Browsing by Subject "MIGRATION"

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  • Guenther, Carla; Faisal, Imrul; Uotila, Liisa; Llort Asens, Marc; Harjunpää, Heidi; Savinko, Terhi; Öhman, Tiina; Yao, Sean; Moser, Markus; Morris, Stephan W.; Tojkander, Sari; Fagerholm, Susanna (2019)
    beta2-integrins are essential for immune system function because they mediate immune cell adhesion and signaling. Consequently, a loss of beta2-integrin expression or function causes the immunodeficiency disorders, Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (LAD) type I and III. LAD-III is caused by mutations in an important integrin regulator, kindlin-3, but exactly how kindlin-3 regulates leukocyte adhesion has remained incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that mutation of the kindlin-3 binding site in the b2-integrin (TTT/AAA-b2-integrin knock-in mouse/KI) abolishes activation of the actin-regulated myocardin related transcription factor A/serum response factor (MRTF-A/SRF) signaling pathway in dendritic cells and MRTF-A/SRF-dependent gene expression. We show that Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activation and filamentous-actin (F-actin) polymerization is abolished in murine TTT/AAA-b2-integrin KI dendritic cells, which leads to a failure ofMRTF-A to localize to the cell nucleus to coactivate genes together with SRF. In addition, we show that dendritic cell gene expression, adhesion and integrin-mediated traction forces on ligand coated surfaces is dependent on the MRTF-A/SRF signaling pathway. The participation of b2-integrin and kindlin-3-mediated cell adhesion in the regulation of the ubiquitous MRTF-A/SRF signaling pathway in immune cells may help explain the role of b2-integrin and kindlin-3 in integrin-mediated gene regulation and immune system function.
  • Turunen, A.; Kuuliala, K.; Kuuliala, A.; Tervahartiala, T.; Mustonen, H.; Puolakkainen, P.; Kylänpää, A. L.; Sorsa, T. (2021)
    Objectives: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has high morbidity and mortality but there are no widely accepted predictive biomarkers in clinical use. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are active in tissue destruction and inflammatory responses. We studied whether serum levels of activated MMP-8 (aMMP8), MMP-9 and their regulators tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) could predict the development of SAP. Methods: The study comprised 214 AP patients (revised Atlanta classification: 142 mild, MAP; 54 moderately severe, MSAP; 18 SAP) referred to Helsinki University Hospital. A venous blood sample was taken within 72 h from the onset of symptoms. Serum levels of aMMP-8 were determined using immunofluorometric assay, and those of MMP-9, TIMP-1, MPO and HNE using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AP groups were compared using Jonckheere-Terpstra test and predictive value for SAP was analyzed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Results: Serum aMMP-8 levels were higher in SAP (median 657 ng/ml, interquartile range 542-738 ng/ ml) compared to MSAP (358 ng/ml, 175-564 ng/ml; p < 0.001) and MAP (231 ng/ml, 128-507 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Similar trend was seen with TIMP-1 and MPO. In ROC analysis aMMP-8, MPO and TIMP-1 emerged as potential markers for the development of SAP (areas under ROC curves 0.83, 0.71 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions: Serum aMMP-8 measured early in the course of AP (within 72 h of symptom onset) predicted the development of SAP. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of IAP and EPC. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Maury, Olivia (2020)
    This article examines the experiences of non-EU/EEA student-migrants orienting in precarious labour markets in Finland. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with working student-migrants holding a temporary legal status, the article examines the incidence of unpaid work within a variety of contractual settings and sectors. The findings suggest that exploitation with regard to the subjective capacity to produce is facilitated through the imposition of unpaid work hours on legally constrained migrants in precarious employment. The findings contribute to the sociological analysis of the increasingly fragmented figures of labour as well as to the study of unpaid work as a driver of precarisation.
  • Di Masso, Andres; Williams, Daniel R.; Raymond, Christopher M.; Buchecker, Matthias; Degenhardt, Barbara; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Hertzog, Alice; Lewicka, Maria; Manzo, Lynne; Shahrad, Azadeh; Stedman, Richard; Verbrugge, Laura; von Wirth, Timo (2019)
    This paper develops a theoretical argument for how place attachments are forged and become dynamically linked to increasingly common mobility practices. First, we argue that mobilities, rather than negating the importance of place, shift our understanding of place and the habitual ways we relate to and bond with places as distinct from a conception of place attachment premised on fixity and stability. Second, we document how the body of research on place attachment has both reinforced and contested 'sedentaristic' assumptions criticized within the so-called 'mobilities turn' in the social sciences. Third, we present a conceptual framework, built around different modes of interrelation between fixity and flow, as a way to re-theorize, link and balance the various studies of place attachment that have grappled with mobility. Finally, we sketch out the main research implications of this framework for advancing our understanding of place attachment in a mobile world.
  • Jiu, Yaming; Lehtimaki, Jaakko; Tojkander, Sari; Cheng, Fang; Jäälinoja, Harri; Liu, Xiaonan; Varjosalo, Markku; Eriksson, John E.; Lappalainen, Pekka (2015)
    The actin cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic intermediate filaments contribute to cell migration and morphogenesis, but the interplay between these two central cytoskeletal elements has remained elusive. Here, we find that specific actin stress fiber structures, transverse arcs, interact with vimentin intermediate filaments and promote their retrograde flow. Consequently, myosin-II-containing arcs are important for perinuclear localization of the vimentin network in cells. The vimentin network reciprocally restricts retrograde movement of arcs and hence controls the width of flat lamellum at the leading edge of the cell. Depletion of plectin recapitulates the vimentin organization phenotype of arc-deficient cells without affecting the integrity of vimentin filaments or stress fibers, demonstrating that this cytoskeletal crosslinker is required for productive interactions between vimentin and arcs. Collectively, our results reveal that plectin-mediated interplay between contractile actomyosin arcs and vimentin intermediate filaments controls the localization and dynamics of these two cytoskeletal systems and is consequently important for cell morphogenesis.
  • Cuesta-Mateos, Carlo; Fuentes, Patricia; Schrader, Alexandra; Juarez-Sanchez, Raquel; Loscertales, Javier; Mateu-Albero, Tamara; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Espartero-Santos, Marina; Marcos-Jimenez, Ana; Sanchez-Lopez, Blanca Andrea; Perez-Garcia, Yaiza; Jungherz, Dennis; Oberbeck, Sebastian; Wahnschaffe, Linus; Kreutzman, Anna; Andersson, Emma I.; Mustjoki, Satu; Faber, Edgar; Urzainqui, Ana; Fresno, Manuel; Stamatakis, Kostantino; Alfranca, Arantzazu; Terron, Fernando; Herling, Marco; Toribio, Maria Luisa; Munoz-Calleja, Cecilia (2020)
    T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a poor prognostic disease with very limited options of efficient therapies. Most patients are refractory to chemotherapies and despite high response rates after alemtuzumab, virtually all patients relapse. Therefore, there is an unmet medical need for novel therapies in T-PLL. As the chemokine receptor CCR7 is a molecule expressed in a wide range of malignancies and relevant in many tumor processes, the present study addressed the biologic role of this receptor in T-PLL. Furthermore, we elucidated the mechanisms of action mediated by an anti-CCR7 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and evaluated whether its anti-tumor activity would warrant development towards clinical applications in T-PLL. Our results demonstrate that CCR7 is a prognostic biomarker for overall survival in T-PLL patients and a functional receptor involved in the migration, invasion, and survival of leukemic cells. Targeting CCR7 with a mAb inhibited ligand-mediated signaling pathways and induced tumor cell killing in primary samples. In addition, directing antibodies against CCR7 was highly effective in T-cell leukemia xenograft models. Together, these findings make CCR7 an attractive molecule for novel mAb-based therapeutic applications in T-PLL, a disease where recent drug screen efforts and studies addressing new compounds have focused on chemotherapy or small molecules.
  • Trela, Ewelina; Lan, Qiang; Myllymäki, Satu-Marja; Villeneuve, Clémentine; Lindström, Riitta; Kumar, Vinod; Wickström, Sara A.; Mikkola, Marja L. (2021)
    The mammary gland develops from the surface ectoderm during embryogenesis and proceeds through morphological phases defined as placode, hillock, bud, and bulb stages followed by branching morphogenesis. During this early morphogenesis, the mammary bud undergoes an invagination process where the thickened bud initially protrudes above the surface epithelium and then transforms to a bulb and sinks into the underlying mesenchyme. The signaling pathways regulating the early morphogenetic steps have been identified to some extent, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain ill defined. Here, we use 3D and 4D confocal microscopy to show that the early growth of the mammary rudiment is accomplished by migration-driven cell influx, with minor contributions of cell hypertrophy and proliferation. We delineate a hitherto undescribed invagination mechanism driven by thin, elongated keratinocytes-ring cells-that form a contractile rim around the mammary bud and likely exert force via the actomyosin network. Furthermore, we show that conditional deletion of nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMIIA) impairs invagination, resulting in abnormal mammary bud shape.
  • Idehen, Esther E.; Virtanen, Anni; Lilja, Eero; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Korhonen, Tellervo; Koponen, Päivikki (2020)
    Migrant-origin women are less prone to cervical screening uptake compared with host populations. This study examined cervical cancer screening participation and factors associated with it in the Finnish mass screening program during 2008-2012 in women of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin compared with the general Finnish population (Finns) in Finland. The study population consists of samples from the Finnish Migrant Health and Well-being Study 2010-2012 and Health 2011 Survey; aged 30-64 (n = 2579). Data from the Finnish screening register linked with other population-based registry data were utilized. For statistical analysis we employed logistic regression. Age-adjusted screening participation rates were Russians 63% (95% CI: 59.9-66.6), Somalis 19% (16.4-21.6), Kurds 69% (66.6-71.1), and Finns 67% (63.3-69.8). In the multiple-adjusted model with Finns as the reference; odds ratios for screening were among Russians 0.92 (0.74-1.16), Somalis 0.16 (0.11-0.22), and Kurds 1.37 (1.02-1.83). Among all women, the substantial factor for increased screening likelihood was hospital care related to pregnancy/birth 1.73 (1.27-2.35), gynecological 2.47 (1.65-3.68), or other reasons 1.53 (1.12-2.08). Screening participation was lower among students and retirees. In conclusion, screening among the migrant-origin women varies, being significantly lowest among Somalis compared with Finns. Efforts using culturally tailored/population-specific approaches may be beneficial in increasing screening participation among women of migrant-origin.
  • Lund, Carina; Yellapragada, Venkatram; Vuoristo, Sanna; Balboa, Diego; Trova, Sara; Allet, Cecile; Eskici, Nazli; Pulli, Kristiina; Giacobini, Paolo; Tuuri, Timo; Raivio, Taneli (2020)
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons provide a fundamental signal for the onset of puberty and subsequent reproductive functions by secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Their disrupted development or function leads to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). To model the development of human GnRH neurons, we generated a stable GNRH1-TdTomato reporter cell line in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. RNA-sequencing of the reporter clone, differentiated into GnRH neurons by dual SMAD inhibition and FGF8 treatment, revealed 6461 differentially expressed genes between progenitors and GnRH neurons. Expression of the transcription factor ISL1, one of the top 50 most upregulated genes in the TdTomato-expressing GnRH neurons, was confirmed in 10.5 gestational week-old human fetal GnRH neurons. Among the differentially expressed genes, we detected 15 genes that are implicated in CHH and several genes that are implicated in human puberty timing. Finally, FGF8 treatment in the neuronal progenitor pool led to upregulation of 37 genes expressed both in progenitors and in TdTomato-expressing GnRH neurons, which suggests upstream regulation of these genes by FGF8 signaling during GnRH neuron differentiation. These results illustrate how hPSC-derived human GnRH neuron transcriptomic analysis can be utilized to dissect signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks involved in human GnRH neuron development.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2021)
    This article is about self-defined social identities, other people's perceptions of us and the potentially conflictual relationship between these two. Building on a Barthian focus on group boundaries, the article takes the interplay between external categorizations and internal group definitions as its point of departure to examine how individuals negotiate the boundaries of their social identities. Based on a case study of skilled migrants with racialized ethnicities in Finland, I look at how they express their self-defined identity as well-to-do, skilled professionals in the face of contradicting categorizations of them as unskilled , lower-class migrant subjects. I identify two types of complementary approaches employed by the skilled migrants in boundary making strategies to their identity negotiations: those de-emphasizing ethnicity (or its importance), and those emphasizing class status. These approaches are two sides of the same coin; coming from different perspectives, they both aim at a more positively viewed identity, and for individuals to be seen as well-to-do, educated, working professionals, rather than as ethnic migrant subjects. As such, the article also highlights the interconnection of class and ethnicity for the social identities of skilled migrants in Finland.
  • Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Mattila, Markku; Lähdesmäki, Merja; Suutari, Timo (2019)
    Purpose In this paper, the following research question is addressed: Why do business organisations recruit employees with a foreign background? This was examined in terms of the values that guide organisations and their management. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach The study focused on two businesses in Finland that are pioneers in the recruitment of immigrants. A case study approach was adopted. The research data consist of interviews and documentary data. The data were analysed using content analysis in accordance with grounded theory. Findings Companies can act as an enabling force in the integration of immigrants into the local labour market, especially when the company's value basis extends beyond only economic values. Research limitations/implications - The study was conducted only in two case companies in Finland. Practical implications - Companies have the potential to affect local people's attitudes towards immigrants as workers. This is important because many western societies are likely to face a labour shortage in the future due to the ageing population and low birth rate. Originality/value Prior research has mostly investigated the topic from the viewpoints of the immigrants themselves and of policy makers. The value of this study is that it makes the employers' viewpoint visible. The dominant theories applied in the field of immigrant recruitment are inadequate to explain employers' behaviour because of their underlying assumption of the overwhelming importance of economic values in decision making.
  • Hasan, Galib; Salo, Vili-Taneli; Valiev, Rashid; Kubecka, Jakub; Kurten, Theo (2020)
    Organic peroxy radicals (RO2) are key intermediates in the chemistry of the atmosphere. One of the main sink reactions of RO2 is the recombination reaction RO2 + R'O-2, which has three main channels (all with O-2 as a coproduct): (1) R-H=O + R'OH, (2) RO + R'O, and (3) ROOR'. The RO + R'O "alkoxy" channel promotes radical and oxidant recycling, while the ROOR' "dimer" channel leads to low-volatility products relevant to aerosol processes. The ROOR' channel has only recently been discovered to play a role in the gas phase. Recent computational studies indicate that all of these channels first go through an intermediate complex( 1)(RO center dot center dot center dot O-3(2)center dot center dot center dot OR'). Here, O-3(2) is very weakly bound and will likely evaporate from the system, giving a triplet cluster of two alkoxy radicals: (3)(RO center dot center dot center dot OR'). In this study, we systematically investigate the three reaction channels for an atmospherically representative set of RO + R'O radicals formed in the corresponding RO2+ R'O-2 reaction. First, we systematically sample the possible conformations of the RO center dot center dot center dot OR' clusters on the triplet potential energy surface. Next, we compute energetic parameters and attempt to estimate reaction rate coefficients for the three channels: evaporation/dissociation to RO + R'O, a hydrogen shift leading to the formation of R'(-H)=O + ROH, and "spin-flip" (intersystem crossing) leading to, or at least allowing, the formation of ROOR' dimers. While large uncertainties in the computed energetics prevent a quantitative comparison of reaction rates, all three channels were found to be very fast (with typical rates greater than 10 6 s(-1)). This qualitatively demonstrates that the computationally proposed novel RO2 + R'O-2 reaction mechanism is compatible with experimental data showing non-negligible branching ratios for all three channels, at least for sufficiently complex RO2.
  • Yegutkin, Gennady G.; Auvinen, Kaisa; Karikoski, Marika; Rantakari, Pia; Gerke, Heidi; Elima, Kati; Maksimow, Mikael; Quintero, Ileana B.; Vihko, Pirkko; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2014)
  • Vähämurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Päivi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Telama, Risto; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Background and aims: In the 1960s and 1970s, Finland, mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) was over 30% higher among Finns residing in the east of the country compared with those residing in the west. Today, CHD mortality remains 20% higher among eastern Finns. The higher incidence of CHD mortality among eastern Finns has largely been explained by higher risk factor levels. Using a unique longitudinal cohort, we aimed to determine if participants who resided in eastern Finland during childhood had higher CHD risk factors in adulthood and from childhood to adulthood. Methods: The study population included 2063 participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, born during the period 1962-1977, with risk factor data available from baseline (1980) when participants were aged 3-18 years, and had risk factor data collected again in adulthood (2011) when aged 34-49 years. Results: Adult CHD risk factor profile was similar for those who resided in eastern or western Finland in childhood. Over life-course from 1980 to 2011, those subjects with childhood residency in eastern Finland had, on average, higher systolic (p = 0.006) and diastolic (p = 0.0009) blood pressures, total (p = 0.01) and LDLcholesterol (p = 0.01), triglycerides (p = 0.04), apoB (p = 0.02), and serum glucose (p Conclusions: Our sample of adult Finns aged 34-49 years had a similar CHD risk factor profile irrespective of whether they resided in eastern or western Finland during their childhood. However, when considering participants risk factor profiles over a 31-year period, those who resided in eastern Finland in childhood were associated with a less favorable CHD risk factor profile than those who resided in western Finland in childhood. The observed differences suggest that future CHD mortality might remain higher in eastern Finland compared with western Finland.
  • Gurarie, Eliezer; Fleming, Christen H.; Fagan, William F.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Hernandez-Pliego, Jesus; Ovaskainen, Otso (2017)
    Background: Continuous time movement models resolve many of the problems with scaling, sampling, and interpretation that affect discrete movement models. They can, however, be challenging to estimate, have been presented in inconsistent ways, and are not widely used. Methods: We review the literature on integrated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck velocity models and propose four fundamental correlated velocity movement models (CVM's): random, advective, rotational, and rotational-advective. The models are defined in terms of biologically meaningful speeds and time scales of autocorrelation. We summarize several approaches to estimating the models, and apply these tools for the higher order task of behavioral partitioning via change point analysis. Results: An array of simulation illustrate the precision and accuracy of the estimation tools. An analysis of a swimming track of a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) illustrates their robustness to irregular and sparse sampling and identifies switches between slower and faster, and directed vs. random movements. An analysis of a short flight of a lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) identifies exact moments when switches occur between loopy, thermal soaring and directed flapping or gliding flights. Conclusions: We provide tools to estimate parameters and perform change point analyses in continuous time movement models as an R package (smoove). These resources, together with the synthesis, should facilitate the wider application and development of correlated velocity models among movement ecologists.
  • Kieseppä, Valentina; Holm, Minna; Jokela, Markus; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Lehti, Venla (2021)
    Background: The aims of this study were to (1) compare differences in psychiatric comorbidity of depression and anxiety disorders between immigrants and native Finns and to (2) compare differences in the intensity of psychiatric care received by different immigrant groups and Finnish-born controls with depression and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: The study uses registered-based data, which includes all immigrants living in Finland at the end of 2010 and matched Finnish-born controls. For this study, we selected individuals who had received a diagnosis of depression and/or an anxiety disorder during the follow-up (2011?2015) (immigrants n = 6542, Finnish-born controls n = 9281). We compared differences in comorbidity between the immigrants and the Finnish-born controls using chi-squared tests. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict psychiatric treatment intensity by immigrant status, region of origin, and other background factors. Results: In both diagnosis groups, Finnish-born participants exhibited greater comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Immigrants more often received lower intensity treatment and less often higher intensity treatment. These differences were most striking among those from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Limitations: We did not have the information on the perceived need for the services, which limits us from drawing further conclusions about the mechanisms behind the observed patterns. Conclusions: Immigrants in Finland receive less intensive treatment for depression and anxiety disorders compared to the Finnish-born population. Since lower symptom levels can unlikely alone explain these differences, they could reflect a need for improvement in the psychiatric services for immigrants.
  • Baser, Bahar; Toivanen, Mari (2019)
    This article examines the dynamics of voluntary return migration to the Kurdistan region of Iraq in the post-Saddam period and provides a contextualised analysis of the returnees' experiences in a rapidly shifting geopolitical situation in Kurdistan. It specifically focuses on examining how diasporans' motivations to return, as well as their plans to re-return, are shaped in relation to their experiences in host societies and in the 'homeland'. Drawing from qualitative interviews, it shows that Kurdish diasporans' return can be characterised as 'diasporic homecoming' as it is motivated by the desire to contribute to the economic and political development of the Kurdistan region of Iraq. However, the mismatch between expectations and 'homeland' realities combined with positive experiences and social capital accumulated in the host country makes plans for re-return more foreseeable and less risky.
  • Kononen, Jukka (2018)
    The regulation of legal statuses and differentiation of non-citizens' rights within the states has become a significant site in the management of migration, yet the actual operations of differential inclusion remain an underexamined issue in the migration research. This article provides an empirically grounded analysis of the differential inclusion of non-citizens and demonstrates the legal hierarchies between non-citizens' entitlements using Finland as a case study. I argue that in addition to the regulation of residence and the access to labour markets, the unequal access to the welfare system represents a significant sphere of differentiation in the immigration process. Non-citizens' social entitlements differ depending on the nationality, the type of legal status and the form of employment, affecting their position in the labour markets and in the society. The article highlights the role of immigration law in manipulating the residence status of non-citizens, consequently invalidating the universalism of rights and a residence-based welfare system. Immigration controls, rather than representing a neutral framework of regulation of immigration, function as an institution, which produces conditional subjects and asymmetrical social relations in the sphere of universal citizenship.
  • Saarinen, Irena; Mirtti, Tuomas; Seikkula, Heikki; Bostrom, Peter J.; Taimen, Pekka (2015)
    Background Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in western countries. While active surveillance is increasingly utilized, the majority of patients are currently treated with radical prostatectomy. In order to avoid over-treatment, there is an indisputable need for reliable biomarkers to identify the potentially aggressive and lethal cases. Nuclear intermediate filament proteins called lamins play a role in chromatin organization, gene expression and cell stiffness. The expression of lamin A is associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer but to date the prognostic value of the lamins has not been tested in other solid tumors. Methods We studied the expression of different lamins with immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray material of 501 PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection. Patients were divided into two staining categories (low and high expression). The correlation of lamin expression with clinicopathological variables was tested and the association of lamin status with biochemical recurrence (BCR) and disease specific survival (DSS) was further analyzed. Results Low expression of lamin A associated with lymph node positivity (p Conclusions These results suggest differential roles for lamins in PCa progression. Reduced amounts of lamin A/C and B2 increase risk for lymph node metastasis and disease specific death possibly through increased nuclear deformability while high expression of lamin B1 predicts disease recurrence.
  • Heikinheimo, J.; Mizohata, K.; Räisänen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Jalkanen, P.; Lahtinen, A.; Catarino, N.; Alves, E.; Tuomisto, Filip (2019)
    Reliable and accurate knowledge of the physical properties of elementary point defects is crucial for predictive modeling of the evolution of radiation damage in materials employed in harsh conditions. We have applied positron annihilation spectroscopy to directly detect mono-vacancy defects created in tungsten through particle irradiation at cryogenic temperatures, as well as their recovery kinetics. We find that efficient self-healing of the primary damage takes place through Frenkel pair recombination already at 35 K, in line with an upper bound of 0.1 eV for the migration barrier of self-interstitials. Further self-interstitial migration is observed above 50 K with activation energies in the range of 0.12-0.42 eV through the release of the self-interstitial atoms from impurities and structural defects and following recombination with mono-vacancies. Mono-vacancy migration is activated at around 550 K with a migration barrier of E-m(V) = 1.85 +/- 0.05 eV. (C) 2019 Author(s).