caffeine as an external calibrator. The mean difference of purity values between the methods was 8.1% (range 0.4 - 26.7%). The presented method might find use as a tool for instant purity assessment in forensic laboratories.