Browsing by Subject "METROPOLITAN-AREA"

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  • Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Croteau, P. L.; Verlhac, S.; Froehlich, R.; Belis, C. A.; Aas, W.; Äijälä, M.; Alastuey, A.; Artinano, B.; Baisnee, D.; Bonnaire, N.; Bressi, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Canonaco, F.; Carbone, C.; Cavalli, F.; Coz, E.; Cubison, M. J.; Esser-Gietl, J. K.; Green, D. C.; Gros, V.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, H.; Lunder, C.; Minguillon, M. C.; Mocnik, G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Petit, J. -E.; Petralia, E.; Poulain, L.; Priestman, M.; Riffault, V.; Ripoll, A.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Setyan, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Jayne, J. T.; Favez, O. (2015)
    As part of the European ACTRIS project, the first large Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) intercomparison study was conducted in the region of Paris for 3 weeks during the late-fall-early-winter period (November-December 2013). The first week was dedicated to the tuning and calibration of each instrument, whereas the second and third were dedicated to side-by-side comparison in ambient conditions with co-located instruments providing independent information on submicron aerosol optical, physical, and chemical properties. Near real-time measurements of the major chemical species (organic matter, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and chloride) in the non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) were obtained here from 13 Q-ACSM. The results show that these instruments can produce highly comparable and robust measurements of the NR-PM1 total mass and its major components. Taking the median of the 13 Q-ACSM as a reference for this study, strong correlations (r(2) > 0.9) were observed systematically for each individual Q-ACSM across all chemical families except for chloride for which three Q-ACSMs showing weak correlations partly due to the very low concentrations during the study. Reproducibility expanded uncertainties of Q-ACSM concentration measurements were determined using appropriate methodologies defined by the International Standard Organization (ISO 17025, 1999) and were found to be 9, 15, 19, 28, and 36% for NR-PM1, nitrate, organic matter, sulfate, and ammonium, respectively. However, discrepancies were observed in the relative concentrations of the constituent mass fragments for each chemical component. In particular, significant differences were observed for the organic fragment at mass-to-charge ratio 44, which is a key parameter describing the oxidation state of organic aerosol. Following this first major intercomparison exercise of a large number of Q-ACSMs, detailed intercomparison results are presented, along with a discussion of some recommendations about best calibration practices, standardized data processing, and data treatment.
  • Hellen, Heidi; Kangas, Leena; Kousa, Anu; Vestenius, Mika; Teinila, Kimmo; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Niemi, Jarkko V. (2017)
    Even though emission inventories indicate that wood combustion is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), estimating its impacts on PAH concentration in ambient air remains challenging. In this study the effect of local small-scale wood combustion on the benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland is evaluated, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates, and dispersion modeling. The measurements were conducted at 12 different locations during the period from 2007 to 2015. The spatial distributions of annual average BaP concentrations originating from wood combustion were predicted for four of those years: 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2014. According to both the measurements and the dispersion modeling, the European Union target value for the annual average BaP concentrations (1 ngm(-3) ) was clearly exceeded in certain suburban detached-house areas. However, in most of the other urban areas, including the center of Helsinki, the concentrations were below the target value. The measured BaP concentrations highly correlated with the measured levoglucosan concentrations in the suburban detached-house areas. In street canyons, the measured concentrations of BaP were at the same level as those in the urban background, clearly lower than those in suburban detached-house areas. The predicted annual average concentrations matched with the measured concentrations fairly well. Both the measurements and the modeling clearly indicated that wood combustion was the main local source of ambient air BaP in the Helsinki metropolitan area.
  • Carnerero, Cristina; Perez, Noemi; Reche, Cristina; Ealo, Marina; Titos, Gloria; Lee, Hong-Ku; Eun, Hee-Ram; Park, Yong-Hee; Dada, Lubna; Paasonen, Pauli; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Mantilla, Enrique; Escudero, Miguel; Gomez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Coz, Esther; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Beddows, David C. S.; Harrison, Roy M.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier (2018)
    The vertical profile of new particle formation (NPF) events was studied by comparing the aerosol size number distributions measured aloft and at surface level in a suburban environment in Madrid, Spain, using airborne instruments. The horizontal distribution and regional impact of the NPF events was investigated with data from three urban, urban background, and suburban stations in the Madrid metropolitan area. Intensive regional NPF episodes followed by particle growth were simultaneously recorded at three stations in and around Madrid during a field campaign in July 2016. The urban stations presented larger formation rates compared to the suburban station. Condensation and coagulation sinks followed a similar evolution at all stations, with higher values at urban stations. However, the total number concentration of particles larger than 2.5 nm was lower at the urban station and peaked around noon, when black carbon (BC) levels are at a minimum. The vertical soundings demonstrated that ultrafine particles (UFPs) are formed exclusively inside the mixed layer. As convection becomes more effective and the mixed layer grows, UFPs are detected at higher levels. The morning soundings revealed the presence of a residual layer in the upper levels in which aged particles (nucleated and grown on previous days) prevail. The particles in this layer also grow in size, with growth rates significantly smaller than those inside the mixed layer. Under conditions with strong enough convection, the soundings revealed homogeneous number size distributions and growth rates at all altitudes, which follow the same evolution at the other stations considered in this study. This indicates that UFPs are detected quasi-homogenously in an area spanning at least 17 km horizontally. The NPF events extend over the full vertical extension of the mixed layer, which can reach as high as 3000 m in the area, according to previous studies. On some days a marked decline in particle size (shrinkage) was observed in the afternoon, associated with a change in air masses. Additionally, a few nocturnal nucleation-mode bursts were observed at the urban stations, for which further research is needed to elucidate their origin.