Browsing by Subject "MICROBIOME"

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  • Lamichhane, Santosh; Kemppainen, Esko; Trost, Kajetan; Siljander, Heli; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Oresic, Matej (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Metabolic dysregulation may precede the onset of type 1 diabetes. However, these metabolic disturbances and their specific role in disease initiation remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined whether children who progress to type 1 diabetes have a circulatory polar metabolite profile distinct from that of children who later progress to islet autoimmunity but not type 1 diabetes and a matched control group. Methods We analysed polar metabolites from 415 longitudinal plasma samples in a prospective cohort of children in three study groups: those who progressed to type 1 diabetes; those who seroconverted to one islet autoantibody but not to type 1 diabetes; and an antibody-negative control group. Metabolites were measured using two-dimensional GC high-speed time of flight MS. Results In early infancy, progression to type 1 diabetes was associated with downregulated amino acids, sugar derivatives and fatty acids, including catabolites of microbial origin, compared with the control group. Methionine remained persistently upregulated in those progressing to type 1 diabetes compared with the control group and those who seroconverted to one islet autoantibody. The appearance of islet autoantibodies was associated with decreased glutamic and aspartic acids. Conclusions/interpretation Our findings suggest that children who progress to type 1 diabetes have a unique metabolic profile, which is, however, altered with the appearance of islet autoantibodies. Our findings may assist with early prediction of the disease.
  • Petersen, Anders Ø.; Julienne, Hanna; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Sen, Partho; Fan, Yong; Pedersen, Helle Krogh; Jäntti, Sirkku; Hansen, Tue H.; Nielsen, Trine; Jørgensen, Torben; Hansen, Torben; Myers, Pernille Neve; Nielsen, H. Bjørn; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Orešič, Matej; Pedersen, Oluf (2021)
    Knowledge about in vivo effects of human circulating C-6 hydroxylated bile acids (BAs), also called muricholic acids, is sparse. It is unsettled if the gut microbiome might contribute to their biosynthesis. Here, we measured a range of serum BAs and related them to markers of human metabolic health and the gut microbiome. We examined 283 non-obese and obese Danish adults from the MetaHit study. Fasting concentrations of serum BAs were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry. The gut microbiome was characterized with shotgun metagenomic sequencing and genome-scale metabolic modeling. We find that tauro- and glycohyocholic acid correlated inversely with body mass index (P = 4.1e-03, P = 1.9e-05, respectively), waist circumference (P = 0.017, P = 1.1e-04, respectively), body fat percentage (P = 2.5e-03, P = 2.3e-06, respectively), insulin resistance (P = 0.051, P = 4.6e-4, respectively), fasting concentrations of triglycerides (P = 0.06, P = 9.2e-4, respectively) and leptin (P = 0.067, P = 9.2e-4). Tauro- and glycohyocholic acids, and tauro-a-muricholic acid were directly linked with a distinct gut microbial community primarily composed of Clostridia species (P = 0.037, P = 0.013, P = 0.027, respectively). We conclude that serum conjugated C-6-hydroxylated BAs associate with measures of human metabolic health and gut communities of Clostridia species. The findings merit preclinical interventions and human feasibility studies to explore the therapeutic potential of these BAs in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
  • Kettunen, Elina Johanna; Schmidt, Alexander; Diederich, Paul; Grabenhorst, Heinrich; Rikkinen, Jouko (2018)
    A diversity of filamentous microfungi was discovered from thallus surfaces of epiphytic lichens preserved in Bitterfeld and Baltic amber. We report seven distinct morphologies of dematiaceous hyphomycetes, some of which closely resemble species of the extant genera Sporidesmium, Taeniolella s. lat. and Taeniolina. Both the placement of the fungi on their substrates and the exquisite preservation of delicate structures indicate that the fungi were fully developed before they were engulfed by fresh resin. The lichens probably grew on the trunks of resin producing trees and became embedded in resin flows together with their fungal associates. The findings demonstrate that a wide range of presumably specialised fungi have lived on living and decomposing lichen thalli at least since the Paleogene. The findings add an interesting new component to the as yet poorly known mycota of the ancient European amber forests.
  • Hetemäki, Iivo; Jian, Ching; Laakso, Saila Marita; Mäkitie, Outi; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Vos de, Willem Meindert; Arstila, Petteri; Salonen, Anne (2021)
    Backgrounds and Aims: APECED is a rare autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator gene. A significant proportion of patients also have gastrointestinal symptoms, including malabsorption, chronic diarrhea, and obstipation. The pathological background of the gastrointestinal symptoms remains incompletely understood and involves multiple factors, with autoimmunity being the most common underlying cause. Patients with APECED have increased immune responses against gut commensals. Our objective was to evaluate whether the intestinal microbiota composition, predicted functions or fungal abundance differ between Finnish patients with APECED and healthy controls, and whether these associate to the patients’ clinical phenotype and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: DNA was isolated from fecal samples from 15 patients with APECED (median age 46.4 years) together with 15 samples from body mass index matched healthy controls. DNA samples were subjected to analysis of the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, imputed metagenomics using the PICRUSt2 algorithm, and quantitative PCR for fungi. Extensive correlations of the microbiota with patient characteristics were determined. Results: Analysis of gut microbiota indicated that both alpha- and beta-diversity were altered in patients with APECED compared to healthy controls. The fraction of Faecalibacterium was reduced in patients with APECED while that of Atopobium spp. and several gram-negative genera previously implicated in biofilm formation, e.g. Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera and Heamophilus, were increased in parallel to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis in imputed metagenomics. The differences in gut microbiota were linked to patient characteristics, especially the presence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions: Gut microbiota of patients with APECED is altered and enriched with predominantly gram-negative bacterial taxa that may promote biofilm formation and lead to increased exposure to LPS in the patients. The most pronounced alterations in the microbiota were associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • Karkman, Antti; Parnanen, Katariina; Larsson, D. G. Joakim (2019)
    Discharge of treated sewage leads to release of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and antibiotic residues to the environment. However, it is unclear whether increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage and sewage-impacted environments is due to on-site selection pressure by residual antibiotics, or is simply a result of fecal contamination with resistant bacteria. Here we analyze relative resistance gene abundance and accompanying extent of fecal pollution in publicly available metagenomic data, using crAssphage sequences as a marker of human fecal contamination (crAssphage is a bacteriophage that is exceptionally abundant in, and specific to, human feces). We find that the presence of resistance genes can largely be explained by fecal pollution, with no clear signs of selection in the environment, with the exception of environments polluted by very high levels of anti-biotics from manufacturing, where selection is evident. Our results demonstrate the necessity to take into account fecal pollution levels to avoid making erroneous assumptions regarding environmental selection of antibiotic resistance.
  • Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.; Young, Mark J. (2016)
    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.
  • Sen, Partho; Dickens, Alex M.; Lopez-Bascon, Maria Asuncion; Lindeman, Tuomas; Kemppainen, Esko; Lamichhane, Santosh; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Oresic, Matej (2020)
    Aims/hypothesis Previous metabolomics studies suggest that type 1 diabetes is preceded by specific metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate whether distinct metabolic patterns occur in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of children who later develop pancreatic beta cell autoimmunity or overt type 1 diabetes. Methods In a longitudinal cohort setting, PBMC metabolomic analysis was applied in children who (1) progressed to type 1 diabetes (PT1D, n = 34), (2) seroconverted to >= 1 islet autoantibody without progressing to type 1 diabetes (P1Ab, n = 27) or (3) remained autoantibody negative during follow-up (CTRL, n = 10). Results During the first year of life, levels of most lipids and polar metabolites were lower in the PT1D and P1Ab groups compared with the CTRL group. Pathway over-representation analysis suggested alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism were over-represented in PT1D. Genome-scale metabolic models of PBMCs during type 1 diabetes progression were developed by using publicly available transcriptomics data and constrained with metabolomics data from our study. Metabolic modelling confirmed altered ceramide pathways, known to play an important role in immune regulation, as specifically associated with type 1 diabetes progression. Conclusions/interpretation Our data suggest that systemic dysregulation of lipid metabolism, as observed in plasma, may impact the metabolism and function of immune cells during progression to overt type 1 diabetes. Data availability The GEMs for PBMCs have been submitted to BioModels (), under accession number MODEL1905270001. The metabolomics datasets and the clinical metadata generated in this study were submitted to MetaboLights (), under accession number MTBLS1015.
  • Sammallahti, Heidelinde; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Kokkola, Arto; Ghanbari, Reza; Rezasoltani, Sama; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Knuutila, Sakari (2022)
    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. To improve patient survival, the development of screening methods for early diagnosis is pivotal. Oncogenomic alterations present in tumor tissue are a suitable target for non-invasive screening efforts, as they can be detected in tumor-derived cells, cell-free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles, which are present in several body fluids. Since stool is an easily accessible source, which enables convenient and cost-effective sampling, it could be utilized for the screening of these traces. Herein, we explore the various oncogenomic changes that have been detected in PC tissue, such as chromosomal aberrations, mutations in driver genes, epigenetic alterations, and differentially expressed non-coding RNA. In addition, we briefly look into the role of altered gut microbiota in PC and their possible associations with oncogenomic changes. We also review the findings of genomic alterations in stool of PC patients, and the potentials and challenges of their future use for the development of stool screening tools, including the possible combination of genomic and microbiota markers.
  • Sanmark, Enni; Wiksten, Johanna; Välimaa, Hannamari; Blomgren, Karin (2019)
    Aim: The purpose of this prospective study was to determine if there is a difference in number and distribution of salivary bacteria between patients with tonsillar infection and healthy volunteers. Background: The etiology of peritonsillar abscess (PTA) is unclear. Smoking, periodontal disease, and infection of minor salivary glands have been suggested as predisposing factors for PTA. Material and methods: Patients with acute tonsillitis (AT) (n = 54), peritonsillitis (PT) (n = 36), PTA (n = 58), and healthy volunteers (n = 52) were prospectively recruited and evaluated. Saliva bacteria were analyzed with flow cytometry. Patients and their treating physicians completed a questionnaire about patients' current disease, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and oral health. Results: There were no differences in the total number of saliva bacteria between patients with acute throat infection and healthy volunteers (p = .104) or between AT, PT, and PTA patients (p = .273). Smoking habits, alcohol consumption, oral hygiene, or prior antibiotics had no effect on total amount of salivary bacteria in patients with acute throat infection. Conclusions: The effects of smoking on salivary bacteria do not seem to be the mechanism that promotes development of PTA in smokers.
  • Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M.; Timonen, Sari (2020)
    Mycorrhizal fungi have a strong impact on soil biota. In this study, bacterial and archaeal populations in different parts of Suillus bovinus - Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizospheres in boreal forest were quantified and identified by DNA analysis. The numbers of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies were highest in uncolonized humus and lowest in fruiting bodies. The numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies varied from 1.3 x 10(7) to 3.1 x 10(9) copies g(-1) fw and archaeal copies from 4.1 x 10(7) to 9.6 x 10(8) copies g(-1) fw. The relatively high number of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies was likely due to the cold and highly organic habitat. The presence of hyphae appeared to further promote archaeal numbers and the archaea:bacteria ratio was over one in samples containing only fungal material. Most detected archaea belonged to terrestrial Thaumarchaeota. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria were predictably the dominating bacterial taxa in the samples with clear trend of Betaproteobacteria preferring the pine root habitats.
  • Yolken, Robert H.; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Vapalahti, Olli; Dickerson, Faith; Suvisaari, Jaana; Chen, Ou; Sabunciyan, Sarve (2021)
    An overlooked aspect of current microbiome studies is the role of viruses in human health. Compared to bacterial studies, laboratory and analytical methods to study the entirety of viral communities in clinical samples are rudimentary and need further refinement. In order to address this need, we developed Virobiome-Seq, a sequence capture method and an accompanying bioinformatics analysis pipeline, that identifies viral reads in human samples. Virobiome-Seq is able to enrich for and detect multiple types of viruses in human samples, including novel subtypes that diverge at the sequence level. In addition, Virobiome-Seq is able to detect RNA transcripts from DNA viruses and may provide a sensitive method for detecting viral activity in vivo. Since Virobiome-Seq also yields the viral sequence, it makes it possible to investigate associations between viral genotype and psychiatric illness. In this proof of concept study, we detected HIV1, Torque Teno, Pegi, Herpes and Papilloma virus sequences in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, plasma and stool samples collected from individuals with psychiatric disorders. We also detected the presence of numerous novel circular RNA viruses but were unable to determine whether these viruses originate from the sample or represent contaminants. Despite this challenge, we demonstrate that our knowledge of viral diversity is incomplete and opportunities for novel virus discovery exist. Virobiome-Seq will enable a more sophisticated analysis of the virome and has the potential of uncovering complex interactions between viral activity and psychiatric disease. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.