Browsing by Subject "MHC CLASS-I"

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  • Perazzio, Sandro F.; Allenspach, Eric J.; Eklund, Kari K.; Varjosalo, Markku; Shinohara, Michi M.; Torgerson, Troy R.; Seppänen, Mikko R. J. (2020)
    Behcet's disease (BD) is a heterogeneous multi-organ disorder in search of a unified pathophysiological theory and classification. The disease frequently has overlapping features resembling other disease clusters, such as vasculitides, spondyloarthritides and thrombophilias with similar genetic risk variants, namelyHLA-B*51,ERAP1,IL-10,IL-23R. Many of the BD manifestations, such as unprovoked recurrent episodes of inflammation and increased expression of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha, overlap with those of the hereditary monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes, positioning BD at the crossroads between autoimmune and autoinflammatory syndromes. BD-like disease associates with various inborn errors of immunity, including familial Mediterranean fever, conditions related to dysregulated NF-kappa B activation (egTNFAIP3,NFKB1,OTULIN,RELA,IKBKG) and either constitutional trisomy 8 or acquired trisomy 8 in myelodysplastic syndromes. We review here the recent advances in the immunopathology of BD, BD-like diseases and the NF-kappa B pathway suggesting new elements in the elusive BD etiopathogenesis.
  • Pritchard, Victoria L.; Makinen, Hannu; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Orell, Panu; Primmer, Craig R. (2018)
    Elucidating the genetic basis of adaptation to the local environment can improve our understanding of how the diversity of life has evolved. In this study, we used a dense SNP array to identify candidate loci potentially underlying fine-scale local adaptation within a large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population. By combining outlier, gene-environment association and haplotype homozygosity analyses, we identified multiple regions of the genome with strong evidence for diversifying selection. Several of these candidate regions had previously been identified in other studies, demonstrating that the same loci could be adaptively important in Atlantic salmon at subdrainage, regional and continental scales. Notably, we identified signals consistent with local selection around genes associated with variation in sexual maturation, energy homeostasis and immune defence. These included the large-effect age-at-maturity gene vgll3, the known obesity gene mc4r, and major histocompatibility complex II. Most strikingly, we confirmed a genomic region on Ssa09 that was extremely differentiated among subpopulations and that is also a candidate for local selection over the global range of Atlantic salmon. This region colocalized with a haplotype strongly associated with spawning ecotype in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), with circumstantial evidence that the same gene (six6) may be the selective target in both cases. The phenotypic effect of this region in Atlantic salmon remains cryptic, although allelic variation is related to upstream catchment area and covaries with timing of the return spawning migration. Our results further inform management of Atlantic salmon and open multiple avenues for future research.
  • Greco, Dario; Kivi, Niina Johanna; Qian, Kui; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri Anneli; Auvinen, Petri Olli Viljami; Auvinen, Eeva (2011)
  • Carter, Corey A.; Oronsky, Bryan T.; Roswarski, Joseph; Oronsky, Arnold L.; Oronsky, Neil; Scicinski, Jan; Lybeck, Harry; Kim, Michelle M.; Lybeck, Michelle; Reid, Tony R. (2017)
    Checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies that inhibit PD-1 or CTLA-4, have revolutionized the treatment of multiple cancers. Despite the enthusiasm for the clinical successes of checkpoint inhibitors, and immunotherapy, in general, only a minority of patients with specific tumor types actually benefit from treatment. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic alterations as a mechanism of clinical resistance to immunotherapy. This review presents evidence for that association, summarizes the epi-based mechanisms by which tumors evade immunogenic cell death, discusses epigenetic modulation as a component of an integrated strategy to boost anticancer T cell effector function in relation to a tumor immunosuppression cycle and, finally, makes the case that the success of this no-patient-left-behind strategy critically depends on the toxicity profile of the epigenetic agent(s).
  • Feola, Sara; Chiaro, Jacopo; Martins, Beatriz; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2020)
    According to the latest available data, cancer is the second leading cause of death, highlighting the need for novel cancer therapeutic approaches. In this context, immunotherapy is emerging as a reliable first-line treatment for many cancers, particularly metastatic melanoma. Indeed, cancer immunotherapy has attracted great interest following the recent clinical approval of antibodies targeting immune checkpoint molecules, such as PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4, that release the brakes of the immune system, thus reviving a field otherwise poorly explored. Cancer immunotherapy mainly relies on the generation and stimulation of cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTLs) within the tumor microenvironment (TME), priming T cells and establishing efficient and durable anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, there is a clear need to define and identify immunogenic T cell epitopes to use in therapeutic cancer vaccines. Naturally presented antigens in the human leucocyte antigen-1 (HLA-I) complex on the tumor surface are the main protagonists in evocating a specific anti-tumor CD8+ T cell response. However, the methodologies for their identification have been a major bottleneck for their reliable characterization. Consequently, the field of antigen discovery has yet to improve. The current review is intended to define what are today known as tumor antigens, with a main focus on CTL antigenic peptides. We also review the techniques developed and employed to date for antigen discovery, exploring both the direct elution of HLA-I peptides and the in silico prediction of epitopes. Finally, the last part of the review analyses the future challenges and direction of the antigen discovery field.