Browsing by Subject "METHANOL EMISSION"

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  • Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Taipale, R.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Rinne, J. (2015)
    Long-term flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) over boreal forests are rare, although the forests are known to emit considerable amounts of VOCs into the atmosphere. Thus, we measured fluxes of several VOCs and oxygenated VOCs over a Scots-pine-dominated boreal forest semi-continuously between May 2010 and December 2013. The VOC profiles were obtained with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, and the fluxes were calculated using vertical concentration profiles and the surface layer profile method connected to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. In total fluxes that differed significantly from zero on a monthly basis were observed for 13 out of 27 measured masses. Monoterpenes had the highest net emission in all seasons and statistically significant positive fluxes were detected from March until October. Other important compounds emitted were methanol, ethanol+ formic acid, acetone and isoprene+ methylbutenol. Oxygenated VOCs showed also deposition fluxes that were statistically different from zero. Isoprene+ methylbutenol and monoterpene fluxes followed well the traditional isoprene algorithm and the hybrid algorithm, respectively. Emission potentials of monoterpenes were largest in late spring and autumn which was possibly driven by growth processes and decaying of soil litter, respectively. Conversely, largest emission potentials of isoprene+ methylbutenol were found in July. Thus, we concluded that most of the emissions of m/z 69 at the site consisted of isoprene that originated from broadleaved trees. Methanol had deposition fluxes especially before sunrise. This can be connected to water films on surfaces. Based on this assumption, we were able to build an empirical algorithm for bi-directional methanol exchange that described both emission term and deposition term. Methanol emissions were highest in May and June and deposition level increased towards autumn, probably as a result of increasing relative humidity levels leading to predominance of deposition.
  • Rissanen, Kaisa; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana (2018)
    Most plant-based emissions of volatile organic compounds are considered mainly temperature dependent. However, certain oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) have high water solubility; thus, also stomatal conductance could regulate their emissions from shoots. Due to their water solubility and sources in stem and roots, it has also been suggested that their emissions could be affected by transport in the xylem sap. Yet further understanding on the role of transport has been lacking until present. We used shoot-scale long-term dynamic flux data from Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) to analyse the effects of transpiration and transport in xylem sap flow on emissions of 3 water-soluble OVOCs: methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde. We found a direct effect of transpiration on the shoot emissions of the 3 OVOCs. The emissions were best explained by a regression model that combined linear transpiration and exponential temperature effects. In addition, a structural equation model indicated that stomatal conductance affects emissions mainly indirectly, by regulating transpiration. A part of the temperature's effect is also indirect. The tight coupling of shoot emissions to transpiration clearly evidences that these OVOCs are transported in the xylem sap from their sources in roots and stem to leaves and to ambient air.