Browsing by Subject "MHC"

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  • Schizophrenia Working Grp Psychiat; Kamitaki, Nolan; Sekar, Aswin; Handsaker, Robert E.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Eriksson, Johan; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark; Paunio, Tiina; Pietiläinen, Olli (2020)
    Many common illnesses, for reasons that have not been identified, differentially affect men and women. For instance, the autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome affect nine times more women than men1, whereas schizophrenia affects men with greater frequency and severity relative to women(2). All three illnesses have their strongest common genetic associations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, an association that in SLE and Sjogren's syndrome has long been thought to arise from alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes at that locus(3-6). Here we show that variation of the complement component 4 (C4) genes C4A and C4B, which are also at the MHC locus and have been linked to increased risk for schizophrenia(7), generates 7-fold variation in risk for SLE and 16-fold variation in risk for Sjogren's syndrome among individuals with common C4 genotypes, with C4A protecting more strongly than C4B in both illnesses. The same alleles that increase risk for schizophrenia greatly reduce risk for SLE and Sjogren's syndrome. In all three illnesses, C4 alleles act more strongly in men than in women: common combinations of C4A and C4B generated 14-fold variation in risk for SLE, 31-fold variation in risk for Sjogren's syndrome, and 1.7-fold variation in schizophrenia risk among men (versus 6-fold, 15-fold and 1.26-fold variation in risk among women, respectively). At a protein level, both C4 and its effector C3 were present at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma(8,9) in men than in women among adults aged between 20 and 50 years, corresponding to the ages of differential disease vulnerability. Sex differences in complement protein levels may help to explain the more potent effects of C4 alleles in men, women's greater risk of SLE and Sjogren's syndrome and men's greater vulnerability to schizophrenia. These results implicate the complement system as a source of sexual dimorphism in vulnerability to diverse illnesses.
  • Gershony, Liza C; Belanger, Janelle M; Short, Andrea D; Le, Myly; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Famula, Thomas R; Kennedy, Lorna J; Oberbauer, Anita M (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease, AD) and symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) are two clinical conditions with an autoimmune etiology that occur in multiple dog breeds. In man, autoimmunity is associated with polymorphisms in immune-related genes that result in a reduced threshold for, or defective regulation of, T cell activation. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes encode molecules that participate in these functions, and polymorphisms within these genes have been associated with autoimmune conditions in dogs and humans. Bearded collies have a relatively high prevalence of autoimmune diseases, particularly AD and SLO. Our study assessed the relationship between particular MHC (dog leukocyte antigen, DLA) class II haplotypes and the two autoimmune diseases most common in this breed. Moreover, five unrelated breeds at increased risk for AD were studied for comparative purposes and analyzed in the context of extant literature. Results A single DLA class II three-locus haplotype, determined by sequence-based typing, was associated with increased risk for AD (DLA-DRB1*009:01/DQA1*001:01/DQB1*008:02) in bearded collies. Comparative analysis with the five additional breeds showed limited allele sharing, with DQA1*001:01 and DQB1*002:01 being the only alleles observed in all breeds. A distinct three-locus risk haplotype (DLA-DRB1*001:01/DQA1*001:01/DQB1*002:01) was associated with AD in the West Highland white terrier and Leonberger. Two different risk haplotypes were associated with increased risk for SLO in the bearded collie (DLA-DRB1*018:01/DQA1*001:01/DQB1*002:01 and DLA-DRB1*018:01/DQA1*001:01/ DQB1*008:02). Conclusion Two-locus DQ haplotypes composed of DLA-DQA1*001:01 in association with DLA-DQB1*002:01 or DLA-DQB1*008:02 make up the four risk haplotypes identified in the present study and are also found in other risk haplotypes previously associated with diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism across different dog breeds. Our findings build upon previously published data to suggest that this two-locus (DQ) model serves as a good indicator for susceptibility to multiple organ-specific autoimmune diseases in the canine population. However, it is also clear that additional loci are necessary for actual disease expression. Investigation of affected and unaffected dogs carrying these predisposing DQ haplotype signatures may allow for the identification of those additional genetic components that determine autoimmune disease expression and organ specificity.
  • Lahtela, Elisa; Kankainen, Matti; Sinisalo, Juha; Selroos, Olof; Lokki, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    Many sarcoidosis-associating immunological genes have been shown to be shared between other immune-mediated diseases. In Finnish sarcoidosis patients, good prognosis subjects more commonly have HLA-DRB1*03:01 and/or HLA-DRB1*04:01-DPB1*04:01 haplotype, but no marker for persistent disease have been found. The objective was to further pinpoint genetic differences between prognosis subgroups in relation to the HLA markers. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted for 72 patients selected based on disease activity (resolved disease, n = 36; persistent disease, n = 36). Both groups were further divided by the HLA markers (one/both markers, n = 18; neither of the markers, n = 18). The Finnish exome data from the Genome Aggregation Database was used as a control population in the WES sample. Statistical analyses included single-variant analysis for common variants and gene level analysis for rare variants. We attempted to replicate associated variants in 181 Finnish sarcoidosis patients and 150 controls. An association was found in chromosome 1p36.21 (AADACL3 and C1orf158), which has recently been associated with sarcoidosis in another WES study. In our study, variations in these genes were associated with resolved disease (AADACL3, p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0003; C1orf158, p = 7.03E-05). Another interesting chromosomal region also peaked, Leucocyte Receptor Complex in 19q13.42, but the association diminished in the replication sample. In conclusion, this WES study supports the previously found association in the region 1p36.21. Furthermore, a novel to sarcoidosis region was found, but additional studies are warranted to verify this association.
  • Clancy, Jonna; Ritari, Jarmo; Lobier, Muriel; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Salmenniemi, Urpu; Putkonen, Mervi; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Partanen, Jukka; Koskela, Satu (2019)
    HLA matching is a prerequisite for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) because it lowers the occurrence and severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, matching a few alleles of the classic HLA genes only may not ensure matching of the entire MHC region. HLA haplotype matching has been reported to be beneficial in HSCT because of the variation relevant to GVHD risk in the non-HLA region. Because polymorphism in the MHC is highly population specific, we hypothesized that donors from the Finnish registry are more likely to be matched at a higher level for the Finnish patients than donors from other registries. In the present study we determined 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the complement component 4 (C4) gene in the gamma-block segment of MHC from 115 Finnish HSCT patients and their Finnish (n = 201) and non-Finnish (n = 280) donor candidates. Full matching of HLA alleles and C4 SNPs, independently or additively, occurred more likely in the Finnish-Finnish group as compared with the Finnish non-Finnish group (P <.003). This was most striking in cases with HLA haplotypes typical of the Finnish population. Patients with ancestral HLA haplotypes (AH) were more likely to find a full HLA and C4 matched donor, regardless of donor origin, as compared with patients without AH (P <.0001). Despite the clear differences at the population level, we could not find a statistical association between C4 matching and clinical outcome. The results suggest that screening C4 SNPs can be advantageous when an extended MHC matching or HLA haplotype matching in HSCT is required. This study also supports the need for small population-specific stem cell registries. (C) 2018 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • Niskanen, Alina K; Kennedy, Lorna J; Lohi, Hannes; Aspi, Jouni; Pyhäjärvi, Tanja (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Despite decades of studying, the mechanisms maintaining high diversity in the genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) are still puzzling scientists. In addition to pathogen recognition and other functions, MHC molecules may act prenatally in mate choice and in maternal-foetal interactions. These interactions are potential selective mechanisms that increase genetic diversity in the MHC. During pregnancy, immune response has a dual role: the foetus represents foreign tissue compared to mother, but histo-incompatibility is required for successful pregnancy. We have studied the prenatal selection in MHC class II loci (DLA-DQA1, DLA-DQB1 and DLA-DRB1) in domestic dogs by comparing the observed and expected offspring genotype proportions in 110 dog families. Several potential selection targets were addressed, including the peptide-binding site, the MHC locus, three-locus haplotype and supertype levels. For the supertype analysis, the first canine supertype classification was created based on in silico analysis of peptide-binding amino-acid polymorphism. Results In most loci and levels, no deviation from the expected genotype frequencies was observed. However, one peptide-binding site in DLA-DRB1 had an excess of heterozygotes among the offspring. In addition, if the father shared a DLA-DRB1 allele with the mother, that allele was inherited by the offspring more frequently than expected, suggesting the selective advantage of a histo-compatible foetus, in contrast to our expectations. Conclusions We conclude that there is some evidence of post-copulatory selection at nucleotide site level in the MHC loci of pet dogs. But due to no indication of selection at locus, three-locus, or supertype levels, we estimated that the prenatal selection coefficient is less than 0.3 in domestic dogs and very likely other factors are more important in maintaining the genetic diversity in MHC loci.
  • Gershony, Liza C.; Belanger, Janelle M.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Oberbauer, Anita M. (2019)
    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is characterized by inflammation of the nail bed and nail sloughing that causes affected dogs considerable pain. Disease etiology remains unclear, although an autoimmune component is suspected. A genome-wide association study on Bearded Collies revealed regions of association on canine chromosomes (CFA) 12 and 17. The large region of association on CFA12 likely consists of two smaller linked regions, both of which are also linked to the dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II genes. Dogs homozygous for the alternate allele at the top CFA12 SNP also carried two DLA class II risk haplotypes for SLO, and this locus explained most of the increased risk for disease seen throughout the CFA12 region of association. A stronger peak was seen on CFA17 when analysis was done solely on dogs that carried DLA class II risk haplotypes for SLO. The majority of SLO dogs carried a homozygous alternate genotype on CFA12 and at least one CFA17 risk haplotype. Our findings offer progress toward uncovering the genetic basis of SLO. While the contribution of the CFA17 region remains unclear, both CFA12 and CFA17 regions are significantly associated with SLO disease expression in the Bearded Collie and contain potential candidate genes for this disease.
  • Gershony, Liza C.; Belanger, Janelle M.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Oberbauer, Anita M. (2021)
    In dogs, symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) results in nail loss and an abnormal regrowth of the claws. In Bearded Collies, an autoimmune nature has been suggested because certain dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotypes are associated with the condition. A genome-wide association study of the Bearded Collie revealed two regions of association that conferred risk for disease: one on canine chromosome (CFA) 12 that encompasses the DLA genes, and one on CFA17. Case-control association was employed on whole genome sequencing data to uncover putative causative variants in SLO within the CFA12 and CFA17 associated regions. Genotype imputation was then employed to refine variants of interest. Although no SLO-associated protein-coding variants were identified on CFA17, multiple variants, many with predicted damaging effects, were identified within potential candidate genes on CFA12. Furthermore, many potentially damaging alleles were fully correlated with the presence of DLA class II risk haplotypes for SLO, suggesting that the variants may reflect DLA class II haplotype association with disease or vice versa. Strong linkage disequilibrium in the region precluded the ability to isolate and assess the individual or combined effect of variants on disease development. Nonetheless, all were predictive of risk for SLO and, with judicious assessment, their application in selective breeding may prove useful to reduce the incidence of SLO in the breed.