Browsing by Subject "METHODOLOGY"

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  • Venäläinen, Satu (2018)
    The following poem crystallizes some of the core dilemmas and affects I have encountered in my research on the challenging and complex topic of women as perpetrators of violence. It engages, in particular, with the topic of emotions in research (e.g., Dickson-Swift et al. 2009); relations among research topics, theories, and methodologies; the possibilities for fluidity in these relations (see, e.g., Childers 2014); and the dilemmas in researching groups designated as "other" in wide-ranging socio- cultural practices (Kitzinger & Wilkinson 1996). Through the engagements with these issues, the poem also attunes to ambivalent relations between different research paradigms and their epistemological and ontological background assumptions. This attunement takes inspiration from socalled postqualitative approaches (St. Pierre 2011) that are based on questioning the assumptions at the very core of conventional research practices in qualitative inquiry and hence on troubling their taken-forgrantedness. The use of art forms such as poetic writing allows for practicing research in ways that question conventional methodologies by pointing toward a plurality of meanings that exceeds simplistic or reductionist interpretations (Richardson & St. Pierre 2005). It can therefore enhance reflexivity and ethicality in research by laying emphasis on the existence of alternatives in terms of approaches adopted and interpretations made. In line with these thoughts, the following poem aims to engage with the tension between different approaches and in relations between approaches and research areas, without attempting to dissolve it. To ensure anonymity, the descriptions of research encounters in the poem are purposefully vague and not based on any singular encounters but amalgams of various ones.
  • Esau, Igor; Bobylev, Leonid; Donchenko, Vladislav; Gnatiuk, Natalia; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Konstantinov, Pavel; Kulmala, Markku; Mahura, Alexander; Makkonen, Risto; Manvelova, Alexandra; Miles, Victoria; Petaja, Tuukka; Poutanen, Pyry; Fedorov, Roman; Varentsov, Mikhail; Wolf, Tobias; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Baklanov, Alexer (2021)
    Sustaining urban environmental quality requires effective policy measures that integrate local monitoring and contextualized high-resolution modelling with actionable scenarios. Knowledgeable decision making in this field can nowadays be supported by an array of atmospheric models, but their transfer into an Integrated Urban hydrometeorological, climate and environmental Services (IUS) remains challenging. Methodological aspects that are beyond pure technicalities of the model-to-model coupling are still poorly explored. Modeling downscaling chains lack their most user-relevant link - urban-to-neighborhood scale observations and models. This study looks at a socio-environmental context of the high-resolution atmospheric modeling in the case study of the Arctic urban cluster of Apatity and Kirovsk, Russia. We demonstrate that atmospheric dynamics of the lowermost, turbulent air layers is highly localized during the most influential episodes of atmospheric pollution. Urban micro-climates create strong circulations (winds) that are sensitive to the local environmental context. As the small-scale turbulence dynamics is not spatially resolved in meteorological downscaling or statistical modeling, capturing this local context requires specialized turbulence-resolving (large-eddy simulation) models. Societal acceptance of the urban modeling could be increased in the IUS with horizontally integrated modeling driven by localized scenarios. This study presents an enhanced integrated approach, which incorporates a large-eddy simulation model PALM into meteorological downscaling chains of a climate model (EC-EARTH), a numerical weather prediction - atmospheric chemical transport model (ENVIRO-HIRLAM) and a regional-scale meteorological model (COSMO-CLM). We discuss how this approach could be further developed into an environmental component of a digital "smart city".
  • Iordan, Cristina-Maria; Hu, Xiangping; Arvesen, Anders; Kauppi, Pekka; Cherubini, Francesco (2018)
    Background: Forests and forest products can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation by stabilizing and even potentially decreasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Harvested wood products (HWP) represent a common widespread and cost-efficient opportunity for negative emissions. After harvest, a significant fraction of the wood remains stored in HWPs for a period that can vary from some months to many decades, whereas atmospheric carbon (C) is immediately sequestered by vegetation re-growth. This temporal mismatch between oxidation of HWPs and C uptake by vegetation generates a net sink that lasts over time. The role of temporary carbon storage in forest products has been analysed and debated in the scientific literature, but detailed bottomup studies mapping the fate of harvested materials and quantifying the associated emission profiles at national scales are rare. In this work, we quantify the net CO2 emissions and the temporary carbon storage in forest products in Norway, Sweden and Finland for the period 1960-2015, and investigate their correlation. We use a Chi square probability distribution to model the oxidation rate of C over time in HWPs, taking into consideration specific half-lives of each category of products. We model the forest regrowth and estimate the time-distributed C removal. We also integrate the specific HWP flows with an emission inventory database to quantify the associated life-cycle emissions of fossil CO2, CH4 and N2O. Results: We find that assuming an instantaneous oxidation of HWPs would overestimate emissions of about 1.18 billion t CO2 (cumulative values for the three countries over the period 1960-2015).We also find that about 40 years after 1960, the starting year of our analysis, are sufficient to detect signs of negative emissions. The total amount of net CO2 emissions achieved in 2015 are about -3.8 million t CO2, -27.9 t CO2 and -43.6 t CO2 in Norway, Sweden, and Finland, respectively. Conclusion: We argue for a more explicit accounting of the actual emission rates from HWPs in carbon balance studies and climate impact analysis of forestry systems and products, and a more transparent inclusion of the potential of HWP as negative emissions in perspective studies and scenarios. Simply assuming that all harvested carbon is instantaneously oxidized can lead to large biases and ultimately overlook the benefits of negative emissions of HWPs.
  • Meroni, Alice; Muirhead, Roslyn P.; Atkinson, Fiona S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Brand-Miller, Jennie C. (2020)
    High protein diets and low glycemic index (GI) diets have been associated with improved diet quality. We compared the changes in nutrient intakes of individuals at high risk of developing type-2 diabetes over 3 y who followed either a higher protein-lower GI diet (HPLG) or a conventional moderate protein-moderate GI diet (MPMG). This post hoc analysis included 161 participants with overweight and pre-diabetes from the Australian cohort of the PREVIEW study (clinical trial registered in ) who were randomly assigned to a HPLG diet (25% energy from protein, dietary GI = 56, n = 76). Food records were collected at 0-mo (baseline) and at 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-mo (dietary intervention period). Linear mixed models were used to compare the differences in total energy, macro- and micronutrients, dietary GI, glycemic load (GL) and body weight between the two diet groups at the 4 dietary intervention time points. At 3 y, 74% participants from the HPLG diet and 74% participants from the MPMG diet completed the trial. The HPLG group showed significantly higher protein intake and lower dietary GI and GL than the MPMG group (group fixed effect P <0.001 for all three parameters). By 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-mo there was a 3.0, 2.7, 2.2, and 1.4% point difference in protein intake and 6.2, 4.1, 4.8, and 3.9 GI unit difference between the groups. The intake of energy and saturated fat decreased (mostly in the first 6-mo), while the intake of dietary fiber increased (from mo-0 to mo-12 only) in both diets, with no significant differences between the diets. The dietary intakes of zinc (group fixed effect P = 0.05), selenium (P = 0.01), niacin (P = 0.01), vitamin B12 (P = 0.01) and dietary cholesterol (group by time fixed effect P = 0.001) were higher in the HPLG group than in the MPMG group. Despite both diets being designed to be nutritionally complete, a HPLG diet was found to be more nutritious in relation to some micronutrients, but not cholesterol, than a MPMG diet.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Hankonen, Nelli (2020)
    Keskustelua tutkimusten toistettavuuteen ja luotettavuuteen liittyvistä kysymyksistä on käyty viime vuosina aktiivisesti biolääketieteissä ja muilla aloilla. Vaikka monet esiin nousseista kysymyksistä ovat monille empiirisille tieteenaloille yhteisiä, osa tutkijoista arvelee psykologian olleen erityisen altis kritiikille. Tämä artikkeli ja haastattelukooste syntyivät havainnosta, jonka mukaan Suomessa ei tieteellisissä lehdissä juuri ole julkaistu pohdiskelua psykologian replikaatiokriisistä, vaikka kansainväliset tieteelliset lehdet ovat omistaneet aiheelle useita katsauksia ja erikoisnumeroita sekä julkaisseet painokkaita puheenvuoroja siitä, kuinka tutkimus-, julkaisu-, rahoitus- ja urakehityskäytäntöjä tulisi muuttaa. Tässä Psykologia-lehden haastattelukokonai- suudessa kysytään, mitä keskustelua seuranneet kotimaiset psykologitutkijat tilanteesta ajattelevat. Taustoitamme haastatteluja lyhyellä yhteenvedolla tapahtumista, jotka olivat vaikuttamassa kansainvälisen keskustelun alkamiseen, ja sen jälkeen annamme puheenvuoron kymmenelle kotimaiselle tutkijalle.
  • Niska, Miira; Nikander, Pirjo (2021)
    Population ageing presents major challenges to the welfare system across the European Union. Consequently, emphasizing delayed retirement age and extended working lives abound in political discussions. Researchers have recognized numerous problems, which make the extended working life a challenging political task. One of these problems are citizens' negative attitudes toward delayed retirement and extended working life. In this paper, we approach this "attitude problem" from the perspective of discursive social psychology and analyze the variation in the way aspirations to extend working lives are evaluated by older workers. The data analyzed in the study consists of interviews where participants between 50 and 65 years of age comment on the political goal to extend working lives. The article sheds light on the "attitude problem" by turning the attention from underlying individual preferences to discursive resources used to undermine the political goal and the situational functions these evaluative practices have.
  • Schroeder, Heike; Di Gregorio, Monica; Brockhaus, Maria; Thu Thuy Pham (2020)
  • Peura, Pekka; Haapanen, Ari; Reini, Kaarina; Törmä, Hannu (2018)
    The scope of this research is to make quantitative estimates of the potential economic and employment impacts of renewable energy self-sufficiency. The study aims to make generalizations on a regional, or even national level, and to give directions for future research. This paper analyses direct monetary values and employment impacts in two regions, in a theoretical situation where all energy is produced by renewables from the respective region. Renewable energy, especially utilization of existing but presently unused resources, can play an important role in vitalizing regional economies, especially in rural areas. The money spent on fossil energy could be kept circulating in the regional economy. The amount spent on energy in the research areas was almost (sic)4860 per capita per year, totalling more than 300 m annually. The existing data shows that there is the potential for self-sufficiency, or even surplus production. The results suggest that the regional economic impacts increase considerably if the region is self-sufficient in raw materials, including intermediates. On a larger scale, e.g., nationally, the loss of jobs in the fossil energy industry and the eventual variations within economies potentially based on renewable energy, will affect the overall impacts. There is at present insufficient scientific literature, knowledge or quantitative data for analysing these impacts thoroughly.This paper contributes to filling this gap. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Karttunen, Kalle; Ahtikoski, Anssi; Kujala, Susanna; Törmä, Hannu; Kinnunen, Jouko; Salminen, Hannu; Huuskonen, Saija; Kojola, Soili; Lehtonen, Mika; Hynynen, Jari; Ranta, Tapio (2018)
    The demand for and supply of forest biomass have both been increasing in recent years, which will set new requirements for forest management. Thus, new studies on regionally suitable forest management regimes to fulfill the needs of potential new investments and the impacts on wood supply potential on regional socioeconomic welfare are called for. The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of intensive forest management due to increased demand for wood biomass, from the regional economy point of view. In particular, the impact of intensive forest management on 1) regional gross domestic product (GDP), 2) private consumption, and 3) employment were assessed. The study was carried out by using computable general equilibrium (CGE) modelling combined with the requisite statistics and simulation of regional forest potential in the future. The results showed that total regional forest biomass supply with more intensive forest management could be increased annually on average by 26% (1.7Mm(3)) by 2030 compared to the business as usual (BAU) scenario. In this study, regional demand was increased by a hypothetical saw mill (0.5Mm(3)) and biorefinery (0.7Mm(3)). Total regional socio-economic benefits could be 2.8% ((sic)150 M) for GDP, 1.5% ((sic) 49 M) for private consumption and 1.6% (780 person-years) for employment, larger by 2030 than in the BAU scenario including multiplier effects. The study demonstrated how much regional socio-economic welfare would increase if regional wood demand with new investments combined with more intensive forest management and wood supply had more attention paid to it.
  • Pachito, Daniela V.; Pega, Frank; Bakusic, Jelena; Boonen, Emma; Clays, Els; Descatha, Alexis; Delvaux, Ellen; De Bacquer, Dirk; Koskenvuo, Karoliina; Kroeger, Hannes; Lambrechts, Marie-Claire; Latorraca, Carolina O. C.; Li, Jian; Cabrera Martimbianco, Ana L.; Riera, Rachel; Rugulies, Reiner; Sembajwe, Grace; Siegrist, Johannes; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sumanen, Markku; Suominen, Sakari; Ujita, Yuka; Vandersmissen, Godelieve; Godderis, Lode (2021)
    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may increase alcohol consumption and cause alcohol use disorder. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of parameters for estimating the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder that are attributable to exposure to long working hours, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates. Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the effect of exposure to long working hours (three categories: 41-48, 49-54 and >55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption, risky drinking (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality) and alcohol use disorder (three outcomes: prevalence, incidence and mortality). Data sources: We developed and published a protocol, applying the Navigation Guide as an organizing systematic review framework where feasible. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including the WHO International Clinical Trials Register, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, and CISDOC on 30 June 2018. Searches on PubMed were updated on 18 April 2020. We also searched electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines and organizational websites; hand searched reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consulted additional experts. Study eligibility and criteria: We included working-age (15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We considered for inclusion randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and other nonrandomized intervention studies with an estimate of the effect of exposure to long working hours (41-48, 49-54 and 55 h/week), compared with exposure to standard working hours (35-40 h/week), on alcohol consumption (in g/week), risky drinking, and alcohol use disorder (prevalence, incidence or mortality). Study appraisal and synthesis methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from publications related to qualifying studies. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias, quality of evidence and strength of evidence, using Navigation Guide and GRADE tools and approaches adapted to this project. Results: Fourteen cohort studies met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 104,599 participants (52,107 females) in six countries of three WHO regions (Americas, South-East Asia, and Europe). The exposure and outcome were assessed with self-reported measures in most studies. Across included studies, risk of bias was generally probably high, with risk judged high or probably high for detection bias and missing data for alcohol consumption and risky drinking. Compared to working 35-40 h/week, exposure to working 41-48 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 10.4 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.59-15.20; seven studies; 25,904 participants, I2 71%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working 49-54 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 17.69 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.16-26.22; seven studies, 19,158 participants, I2 82%, low quality evidence). Exposure to working >55 h/week increased alcohol consumption by 16.29 g/week (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.93-24.65; seven studies; 19,692 participants; I2 82%, low quality evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of exposure to working 41-48 h/week, compared with working 35-40 h/week on developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.08; 95% CI 0.86-1.36; 12 studies; I2 52%, low certainty evidence). Working 49-54 h/week did not increase the risk of developing risky drinking (relative risk 1.12; 95% CI 0.90-1.39; 12 studies; 3832 participants; I2 24%, moderate certainty evidence), nor working >55 h/week (relative risk 1.11; 95% CI 0.95-1.30; 12 studies; 4525 participants; I2 0%, moderate certainty evidence). Subgroup analyses indicated that age may influence the association between long working hours and both alcohol consumption and risky drinking. We did not identify studies for which we had access to results on alcohol use disorder. Conclusions: Overall, for alcohol consumption in g/week and for risky drinking, we judged this body of evidence to be of low certainty. Exposure to long working hours may have increased alcohol consumption, but we are uncertain about the effect on risky drinking. We found no eligible studies on the effect on alcohol use disorder. Producing estimates for the burden of alcohol use disorder attributable to exposure to long working hours appears to not be evidence-based at this time. Protocol identifier: PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018084077
  • Høyer, Anne; Christensen, Jacob Juel; Arnesen, Erik Kristoffer; Andersen, Rikke; Eneroth, Hanna; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lemming, Eva Warensjo; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Halldórsson, Þórhallur Ingi; Þórsdóttir, Inga; Schwab, Ursula; Trolle, Ellen; Blomhoff, Rune (2021)
    Background: As part of the process of updating national dietary reference values (DRVs) and food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs), the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2022 project (NNR2022) will select a limited number of topics for systematic reviews (SRs). Objective: To develop and transparently describe the results of a procedure for prioritisation of topics that may be submitted for SRs in the NNR2022 project. Design: In an open call, scientists, health professionals, national food and health authorities, food manufacturers, other stakeholders and the general population in the Nordic and Baltic countries were invited to suggest SR topics. The NNR2022 Committee developed scoping reviews (ScRs) for 51 nutrients and food groups aimed at identifying potential SR topics. These ScRs included the relevant nominations from the open call. SR topics were categorised, ranked and prioritised by the NNR2022 Committee in a modified Delphi process. Existing qualified SRs were identified to omit duplication. Results: A total of 45 nominations with suggestion for more than 200 exposure-outcome pairs were received in the public call. A number of additional topics were identified in ScRs. In order to omit duplication with recently qualified SRs, we defined criteria and identified 76 qualified SRs. The NNR2022 Committee subsequently shortlisted 52 PI/ECOTSS statements, none of which overlapped with the qualified SRs. The PI/ ECOTSS statements were then graded 'High' (n = 21), 'Medium' (n = 9) or 'Low' (n = 22) importance, and the PI/ECOTSS statements with 'High' were ranked in a Delphi process. The nine top prioritised PI/ECOTSS included the following exposure-outcome pairs: 1) plant protein intake in children and body growth, 2) pulses/ legumes intake, and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, 3) plant protein intake in adults, and atherosclerotic/cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, 4) fat quality and mental health, 5) vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 status, 6) intake of white meat (no consumption vs. high consumption and white meat replaced with red meat), and all-cause mortality, type 2 diabetes and risk factors, 7) intake of n-3 LPUFAs from supplements during pregnancy, and asthma and allergies in the offspring, 8) nuts intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in adults, 9) dietary fibre intake (high vs. low) in children and bowel function. Discussion: The selection of topics for de novo SRs is central in the NNR2022 project, as the results of these SRs may cause adjustment of existing DRVs and FBDGs. That is why we have developed this extensive process for the prioritisation of SR topics. For transparency, the results of the process are reported in this publication. Conclusion: The principles and methodologies developed in the NNR2022 project may serve as a framework for national health authorities or organisations when developing national DRVs and FBDGs. This collaboration between the food and health authorities in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway and Sweden represents an international effort for harmonisation and sharing of resources and competence when developing national DRVs and FBDGs.