Browsing by Subject "METABOLOMICS"

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  • FINNPEC (2018)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy disorder. It is not extensively known how the metabolic alterations of PE women contribute to the metabolism of newborn. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted meta bolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between infants born to PE and non-PE pregnancies in the FINNPEC study. Cord plasma was available from 42 newborns born from PE and 53 from non-PE pregnancies. 133 molecular features differed between PE and non-PE newborns after correction for multiple testing. Decreased levels of 4-pyridoxic acid were observed in the cord plasma samples of PE newborns when compared to non-PE newborns. Compounds representing following areas of metabolism were increased in the cord plasma of PE newborns: urea and creatine metabolism; carnitine biosynthesis and acylcarnitines; putrescine metabolites; tryptophan metabolism and phosphatidylcholines. To our knowledge, this study is the first one to apply LC-MS based meta bolomics in cord plasma of PE newborns. We demonstrate that this strategy provides a global picture of the widespread metabolic alterations associated with PE and particularly the elevated levels of carnitine precursors and trimethylated compounds appear to be associated with PE at birth.
  • Esterhuizen, Karien; Lindeque, J. Zander; Mason, Shayne; van der Westhuizen, Francois H.; Suomalainen, Anu; Hakonen, Anna H.; Carroll, Christopher J.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; de Laat, Paul B.; Janssen, Mirian C. H.; Smeitink, Jan A. M.; Louw, Roan (2019)
    We used a comprehensive metabolomics approach to study the altered urinary metabolome of two mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy lactic acidosis and stroke like episodes (MELAS) cohorts carrying the m.3243A > G mutation. The first cohort were used in an exploratory phase, identifying 36 metabolites that were significantly perturbed by the disease. During the second phase, the 36 selected metabolites were able to separate a validation cohort of MELAS patients completely from their respective control group, suggesting usefulness of these 36 markers as a diagnostic set. Many of the 36 perturbed metabolites could be linked to an altered redox state, fatty acid catabolism and one-carbon metabolism. However, our evidence indicates that, of all the metabolic perturbations caused by MELAS, stalled fatty acid oxidation prevailed as being particularly disturbed. The strength of our study was the utilization of five different analytical platforms to generate the robust metabolomics data reported here. We show that urine may be a useful source for disease-specific metabolomics data, linking, amongst others, altered one-carbon metabolism to MELAS. The results reported here are important in our understanding of MELAS and might lead to better treatment options for the disease.
  • Puurunen, Jenni; Ottka, Claudia; Salonen, Milla; Niskanen, Julia E.; Lohi, Hannes (2022)
    As an individual's metabolism reflects health and disease states well, metabolomics holds a vast potential in biomedical applications. However, normal physiological factors, such as age, can also influence metabolism, challenging the establishment of disease-specific metabolic aberrations. Here, we examined how physiological and diet-related factors drive variance in the metabolism of healthy pet dogs. We analysed 2068 serum samples using a canine nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics platform. With generalized linear models, we discovered that age, breed, sex, sterilization, diet type and fasting time significantly affected the canine metabolite profiles. Especially, breed and age caused considerable variation in the metabolite concentrations, and breeds with very different body conformations systematically differed in several lipid measurands. Our results enhance the understanding how normal physiological factors influence canine metabolism, aid accurate interpretation of the NMR results, and suggest the NMR platform might be applied in identifying aberrations in nutrient absorption and metabolism.
  • Tynkkynen, Juho; Chouraki, Vincent; van der Lee, Sven J.; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Yang, Qiong; Li, Shuo; Beiser, Alexa; Larson, Martin G.; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Shipley, Martin J.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Gerszten, Robert E.; Wang, Thomas J.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Würtz, Peter; Fischer, Krista; Demirkan, Ayse; Ikram, M. Arfan; Amin, Najaf; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Metspalu, Andres; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Kivimäki, Mika; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Seshadri, Sudha; Salomaa, Veikko (2018)
    Introduction: Metabolite, lipid, and lipoprotein lipid profiling can provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Methods: We studied eight prospective cohorts with 22,623 participants profiled by nuclear magnetic resonance or mass spectrometry metabolomics. Four cohorts were used for discovery with replication undertaken in the other four to avoid false positives. For metabolites that survived replication, combined association results are presented. Results: Over 246,698 person-years, 995 and 745 cases of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease were detected, respectively. Three branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine), creatinine and two very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-specific lipoprotein lipid subclasses were associated with lower dementia risk. One high density lipoprotein (HDL; the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL) and one VLDL (total cholesterol to total lipids ratio in very large VLDL) lipoprotein lipid subclass was associated with increased dementia risk. Branched-chain amino acids were also associated with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk and the concentration of cholesterol esters relative to total lipids in large HDL with increased Alzheimer's disease risk. Discussion: Further studies can clarify whether these molecules play a causal role in dementia pathogenesis or are merely markers of early pathology. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Vojinovic, Dina; Kalaoja, Marita; Trompet, Stella; Fischer, Krista; Shipley, Martin J.; Li, Shuo; Havulinna, Aki S.; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Yang, Qiong; Sattar, Naveed; Jousilahti, Pekka; Amin, Najaf; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Taba, Nele; Sabayan, Behnam; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Stott, David J.; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Jukema, J. Wouter; Seshadri, Sudha; Kettunen, Johannes; Kivimaki, Mika; Esko, Tonu; van Duijn, Cornelia M. (2021)
    Objective To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings. Methods We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in 7 prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed with Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately. Results The analyses revealed 10 significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85, 0.94; p = 4.45 x 10-5), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD 1.09, 95% CI 1.04, 1.14; p = 7.45 x 10-4), acute-phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD 1.09, 95% CI 1.03, 1.15; p = 1.27 x 10-3), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2, and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focused on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.19; p = 4.13 x 10-4) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles. Conclusions We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute-phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.
  • Akbaraly, Tasnime; Wurtz, Peter; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Shipley, Martin J.; Haapakoski, Rita; Lehto, Maili; Desrumaux, Catherine; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Mikkilä, Vera; Hingorani, Aroon; Humphries, Steve E.; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Raitakari, Olli; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    Diet may modify metabolomic profiles towards higher or lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We aimed to identify metabolite profiles associated with high adherence to dietary recommendations-the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) - and the extent to which metabolites associated with AHEI also predict incident CVD. Relations between AHEI score and 80 circulating lipids and metabolites, quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics, were examined using linear regression models in the Whitehall II study (n = 4824, 55.9 +/- 6.1 years, 28.0% women) and were replicated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1716, 37.7 +/- 5.0 years, 56.3% women). We used Cox models to study associations between metabolites and incident CVD over the 15.8-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study. After adjustment for confounders, higher AHEI score (indicating healthier diet) was associated with higher degree of unsaturation of fatty acids (FA) and higher ratios of polyunsaturated FA, omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid relative to total FA in both Whitehall II and Young Finns studies. A concordance of associations of metabolites with higher AHEI score and lower CVD risk was observed in Whitehall II. Adherence to healthy diet seems to be associated with specific FA that reduce risk of CVD.
  • Whipp, Alyce M.; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; van Kamp, Irene; Kaprio, Jaakko (2022)
    Depression is a heterogeneous mental health problem affecting millions worldwide, but a majority of individuals with depression do not experience relief from initial treatments. Therefore, we need to improve our understanding of the biology of depression. Metabolomic approaches, especially untargeted ones, can suggest new hypotheses for further exploring biological mechanisms. Using the FinnTwin12 cohort, a longitudinal Finnish population-based twin cohort, with data collected in adolescence and young adulthood including 725 blood plasma samples, we investigated associations between depression and 11 low-molecular weight metabolites (amino acids and ketone bodies). In linear regression models with the metabolite (measured at age 22) as the dependent variable and depression ratings (measured at age 12, 14, 17, or 22 from multiple raters) as independent variables [adjusted first for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and additional covariates (later)], we initially identified a significant negative association of valine with depression. Upon further analyses, valine remained significantly negatively associated with depression cross-sectionally and over time [meta-analysis beta = -13.86, 95% CI (-18.48 to -9.25)]. Analyses of the other branched-chain amino acids showed a significant negative association of leucine with depression [meta-analysis beta = -9.24, 95% CI (-14.53 to -3.95)], while no association was observed between isoleucine and depression [meta-analysis beta = -0.95, 95% CI (-6.00 to 4.11)]. These exploratory epidemiologic findings support further investigations into the role of branched-chain amino acids in depression.
  • Ahola-Olli, Ari V.; Mustelin, Linda; Kalimeri, Maria; Kettunen, Johannes; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha; Puukka, Katri; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Juonala, Markus; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Wurtz, Peter (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Metabolomics technologies have identified numerous blood biomarkers for type 2 diabetes risk in case-control studies of middle-aged and older individuals. We aimed to validate existing and identify novel metabolic biomarkers predictive of future diabetes in large cohorts of young adults. Methods NMR metabolomics was used to quantify 229 circulating metabolic measures in 11,896 individuals from four Finnish observational cohorts (baseline age 24-45 years). Associations between baseline metabolites and risk of developing diabetes during 8-15 years of follow-up (392 incident cases) were adjusted for sex, age, BMI and fasting glucose. Prospective metabolite associations were also tested with fasting glucose, 2 h glucose and HOMA-IR at follow-up. Results Out of 229 metabolic measures, 113 were associated with incident type 2 diabetes in meta-analysis of the four cohorts (ORs per 1 SD: 0.59-1.50; p Conclusions/interpretation Metabolic biomarkers across multiple molecular pathways are already predictive of the long-term risk of diabetes in young adults. Comprehensive metabolic profiling may help to target preventive interventions for young asymptomatic individuals at increased risk.
  • Schatton, Désirée; Pla-Martin, David; Marx, Marie-Charlotte; Hansen, Henriette; Mourier, Arnaud; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Pessia, Alberto; Zentis, Peter; Corona, Teresa; Kondylis, Vangelis; Barth, Esther; Schauss, Astrid C.; Velagapudi, Vidya; Rugarli, Elena I. (2017)
    Mitochondria are essential organelles that host crucial metabolic pathways and produce adenosine triphosphate. The mitochondrial proteome is heterogeneous among tissues and can dynamically change in response to different metabolic conditions. Although the transcriptional programs that govern mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function are well known, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that the cytosolic RNA-binding protein clustered mitochondria homologue (CLUH) regulates the expression of a mitochondrial protein network supporting key metabolic programs required under nutrient deprivation. CLUH exerts its function by controlling the stability and translation of target messenger RNAs. In the absence of Cluh, mitochondria are severely depleted of crucial enzymes involved in catabolic energy-converting pathways. CLUH preserves oxidative mitochondrial function and glucose homeostasis, thus preventing death at the fetal–neonatal transition. In the adult liver, CLUH ensures maximal respiration capacity and the metabolic response to starvation. Our results shed new light on the posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling the expression of mitochondrial proteins and suggest novel strategies to tailor mitochondrial function to physiological and pathological conditions.
  • Palmu, Joonatan; Tikkanen, Emmi; Havulinna, Aki S.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Lundqvist, Annamari; Ruuskanen, Matti O.; Perola, Markus; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Jousilahti, Pekka; Wurtz, Peter; Salomaa, Veikko; Lahti, Leo; Niiranen, Teemu (2022)
    Objective: Previous studies on the association between metabolic biomarkers and hypertension have been limited by small sample sizes, low number of studied biomarkers, and cross-sectional study design. In the largest study to date, we assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between high-abundance serum biomarkers and blood pressure (BP). Methods: We studied cross-sectional (N = 36 985; age 50.5 +/- 14.2; 53.1% women) and longitudinal (N = 4197; age 49.4 +/- 11.8, 55.3% women) population samples of Finnish individuals. We included 53 serum biomarkers and other detailed lipoprotein subclass measures in our analyses. We studied the associations between serum biomarkers and BP using both conventional statistical methods and a machine learning algorithm (gradient boosting) while adjusting for clinical risk factors. Results: Fifty-one of 53 serum biomarkers were cross-sectionally related to BP (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Conventional linear regression modeling demonstrated that LDL cholesterol, remnant cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and acetate were positively, and HDL particle size was negatively, associated with SBP change over time (adjusted P < 0.05 for all). Adding serum biomarkers (cross-sectional root-mean-square error: 16.27 mmHg; longitudinal: 17.61 mmHg) in the model with clinical measures (cross-sectional: 16.70 mmHg; longitudinal 18.52 mmHg) improved the machine learning model fit. Glucose, albumin, triglycerides in LDL, glycerol, VLDL particle size, and acetoacetate had the highest importance scores in models related to current or future BP. Conclusion: Our results suggest that serum lipids, and particularly LDL-derived and VLDL-derived cholesterol measures, and glucose metabolism abnormalities are associated with hypertension onset. Use of serum metabolite determination could improve identification of individuals at high risk of developing hypertension.
  • Khan, Sofia; Ince-Dunn, Gulayse; Suomalainen, Anu; Elo, Laura L. (2020)
    High-throughput technologies for genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, and integrative analysis of these data, enable new, systems-level insights into disease pathogenesis. Mitochondrial diseases are an excellent target for hypothesis-generating omics approaches, as the disease group is mechanistically exceptionally complex. Although the genetic background in mitochondrial diseases is in either the nuclear or the mitochondrial genome, the typical downstream effect is dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, the clinical manifestations show unprecedented variability, including either systemic or tissue-specific effects across multiple organ systems, with mild to severe symptoms, and occurring at any age. So far, the omics approaches have provided mechanistic understanding of tissue-specificity and potential treatment options for mitochondrial diseases, such as metabolome remodeling. However, no curative treatments exist, suggesting that novel approaches are needed. In this Review, we discuss omics approaches and discoveries with the potential to elucidate mechanisms of and therapies for mitochondrial diseases.
  • Herrala, Maria; Turunen, Soile; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Mikkonen, Jopi J. W.; Seitsalo, Hubertus; Lappalainen, Reijo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Niemelä, Raija K.; Salo, Tuula; Myllymaa, Sami; Kullaa, Arja M.; Kärkkäinen, Olli (2021)
    Saliva is a complex oral fluid, and plays a major role in oral health. Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS), as an autoimmune disease that typically causes hyposalivation. In the present study, salivary metabolites were studied from stimulated saliva samples (n = 15) of female patients with pSS in a group treated with low-dose doxycycline (LDD), saliva samples (n = 10) of non-treated female patients with pSS, and saliva samples (n = 14) of healthy age-matched females as controls. Saliva samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on the non-targeted metabolomics method. The saliva metabolite profile differed between pSS patients and the healthy control (HC). In the pSS patients, the LDD treatment normalized saliva levels of several metabolites, including tyrosine glutamine dipeptide, phenylalanine isoleucine dipeptide, valine leucine dipeptide, phenylalanine, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), urocanic acid, and salivary lipid cholesteryl palmitic acid (CE 16:0), to levels seen in the saliva samples of the HC. In conclusion, the data showed that pSS is associated with an altered saliva metabolite profile compared to the HC and that the LLD treatment normalized levels of several metabolites associated with dysbiosis of oral microbiota in pSS patients. The role of the saliva metabolome in pSS pathology needs to be further studied to clarify if saliva metabolite levels can be used to predict or monitor the progress and treatment of pSS.
  • Wang, Ying; Yang, Yang; He, Jun; Cao, Jinxuan; Wang, Hongfei; Ertbjerg, Per (2020)
    The objective was to characterize the effect of wooden breast (WB) myodegeneration on the metabolite profile of chicken meat by H-1 NMR and multivariate data analysis. The results displayed that the metabonome of chicken breast consisted predominantly of 30 metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, alkaloids, nucleosides and their derivatives. WB-affected samples showed higher leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, lysine, lactate, succinate, taurine, glucose, and 5'-IMP levels, but lower histidine, beta-alanine, acetate, creatine, creatinine, anserine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels compared to normal fillets (p <0.05). In conclusion, results indicated that WB-affected fillets possessed a unique biochemical signature. This unique profile could identify candidate biomarkers for diagnostic utilization and provide mechanistic insight into biochemical processes leading to WB myopathy in commercial broiler chickens.
  • Sen, Partho; Carlsson, Cecilia; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Simell, Satu; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Oresic, Matej (2019)
    OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic enteropathy characterized by an autoimmune reaction in the small intestine of genetically susceptible individuals. The underlying causes of autoimmune reaction and its effect on host metabolism remain largely unknown. Herein, we apply lipidomics to elucidate the early events preceding clinical CD in a cohort of Finnish children, followed up in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study. METHODS: Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics profiling was applied to a longitudinal/prospective series of 233 plasma samples obtained from CD progressors (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23), matched for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk, sex, and age. The children were followed from birth until diagnosis of clinical CD and subsequent introduction of a gluten-free diet. RESULTS: Twenty-three children progressed to CD at a mean age of 4.8 years. They showed increased amounts of triacylglycerols (TGs) of low carbon number and double bond count and a decreased level of phosphatidylcholines by age 3 months as compared to controls. These differences were exacerbated with age but were not observed at birth (cord blood). No significant differences were observed in the essential TGs. DISCUSSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that abnormal lipid metabolism associates with the development of clinical CD and occurs already before the first introduction of gluten to the diet. Moreover, our data suggest that the specific TGs found elevated in CD progressors may be due to a host response to compromised intake of essential lipids in the small intestine, requiring de novo lipogenesis.
  • Walker, Hannah K.; Ottka, Claudia; Lohi, Hannes; Handel, Ian; Clements, Dylan N.; Gow, Adam G.; Mellanby, Richard J. (2022)
    Background Metabolic profiling identifies seasonal variance of serum metabolites in humans. Despite the presence of seasonal disease patterns, no studies have assessed whether serum metabolites vary seasonally in dogs. Hypothesis There is seasonal variation in the serum metabolite profiles of healthy dogs. Animals Eighteen healthy, client-owned dogs. Methods A prospective cohort study. Serum metabolomic profiles were assessed monthly in 18 healthy dogs over a 12-month period. Metabolic profiling was conducted using a canine-specific proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy platform, and the effects of seasonality were studied for 98 metabolites using a cosinor model. Seasonal component was calculated, which describes the seasonal variation of each metabolite. Results We found no evidence of seasonal variation in 93 of 98 metabolites. Six metabolites had statistically significant seasonal variance, including cholesterol (mean 249 mg/dL [6.47 mmol/L] with a seasonal component amplitude of 9 mg/dL [0.23 mmol/L]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6-13 mg/dL [0.14-0.33 mmol/L], P < .008), with a peak concentration of 264 mg/dL (6.83 mmol/L) in June and trough concentration of 236 mg/dL (6.12 mmol/L) in December. In contrast, there was a significantly lower concentration of lactate (mean 20 mg/dL [2.27 mmol/L] with a seasonal component amplitude of 4 mg/dL [0.42 mmol/L]; 95% CI 2-6 mg/dL [0.22-0.62 mmol/L], P < .001) during the summer months compared to the winter months, with a peak concentration of 26 mg/dL (2.9 mmol/L) in February and trough concentration of 14 mg/dL (1.57 mmol/L) in July. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We found no clear evidence that seasonal reference ranges need to be established for serum metabolites of dogs.
  • Suvitaival, Tommi; Rogers, Simon; Kaski, Samuel (2014)
  • Hieta, Juha-Pekka; Kopra, Jaakko; Räikkönen, Heikki; Kauppila, Tiina; Kostiainen, Risto (2020)
    In this study, we applied a new IR laser-beamfocusing technique to enable sub-100 mu m spatial resolution in laser ablation atmospheric pressure photoionization (LAAPPI) and laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). After optimization of operational parameters, both LAAPPI- and LAESI-MSI with a spatial resolution of 70 mu m produced high-quality MS images, which allowed accurate localization of metabolites and lipids in the mouse and rat brain. Negative and positive ion LAAPPI- and LAESI-MS detected many of the same metabolites and lipids in the brain. Many compounds were also detected either by LAAPPI- or LAESI-MS, indicating that LAAPPI and LAESI are more complementary than alternative methods.