Browsing by Subject "MICROGLIA"

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  • Jew, Brandon; Alvarez, Marcus; Rahmani, Elior; Miao, Zong; Ko, Arthur; Garske, Kristina M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Halperin, Eran (2020)
    We present Bisque, a tool for estimating cell type proportions in bulk expression. Bisque implements a regression-based approach that utilizes single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) or single-nucleus RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) data to generate a reference expression profile and learn gene-specific bulk expression transformations to robustly decompose RNA-seq data. These transformations significantly improve decomposition performance compared to existing methods when there is significant technical variation in the generation of the reference profile and observed bulk expression. Importantly, compared to existing methods, our approach is extremely efficient, making it suitable for the analysis of large genomic datasets that are becoming ubiquitous. When applied to subcutaneous adipose and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex expression datasets with both bulk RNA-seq and snRNA-seq data, Bisque replicates previously reported associations between cell type proportions and measured phenotypes across abundant and rare cell types. We further propose an additional mode of operation that merely requires a set of known marker genes.
  • Li, Zhilin; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Merlini, Arianna; Strauss, Judith; Wihuri, Eleonoora; Nurmi, Harri; Antila, Salli; Paech, Jennifer; Deutsch, Urban; Engelhardt, Britta; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Koh, Gou Young; Flügel, Alexander; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand of the endothelial Tie2 tyrosine kinase, is involved in vascular inflammation and leakage in critically ill patients. However, the role of Ang2 in demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases is unknown. Here, we report that Ang2 is critically involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Ang2 expression was induced in CNS autoimmunity, and transgenic mice overexpressing Ang2 specifically in endothelial cells (ECs) developed a significantly more severe EAE. In contrast, treatment with Ang2-blocking Abs ameliorated neuroinflammation and decreased spinal cord demyelination and leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. Similarly, Ang2-binding and Tie2-activating Ab attenuated the development of CNS autoimmune disease. Ang2 blockade inhibited expression of EC adhesion molecules, improved blood-brain barrier integrity, and decreased expression of genes involved in antigen presentation and proinflammatory responses of microglia and macrophages, which was accompanied by inhibition of α5β1 integrin activation in microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that Ang2 provides a target for increasing Tie2 activation in ECs and inhibiting proinflammatory polarization of CNS myeloid cells via α5β1 integrin in neuroinflammation. Thus, Ang2 targeting may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.
  • Ma, Li; Piirainen, Sami; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Rauvala, Heikki; Tian, Li (2015)
    Background: Social deficit is one of the core symptoms of neuropsychiatric diseases, in which immune genes play an important role. Although a few immune genes have been shown to regulate social and emotional behaviors, how immune gene network(s) may jointly regulate sociability has not been investigated so far. Methods: To decipher the potential immune-mediated mechanisms underlying social behavior, we first studied the brain microarray data of eight inbred mouse strains with known variations in social behavior and retrieved the differentially expressed immune genes. We then made a protein-protein interaction analysis of them to find the major networks and explored the potential association of these genes with the behavior and brain morphology in the mouse phenome database. To validate the expression and function of the candidate immune genes, we selected the C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains among the eight inbred strains, compared their social behaviors in resident-intruder and 3-chambered social tests and the mRNA levels of these genes, and analyzed the correlations of these genes with the social behaviors. Results: A group of immune genes were differentially expressed in the brains of these mouse strains. The representative C57BL/6 J and DBA/2 J strains displayed significant differences in social behaviors, DBA/2 J mice being less active in social dominance and social interaction than C57BL/6 J mice. The mRNA levels of H2-d1 in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus and C1qb in the hippocampus of the DBA/2 J strain were significantly down-regulated as compared to those in the C57BL/6 J strain. In contrast, Polr3b in the hippocampus and Tnfsf13b in the prefrontal cortex of the DBA/2 J strain were up-regulated. Furthermore, C1qb, Cx3cl1, H2-d1, H2-k1, Polr3b, and Tnfsf13b were predicted to be associated with various behavioral and brain morphological features across the eight inbred strains. Importantly, the C1qb mRNA level was confirmed to be significantly correlated with the sociability in DBA/2 J but not in C57BL/6 J mice. Conclusions: Our study provided evidence on the association of immune gene network(s) with the brain development and behavior in animals and revealed neurobiological functions of novel brain immune genes that may contribute to social deficiency in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders.
  • Jokinen, Viljami; Sidorova, Yulia; Viisanen, Hanna; Suleymanova, Ilida; Tiilikainen, Henna; Li, Zhilin; Lilius, Tuomas O.; Matlik, Kert; Anttila, Jenni E.; Airavaara, Mikko; Tian, Li; Rauhala, Pekka V.; Kalso, Eija A. (2018)
    Development of tolerance is a well known pharmacological characteristic of opioids and a major clinical problem. In addition to the known neuronal mechanisms of opioid tolerance, activation of glia has emerged as a potentially significant new mechanism. We studied activation of microglia and astrocytes in morphine tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rats using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RNA sequencing in spinal-and supraspinal regions. Chronic morphine treatment that induced tolerance and hyperalgesia also increased immunoreactivity of spinal microglia in the dorsal and ventral horns. Flow cytometry demonstrated that morphine treatment increased the proportion of M2-polarized spinal microglia, but failed to impact the number or the proportion of M1-polarized microglia. In the transcriptome of microglial cells isolated from the spinal cord (SC), morphine treatment increased transcripts related to cell activation and defense response. In the studied brain regions, no activation of microglia or astrocytes was detected by immunohistochemistry, except for a decrease in the number of microglial cells in the substantia nigra. In flow cytometry, morphine caused a decrease in the number of microglial cells in the medulla, but otherwise no change was detected for the count or the proportion of M1-and M2-polarized microglia in the medulla or sensory cortex. No evidence for the activation of glia in the brain was seen. Our results suggest that glial activation associated with opioid tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia occurs mainly at the spinal level. The transcriptome data suggest that the microglial activation pattern after chronic morphine treatment has similarities with that of neuropathic pain. (C) 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Laurikainen, Heikki; Vuorela, Arja; Toivonen, Anna; Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Trontti, Kalevi; Lindgren, Maija; Keinanen, Jaakko; Mäntylä, Teemu; Paju, Janina; Ilonen, Tuula; Armio, Reetta-Liina; Walta, Maija; Tuisku, Jouni; Helin, Semi; Marjamäki, Päivi; Hovatta, Iiris; Therman, Sebastian; Vaarala, Outi; Linnaranta, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; Honkanen, Jarno; Hietala, Jarmo; Suvisaari, Jaana (2020)
    Several lines of research support immune system dysregulation in psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the immunological marker alterations are stable and how they associate with brain glial cell function. This longitudinal study aimed at investigating whether peripheral immune functions are altered in the early phases of psychotic disorders, whether the changes are associated with core symptoms, remission, brain glial cell function, and whether they persist in a one-year follow-up. Two independent cohorts comprising in total of 129 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 130 controls were assessed at baseline and at the one-year follow-up. Serum cyto-/chemokines were measured using a 38-plex Luminex assay. The FEP patients showed a marked increase in chemokine CCL22 levels both at baseline (p <0.0001; Cohen's d = 0.70) and at the 12-month follow-up (p = 0.0007) compared to controls. The group difference remained significant (p = 0.0019) after accounting for relevant covariates including BMI, smoking, and antipsychotic medication. Elevated serum CCL22 levels were significantly associated with hallucinations (rho = 0.20) and disorganization (rho = 0.23), and with worse verbal performance (rho = -0.23). Brain glial cell activity was indexed with positron emission tomography and the translocator protein radiotracer [C-11]PBR28 in subgroups of 15 healthy controls and 14 FEP patients with serum CCL22/CCL17 measurements. The distribution volume (V-T) of [C-11]PBR28 was lower in patients compared to controls (p = 0.026; Cohen's d = 0.94) without regionally specific effects, and was inversely associated with serum CCL22 and CCL17 levels (p = 0.036). Our results do not support the over-active microglia hypothesis of psychosis, but indicate altered CCR4 immune signaling in early psychosis with behavioral correlates possibly mediated through cross-talk between chemokine networks and dysfunctional or a decreased number of glial cells.
  • Kotliarova, Anastasiia; Sidorova, Yulia A. (2021)
    Well-known effects of neurotrophic factors are related to supporting the survival and functioning of various neuronal populations in the body. However, these proteins seem to also play less well-documented roles in glial cells, thus, influencing neuroinflammation. This article summarizes available data on the effects of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs), proteins providing trophic support to dopaminergic, sensory, motor and many other neuronal populations, in non-neuronal cells contributing to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. The paper also contains our own limited data describing the effects of small molecules targeting GFL receptors on the expression of the satellite glial marker IBA1 in dorsal root ganglia of rats with surgery- and diabetes-induced neuropathy. In our experiments activation of GFLs receptors with either GFLs or small molecule agonists downregulated the expression of IBA1 in this tissue of experimental animals. While it can be a secondary effect due to a supportive role of GFLs in neuronal cells, growing body of evidence indicates that GFL receptors are expressed in glial and peripheral immune system cells. Thus, targeting GFL receptors with either proteins or small molecules may directly suppress the activation of glial and immune system cells and, therefore, reduce neuroinflammation. As neuroinflammation is considered to be an important contributor to the process of neurodegeneration these data further support research efforts to modulate the activity of GFL receptors in order to develop disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative disorders and neuropathic pain that target both neuronal and glial cells.
  • Kolosowska, Natalia; Gotkiewicz, Maria; Dhungana, Hiramani; Giudice, Luca; Giugno, Rosalba; Box, Daphne; Huuskonen, Mikko T.; Korhonen, Paula; Scoyni, Flavia; Kanninen, Katja M.; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Turunen, Tiia A.; Turunen, Mikko P.; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja (2020)
    Background Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease without a cure. The available treatments for ischemic stroke, thrombolysis by tissue plasminogen activator, and thrombectomy are suitable only to a fraction of patients and thus novel therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. The neuroinflammatory responses elicited secondary to the ischemic attack further aggravate the stroke-induced neuronal damage. It has been demonstrated that these responses are regulated at the level of non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs. Methods We utilized lentiviral vectors to overexpress miR-669c in BV2 microglial cells in order to modulate their polarization. To detect whether the modulation of microglial activation by miR-669c provides protection in a mouse model of transient focal ischemic stroke, miR-669c overexpression was driven by a lentiviral vector injected into the striatum prior to induction of ischemic stroke. Results Here, we demonstrate that miR-669c-3p, a member of chromosome 2 miRNA cluster (C2MC), is induced upon hypoxic and excitotoxic conditions in vitro and in two different in vivo models of stroke. Rather than directly regulating the neuronal survival in vitro, miR-669c is capable of attenuating the microglial proinflammatory activation in vitro and inducing the expression of microglial alternative activation markers arginase 1 (Arg1), chitinase-like 3 (Ym1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma). Intracerebral overexpression of miR-669c significantly decreased the ischemia-induced cell death and ameliorated the stroke-induced neurological deficits both at 1 and 3 days post injury (dpi). Albeit miR-669c overexpression failed to alter the overall Iba1 protein immunoreactivity, it significantly elevated Arg1 levels in the ischemic brain and increased colocalization of Arg1 and Iba1. Moreover, miR-669c overexpression under cerebral ischemia influenced several morphological characteristics of Iba1 positive cells. We further demonstrate the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) transcript as a direct target for miR-669c-3p in vitro and show reduced levels of MyD88 in miR-669c overexpressing ischemic brains in vivo. Conclusions Collectively, our data provide the evidence that miR-669c-3p is protective in a mouse model of ischemic stroke through enhancement of the alternative microglial/macrophage activation and inhibition of MyD88 signaling. Our results accentuate the importance of controlling miRNA-regulated responses for the therapeutic benefit in conditions of stroke and neuroinflammation.
  • Eising, Else; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Min, Josine L.; Anttila, Verneri; Verheijen, Mark H. G.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Dichgans, Martin; Freilinger, Tobias; Kubisch, Christian; Ferrari, Michel D.; Smit, August B.; de Vries, Boukje; Palotie, Aarno; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Int Headache Genetics Consortium (2016)
    Background Migraine is a common episodic brain disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of severe unilateral headache and additional neurological symptoms. Two main migraine types can be distinguished based on the presence of aura symptoms that can accompany the headache: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. Multiple genetic and environmental factors confer disease susceptibility. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that migraine susceptibility genes are involved in various pathways, including neurotransmission, which have already been implicated in genetic studies of monogenic familial hemiplegic migraine, a subtype of migraine with aura. Methods To further explore the genetic background of migraine, we performed a gene set analysis of migraine GWAS data of 4954 clinic-based patients with migraine, as well as 13,390 controls. Curated sets of synaptic genes and sets of genes predominantly expressed in three glial cell types (astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes) were investigated. Discussion Our results show that gene sets containing astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-related genes are associated with migraine, which is especially true for gene sets involved in protein modification and signal transduction. Observed differences between migraine with aura and migraine without aura indicate that both migraine types, at least in part, seem to have a different genetic background.
  • Kolosowska, Natalia; Keuters, Meike H.; Wojciechowski, Sara; Keksa-Goldsteine, Velta; Laine, Mika; Malm, Tarja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari; Dhungana, Hiramani (2019)
    Neuroinflammation is strongly induced by cerebral ischemia. The early phase after the onset of ischemic stroke is characterized by acute neuronal injury, microglial activation, and subsequent infiltration of blood-derived inflammatory cells, including macrophages. Therefore, modulation of the microglial/macrophage responses has increasingly gained interest as a potential therapeutic approach for the ischemic stroke. In our study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered interleukin 13 (IL-13) in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). Systemic administration of IL-13 immediately after the ischemic insult significantly reduced the lesion volume, alleviated the infiltration of CD45(+) leukocytes, and promoted the microglia/macrophage alternative activation within the ischemic region, as determined by arginase 1 (Arg1) immunoreactivity at 3 days post-ischemia (dpi). Moreover, IL-13 enhanced the expression of M2a alternative activation markers Arg1 and Ym1 in the peri-ischemic (PI) area, as well as increased plasma IL-6 and IL-10 levels at 3 dpi. Furthermore, IL-13 treatment ameliorated gait disturbances at day 7 and 14 and sensorimotor deficits at day 14 post-ischemia, as analyzed by the CatWalk gait analysis system and adhesive removal test, respectively. Finally, IL-13 treatment decreased neuronal cell death in a coculture model of neuroinflammation with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Taken together, delivery of IL-13 enhances microglial/macrophage anti-inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro, decreases ischemia-induced brain cell death, and improves sensory and motor functions in the pMCAo mouse model of cerebral ischemia.
  • Nissen, Sara Konstantin; Ferreira, Sara Almeida; Nielsen, Marlene Christina; Schulte, Claudia; Shrivastava, Kalpana; Hennig, Dorle; Etzerodt, Anders; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter; Panhelainen, Anne; Moller, Holger Jon; Brockmann, Kathrin; Romero-Ramos, Marina (2021)
    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a significant immune component, as demonstrated by changes in immune biomarkers in patients' biofluids. However, which specific cells are responsible for those changes is unclear because most immune biomarkers can be produced by various cell types. Objectives The aim of this study was to explore monocyte involvement in PD. Methods We investigated the monocyte-specific biomarker sCD163, the soluble form of the receptor CD163, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum in two experiments, and compared it with other biomarkers and clinical data. Potential connections between CD163 and alpha-synuclein were studied in vitro. Results CSF-sCD163 increased in late-stage PD and correlated with the PD biomarkers alpha-synuclein, Tau, and phosphorylated Tau, whereas it inversely correlated with the patients' cognitive scores, supporting monocyte involvement in neurodegeneration and cognition in PD. Serum-sCD163 increased only in female patients, suggesting a sex-distinctive monocyte response. CSF-sCD163 also correlated with molecules associated with adaptive and innate immune system activation and with immune cell recruitment to the brain. Serum-sCD163 correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, suggesting a relation to chronic systemic inflammation. Our in vitro study showed that alpha-synuclein activates macrophages and induces shedding of sCD163, which in turn enhances alpha-synuclein uptake by myeloid cells, potentially participating in its clearance. Conclusions Our data present sCD163 as a potential cognition-related biomarker in PD and suggest a role for monocytes in both peripheral and brain immune responses. This may be directly related to alpha-synuclein's proinflammatory capacity but could also have consequences for alpha-synuclein processing. (c) 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society