Browsing by Subject "MIDDLE"

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  • Huilla, Heidi (2020)
    This study analyses how studies on disadvantaged schools, improvement and test-based accountability relate to each other. The analysis covers 69 studies on disadvantaged schools reported in prestigious educational journals and conducted in 1995–2015. Educational policies related to evaluation and accountability define the official goals of schooling, and the aim in this article is to analyse how the chosen studies discuss these educational policies and understand school success and failure. The following questions were asked: What typologies related to test-based accountability can be constructed in research on disadvantaged schools? What understandings of good schools are embedded in the identified typologies? Disadvantaged schools are at the centre of improvement and therefore also the target of evaluative policy practices. The results show that research supports test-based accountability practices, and that critical studies on school improvement are in the minority.
  • Mannerström, Rasmus; Hietajärvi, Lauri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    It has been suggested that dual-cycle models of identity formation do not fit well with Erikson’s identity theory and the identity status paradigm due to 1) contradictory statuses, 2) problems with discerning past exploration and 3) ambiguity or limitations of the life domains covered. The present study extended the Dimensions for Identity Development Scale (DIDS) with three additional dimensions suggested previously, examined identity profiles and their transitions over time, their links with psychological well-being and what life domain was associated with “future plans” (N=1294; T1: age=17, 60% female; T2: age=18, 65% female). The results showed that 1) the eight-dimensional model fit the data well longitudinally; 2) six previously reported profiles emerged at both time points with expected links to psychological well-being; 3) as previously speculated, individuals in the (early) closure status had undertaken identity exploration in the past; 4) the previously encountered high commitment-high exploration status (i.e., searching moratorium) seems to be “superficially committed”; and 5) future plans are commonly associated with work life/occupation. Future research would benefit from employing qualitative research to better understand the subjective meanings attached to high commitment-high exploration and by developing new ways to account for quality and different levels of commitment.
  • Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Vinni-Laakso, Janica; Hietajärvi, Lauri (2021)
    This longitudinal study examined school engagement and burnout profiles among early and middle adolescents before and during COVID-19, and within-class latent change and stability in students' socio-emotional skills the profiles. The longitudinal data were collected in fall 2019 and 2020 from 1381 5th to 6th, and 1374 7th to 8th grade students. Using repeated measures latent profile analyses based on school engagement and burnout we identified five study well-being change profiles in both samples showing structural similarity: normative (53% sample 1; 69% sample 2), moderate-decreasing (4%; 5%), high-decreasing (17%; 10%), low-increasing (6%;7%) and moderate-increasing (20%; 10%) groups. The groups with increasing study well-being showed simultaneous increase in intrapersonal socio-emotional competencies but showed less changes in interpersonal outcomes.
  • Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.; Kröger, Björn; Nielsen, Morten L.; Colmenar, Jorge (2019)
    The greatest relative changes in marine biodiversity accumulation occurred during the Early Paleozoic. The precision of temporal constraints on these changes is crude, hampering our understanding of their timing, duration, and links to causal mechanisms. We match fossil occurrence data to their lithostratigraphical ranges in the Paleobiology Database and correlate this inferred taxon range to a constructed set of biostratigraphically defined high-resolution time slices. In addition, we apply capture-recapture modeling approaches to calculate a biodiversity curve that also considers taphonomy and sampling biases with four times better resolution of previous estimates. Our method reveals a stepwise biodiversity increase with distinct Cambrian and Ordovician radiation events that are clearly separated by a 50-million-year-long period of slow biodiversity accumulation. The Ordovician Radiation is confined to a 15-million-year phase after which the Late Ordovician extinctions lowered generic richness and further delayed a biodiversity rebound by at least 35 million years. Based on a first-differences approach on potential abiotic drivers controlling richness, we find an overall correlation with oxygen levels, with temperature also exhibiting a coordinated trend once equatorial sea surface temperatures fell to present-day levels during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Age. Contrary to the traditional view of the Late Ordovician extinctions, our study suggests a protracted crisis interval linked to intense volcanism during the middle Late Ordovician Katian Age. As richness levels did not return to prior levels during the Silurian-a time of continental amalgamation-we further argue that plate tectonics exerted an overarching control on biodiversity accumulation.
  • Silvola, Juha Tapio (2020)
    Objectives: Analyze reasons for unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) with unknown etiology in children. Introduction: Unilateral conductive hearing loss (HL) without known etiology can be undiagnosed despite of hearing screening programs. It can be difficult to find the reason for HL and to make a treatment plan. Middle ear endoscopy gives hard-evidence diagnosis and basis for an individual treatment plan. Methods and material: Prospective clinical follow-up study for a cohort of generally healthy elementary school age children with unilateral conductive HL with unknown etiology. The study population was 192 children, of which 46 had a HL of at least 25 dB with more than 10 dB conductive component. Mean age was 8.7 years. Preoperative tests included otomicroscopy, bone- and air-conduction audiogram, tympanometry, stapes reflex tests, Rinne and Weber test and Otoacoustic emissions. The children underwent endoscopy of the middle ear with an individual treatment plan and long-term follow-up. The aim was to explore etiology and to give a treatment plan for hearing loss. Follow-up included air- and bone conduction hearing tests annually or every other year. Mean follow-up was 5.2 years. Results: A clear etiological finding was found in 36 (78%) ears, stapes anomaly (23) as the most common (64%) finding. Other findings were two cholesteatomas, 2 status after trauma, 5 middle ear anomalies, 5 incus fixations and one incus erosion. Air conduction hearing improved spontaneously during follow-up in 81% (17/21, 2 dropouts) of the stapes anomaly ears (mean 11,3 dB, range 4-32 dB), and none of these ears showed hearing deterioration. In the incus fixation group, one ear showed hearing deterioration. There were no major complications for exploration, and 5 minor postoperative infections. Conclusions: The most common reason for pediatric unilateral conductive hearing loss was stapes anomaly/ fixation. The HL does not deteriorate. Hearing loss in stapes anomalies shows a tendency for spontaneous recovery. Stapes surgery can be postponed or avoided.
  • Inkinen, Janna; Klager, Christopher; Juuti, Kalle; Schneider, Barbara; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Krajcik, Joseph; Lavonen, Jari (2020)
    This study seeks to understand how different scientific practices in high school science classrooms are associated with student situational engagement. In this study, situational engagement is conceptualized as the balance between skills, interest, and challenge when the reported experiences are all high. In this study, data on situational engagement were collected using the experience sampling method (ESM) from 142 students in southern Michigan (the United States), resulting 993 ESM responses, and 133 students in southern Finland, resulting 1,351 responses. In both countries, scientific practices related to developing models and constructing explanations were associated with higher student situational engagement than other practices. In southern Finland, using a model was also associated with a high level of student situational engagement. The results indicate that students may experience situational engagement more often in science classrooms that use models than those that do not employ such practices. Thus, scientific practices related to models should be used frequently in science classrooms to situationally engage students while learning science.
  • Paljärvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Leinonen, Taina; Vuori, Erkki; Mäkelä, Pia (2018)
    Background: Physician's intention to prescribe drugs could potentially be used to improve targeting of alcohol interventions and enhanced disease management to patients with a high risk of severe alcohol-related harm within outpatient settings. Methods: Comparison of ten-year incidence trajectories of 13.8 million reimbursed purchases of prescription drugs among 303,057 Finnish men and women of whom 7490 ultimately died due to alcohol-related causes (Ale+), 14,954 died without alcohol involvement (Alc-), and 280,613 survived until the end of 2007. Results: 5-10 years before death, 88% of the persons with an Alc+ death had received prescription medication, and over two-thirds (69%) had at least one reimbursed purchase of drugs for the alimentary tract and metabolism, the cardiovascular system, or the nervous system. Among persons with an Alc+ death, the incidence rate (IR) for purchases of hypnotics, and sedatives was L38 times higher (95% confidence interval (C1):1.32,1.44) compared to those with an Alc death, and 4.07 times higher (95%C1:3.92,4.22) compared to survivors; and the IR for purchases of anxiolytics was 1.40 times higher (95%Ck1.34,1.47) compared to those with an Ale death, and 3.61 times higher (95%C1:3.48,3.78) compared to survivors. Conclusions: Using physician's intention to prescribe drugs affecting the alimentary tract and metabolism, cardiovascular system and nervous system could potentially be used to flag patients who might benefit from screening, targeted interventions or enhanced disease management. In particular, patients who are to be prescribed anxiolytics, hypnotics, and sedatives, and antidepressants may benefit from enhanced interventions targeted to problem drinking.
  • Soini, Tiina; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhalto, Kirsi (2018)
    Curriculum reform that has an effect on the everyday practices in schools always entails translation of new ideas into new educational practices. This takes place primarily through shared sense making. However, our understanding of the different ways in which shared sense making is carried out is still scarce. In Finland, the district level plays an important intermediary role in orchestrating curriculum development work at the municipalities and in translating and mediating reform into school-level development work. The study explores different shared sense-making strategies employed by 12 district-level curriculum reform steering groups around Finland, including participants from 54 municipalities. Three hands-on strategies of shared sense making including comparison, standardisation and transformation were identified. The results indicated that different hands-on strategies have different functions in the process of making sense of the reform objectives. To a certain extent, the strategies can be viewed as hierarchical. Overall, results suggest that district-level actors aim to foster shared sense making; however, a more intentional use of strategies is needed.
  • Kröger, Björn; Aubrechtová, Martina (2019)
    The cephalopods collected from the mud mounds of the Kullsberg Limestone Formation, late Sandbian-earliest Katian(?), south central Sweden, are highly diverse and comprise 26 identifiable species of 12 families and six orders in a sample of c. 180 specimens. The assemblage is strongly dominated by orthocerids in abundance and diversity. In contrast, the time-equivalent assemblage of the reef limestone of the Vasalemma Formation of Estonia is dominated by actinocerids and less diverse. Only one-third of the species co-occur in these two palaeogeographically relatively close assemblages. The taxonomic composition of the Kullsberg assemblage is, on the order level, more similar to that of the late Katian-early Hirnantian Boda Limestone Formation of south central Sweden, which represents a similar relatively deep depositional environment. The high local differentiation of cephalopod reef faunas exemplifies the importance of the emergent Baltic reef habitats in diversification processes during the early Late Ordovician. Of the described taxa, the following are new: Beloitoceras thorslundi sp. nov., Cameroceras motsognir sp. nov., Clothoceras thornquisti gen. et sp. nov., Danoceras skalbergensis sp. nov., Discoceras amtjaernense sp. nov., D. nilssoni sp. nov., Endoceras naekki sp. nov., Furudaloceras tomtei gen. et sp. nov., Isbergoceras consobrinum gen. et sp. nov., I. niger gen. et sp. nov., Isorthoceras nikwis sp. nov., I. sylphide sp. nov., I. urdr sp. nov., I. verdandi sp. nov., Kullsbergoceras nissei gen. et sp. nov., Ordogeisonoceras uppsalaensis sp. nov. and Valkyrioceras dalecarlia gen et sp. nov.
  • Kroger, Bjorn; Finnegan, Seth; Franeck, Franziska; Hopkins, Melanie J. (2017)