Browsing by Subject "MICROSTRUCTURE"

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  • Kallankari, Hanna; Saunavaara, Virva; Parkkola, Riitta; Haataja, Leena; Hallman, Mikko; Kaukola, Tuula (2021)
    Background Very preterm birth can disturb brain maturation and subject these high-risk children to neurocognitive difficulties later. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of prematurity on microstructure of frontostriatal tracts in children with no severe neurologic impairment, and to study whether the diffusion tensor imaging metrics of frontostriatal tracts correlate to executive functioning. Materials and methods The prospective cohort study comprised 54 very preterm children (mean gestational age 28.8 weeks) and 20 age- and gender-matched term children. None of the children had severe neurologic impairment. The children underwent diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments at a mean age of 9 years. We measured quantitative diffusion tensor imaging metrics of frontostriatal tracts using probabilistic tractography. We also administered five subtests from the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition, to evaluate executive functioning. Results Very preterm children had significantly higher fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity values (P
  • Darki, Fahimeh; Massinen, Satu; Salmela, Elina; Matsson, Hans; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Klingberg, Torkel; Kere, Juha (2017)
    The axon guidance receptor, Robo1, controls the pathfinding of callosal axons in mice. To determine whether the orthologous ROBO1 gene is involved in callosal development also in humans, we studied polymorphisms in the ROBO1 gene and variation in the white matter structure in the corpus callosum using both structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. We found that five polymorphisms in the regulatory region of ROBO1 were associated with white matter density in the posterior part of the corpus callosum pathways. One of the polymorphisms, rs7631357, was also significantly associated with the probability of connections to the parietal cortical regions. Our results demonstrate that human ROBO1 may be involved in the regulation of the structure and connectivity of posterior part of corpus callosum.
  • Xu, Yan; Coda, Rossana; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Laitila, Arja; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija (2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of in situ produced exopolysaccharides (EPS) on the rheological and textural properties of fava bean protein concentrate (FPC). EPS (dextrans) were produced from sucrose by two lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The acidification, rheology, and texture of FPC pastes fermented with Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Weissella confusa VTT E-143403 (E3403) were compared. A clear improvement in rheological and textural parameters was observed in sucrose-added pastes after fermentation, especially with W. confusa VTT E3403. Only moderate proteolysis of fava bean protein during fermentation was observed. The microstructure of the protein in FPC pastes, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, revealed a less continuous and denser structure in EPS-abundant pastes. The beneficial structure formed during EPS-producing fermentation could not be mimicked by simply mixing FPC, isolated dextran, lactic acid, and acetic acid with water. These results emphasize the benefits of in situ produced EPS in connection with the LAB fermentation of legume protein-rich foods. Fermentation with EPS-producing LAB is a cost-effective and clean-labeled technology to obtain tailored textures, and it can further enhance the usability of legumes in novel foods.
  • Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Zou, Ji; Li, Xiaodong; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian (2020)
    Dense oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) 316 L steels with different amount of Y2O3 additions were successfully fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) even though part of the added Y2O3 got lost during the process. The microstructure was characterized in details and the mechanical properties were tested at room temperature, 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The effect of the scanning speed on agglomeration of nanoparticles during SLM process was discussed. Superior properties, e.g., yield strength of 574 MPa and elongation of 91%, were achieved at room temperature in SLM ODS 316 L with additional 1% of Y2O3. At elevated temperatures, the strength kept high but the elongations dropped dramatically. It was observed that nano-voids nucleated throughout the whole gauge section at the sites where nanoinclusions located. The growth and coalescence of these voids were suppressed by the formation of an element segregation network before necking, which relieved local stress concentration and thus delayed necking. This unusual necking behavior was studied and compared to the previous theory. It appeared that the strong convection presented in the melt pool can evenly redistribute the short-time milled coarse Y2O3 precursor powder during SLM process. These findings can not only solve the problems encountered during the fabrication of ODS components but also replenish the strengthening mechanism of SLM 316 L thus pave a way for further improving of mechanical properties.
  • Ruotsalainen, Ilona; Gorbach, Tetiana; Perkola, Jaana; Renvall, Ville; Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Karvanen, Juha; Parviainen, Tiina (2020)
    Physical activity and exercise beneficially link to brain properties and cognitive functions in older adults, but the findings concerning adolescents remain tentative. During adolescence, the brain undergoes significant changes, which are especially pronounced in white matter. Studies provide contradictory evidence regarding the influence of physical activity or aerobic-exercise on executive functions in youth. Little is also known about the link between both fitness and physical activity with the brain’s white matter during puberty. We investigated the connection between aerobic fitness and physical activity with the white matter in 59 adolescents. We further determined whether white matter interacts with the connection of fitness or physical activity with core executive functions. Our results show that only the level of aerobic fitness, but not of physical activity relates to white matter. Furthermore, the white matter of the corpus callosum and the right superior corona radiata moderates the links of aerobic fitness and physical activity with working memory. Our results suggest that aerobic fitness and physical activity have an unequal contribution to the white matter properties in adolescents. We propose that the differences in white matter properties could underlie the variations in the relationship between either physical activity or aerobic fitness with working memory.
  • Jiang, Zhong-qing; Wang, Jing; Stoddard, Fred; Salovaara, Hannu; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula (2020)
    Abstract: Faba bean protein has good functionalities, but it is little used in the food industry. This study identified a challenge from unfavourable starch gelation when utilizing faba bean for producing protein-based emulsion gel foods, and developed processing methods to overcome that. Two types of protein-based emulsion gel foods, namely yogurt and tofu analogue products, were prepared. The processing methods in this study involved steps of thermal pre-treatment of the beans, dehulling, milling, adding plant oil, homogenization, prevention of starch gelation, and inducing protein gelation. Two methods for preventing starch gelation were studied, namely starch removal and hydrolysis. The gel texture, water-holding capacity, and structural properties of the gel products were evaluated. Both starch-gelation prevention methods produced yogurt and tofu analogue products having typical emulsion gel properties. Hydrolysis of starch was favourable for producing the yogurt analogue, because the hydrolysate compounds improved the gel strength and viscosity. Moreover, it utilized the whole flour, meaning all the nutrients from the cotyledon were used and no side-stream was created. In contrast, starch removal was slightly better than hydrolysis for producing the tofu analogue, because the hydrolysate lowered the gel strength and water-holding capacity of the products. It is both possible and ecologically sustainable to utilize whole faba bean flour for making emulsion gel products.
  • Vienna, University; Renk, Oliver; Ghosh, Sanyukta; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bursik, Jiri; Schafler, Erhard; Tuomisto, Filip; Bauer, Ernst; Rogl, Peter Franz (2021)
    The influence of shear strain on the microstructural, physical, and mechanical properties was studied on large bulk samples (diameter: 30 mm, thickness: 1 or 8 mm), which were consolidated by high-pressure torsion (HPT) from a commercial powder DD0.7Fe3CoSb12. Particularly, the thick sample (mass similar to 53 g) allowed measuring the thermoelectric (TE) properties with respect to various orientations of the specimen in the sample. All data were compared with those of a hot-pressed (HP) reference sample, prepared with the same powder. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as X-ray powder diffraction profile analyses, Hall measurements, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, supported these investigations. Furthermore, synchrotron data for the temperature range from 300 to 825 K were used to evaluate the changes in the grain size and dislocation density as well as the thermal expansion coefficient via the change in the lattice parameter during heating. In addition, hardness and direct thermal expansion measurements of the HPT samples were performed and compared with the HP reference sample's values. With the increase of the shear strain from the center to the rim of the sample, the electrical resistivity becomes higher, whereas the thermal conductivity becomes lower, but the Seebeck coefficient remained almost unchanged. For the thin as well as thick samples, the enhanced electrical resistivity was balanced out by a decreased thermal conductivity such that the maximum ZT values (ZT = 1.3-1.35 at 856 K) do not vary much as a function of the shear strain throughout the sample, however, all ZTs are higher than that of the HP sample. The thermal-electric conversion efficiencies are in the range of 14-15% (for 423-823 K). With similar high ZT values for the n-type skutterudites, fabricated in the same fast and sustainable way, these p- and n-type skutterudites may serve as legs for TE generators, directly cut from the big HPT bulks.
  • Bao, Yulong; Wang, Keyu; Yang, Hongxu; Regenstein, Joe M.; Ertbjerg, Per; Zhou, Peng (2020)
    This study investigated the effects of cold storage at different temperatures (4, -0.5, -3, and -20 degrees C) on protein degradation and its relationship to structural changes of black carp muscle. At -0.5 and 4 degrees C, major structural changes occurred, including the formation of gaps between myofibers and myofibrils, breakage of myofibrils and myofibers, and degradation of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Gel-based proteomic analysis showed that these structural changes were accompanied by degradation of a series of myofibrillar proteins, including titin, nebulin, troponin, myosin, myomesin, myosin-binding protein, and a-actinin. Loss of extractable gelatinolytic and caseinolytic protease activities was also observed. At -3 and -20 degrees C, formation of ice crystals was the most noticeable change. The major proteins were degraded at different locations in the black carp muscle, and gelatinolytic and caseinolytic proteases appear to contribute to the degradation of those proteins.
  • Lopez Cazalilla, Alvaro; Djurabekova, Flyura; Granberg, Fredric; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Perez-Fontenla, Ana Teresa; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter (2022)
  • Salo, Raimo A.; Belevich, Ilya; Manninen, Eppu; Jokitalo, Eija; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra (2018)
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reveals microstructural features of grey and white matter non-invasively. The contrast produced by DTI, however, is not fully understood and requires further validation. We used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) to acquire tissue metrics, i.e., anisotropy and orientation, using three-dimensional Fourier transform-based (3D-FT) analysis, to correlate with fractional anisotropy and orientation in DTI. SBEM produces high-resolution 3D data at the mesoscopic scale with good contrast of cellular membranes. We analysed selected samples from cingulum, corpus callosum, and perilesional cortex of sham-operated and traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. Principal orientations produced by DTI and 3D-FT in all samples were in good agreement. Anisotropy values showed similar patterns of change in corresponding DTI and 3D-FT parameters in sham-operated and TBI rats. While DTI and 3D-FT anisotropy values were similar in grey matter, 3D-FT anisotropy values were consistently lower than fractional anisotropy values from DTI in white matter. We also evaluated the effect of resolution in 3D-FT analysis. Despite small angular differences in grey matter samples, lower resolution datasets provided reliable results, allowing for analysis of larger fields of view. Overall, 3D SBEM allows for more sophisticated validation studies of diffusion imaging contrast from a tissue microstructural perspective.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Virtala, Paula; Thiede, Anja; Laasonen, Marja; Kujala, Teija (2021)
    Current views on the neural network subserving reading and its deficits in dyslexia rely largely on evidence derived from functional neuroimaging studies. However, understanding the structural organization of reading and its aberrations in dyslexia requires a hodological approach, studies of which have not provided consistent findings. Here, we adopted a whole brain hodological approach and investigated relationships between structural white matter connectivity and reading skills and phonological processing in a cross-sectional study of 44 adults using individual local connectome matrix from diffusion MRI data. Moreover, we performed quantitative anisotropy aided differential tractography to uncover structural white matter anomalies in dyslexia (23 dyslexics and 21 matched controls) and their correlation to reading-related skills. The connectometry analyses indicated that reading skills and phonological processing were both associated with corpus callosum (tapetum), forceps major and minor, as well as cerebellum bilaterally. Furthermore, the left dorsal and right thalamic pathways were associated with phonological processing. Differential tractography analyses revealed structural white matter anomalies in dyslexics in the left ventral route and bilaterally in the dorsal route compared to the controls. Connectivity deficits were also observed in the corpus callosum, forceps major, vertical occipital fasciculus and corticostriatal and thalamic pathways. Altered structural connectivity in the observed differential tractography results correlated with poor reading skills and phonological processing. Using a hodological approach, the current study provides novel evidence for the extent of the reading-related connectome and its aberrations in dyslexia. The results conform current functional neuroanatomical models of reading and developmental dyslexia but provide novel network-level and tract-level evidence on structural connectivity anomalies in dyslexia, including the vertical occipital fasciculus.
  • Castin, N.; Dubinko, A.; Bonny, G.; Bakaev, A.; Likonen, J.; De Backer, A.; Sand, A.E.; Heinola, K.; Terentyev, D. (2019)
    The microstructure changes taking place in W under irradiation are governed by many factors, amongst which C impurities and their interactions with self-interstitial atoms (SIA). In this work, we specifically study this effect by conducting a dedicated 2-MeV self-ions irradiation experiment, at room temperature. Samples were irradiated up to 0.02, 0.15 and 1.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) expectedly revealed a large density of SIA loops at all these doses. Surprisingly, however, the loop number density increased in a non-monotonous manner with the received dose. Performing chemical analysis with secondary ion spectroscopy measurements (SIMS), we find that our samples were likely contaminated by C injection during the irradiation. Employing an object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) model for microstructure evolution, we demonstrate that the C injection is the likely factor explaining the evolution of loops number density. Our findings highlight the importance of the well-known issue of C injection during ion irradiation experiments, and demonstrate how OKMC models can help to rationalize this effect.
  • FINGER Study Grp; Stephen, Ruth; Solomon, Alina; Ngandu, Tiia; Levälahti, Esko; Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Parkkola, Riitta; Antikainen, Riitta; Strandberg, Timo; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Liu, Yawu (2020)
    Background: Early pathological changes in white matter microstructure can be studied using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). It is not only important to study these subtle pathological changes leading to cognitive decline, but also to ascertain how an intervention would impact the white matter microstructure and cognition in persons at-risk of dementia. Objectives: To study the impact of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on white matter and cognitive changes during the 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), a randomized controlled trial in at-risk older individuals (age 60-77 years) from the general population. Methods: This exploratory study consisted of a subsample of 60 FINGER participants. Participants were randomized to either a multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, and vascular risk management, n = 34) or control group (general health advice, n = 26). All underwent baseline and 2-year brain DTI. Changes in fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusivity along domain (F1) and non-domain (F2) diffusion orientations, mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD), radial diffusivity (RD), and their correlations with cognitive changes during the 2-year multidomain intervention were analyzed. Results: FA decreased, and cognition improved more in the intervention group compared to the control group (p <0.05), with no significant intergroup differences for changes in F1, F2, MD, AxD, or RD. The cognitive changes were significantly positively related to FA change, and negatively related to RD change in the control group, but not in the intervention group. Conclusion: The 2-year multidomain FINGER intervention may modulate white matter microstructural alterations.