Browsing by Subject "MILK"

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  • Ahlberg, Sara; Randolph, Delia; Okoth, Sheila; Lindahl, Johanna (2019)
    Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an attempt to control aflatoxins. However, these efforts have not substantially decreased the prevalence nor the dietary exposure to aflatoxins in developing countries. One approach to aflatoxin control is the use of binding agents in foods, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been studied extensively for this purpose. However, when assessing the results comprehensively and reviewing the practicality and ethics of use, risks are evident, and concerns arise. In conclusion, our review suggests that there are too many issues with using LAB for aflatoxin binding for it to be safely promoted. Arguably, using binders in human food might even worsen food safety in the longer term.
  • Arju, Georg; Taivosalo, Anastassia; Pismennoi, Dmitri; Lints, Taivo; Vilu, Raivo; Daneberga, Zanda; Vorslova, Svetlana; Renkonen, Risto; Joenvaara, Sakari (2020)
    Until now, cheese peptidomics approaches have been criticised for their lower throughput. Namely, analytical gradients that are most commonly used for mass spectrometric detection are usually over 60 or even 120 min. We developed a cheese peptide mapping method using nano ultra-high-performance chromatography data-independent acquisition high-resolution mass spectrometry (nanoUHPLC-DIA-HRMS) with a chromatographic gradient of 40 min. The 40 min gradient did not show any sign of compromise in milk protein coverage compared to 60 and 120 min methods, providing the next step towards achieving higher-throughput analysis. Top 150 most abundant peptides passing selection criteria across all samples were cross-referenced with work from other publications and a good correlation between the results was found. To achieve even faster sample turnaround enhanced DIA methods should be considered for future peptidomics applications.
  • Nonnemann, Bettina; Lyhs, Ulrike; Svennesen, Line; Kristensen, Katja Ann; Klaas, Ilka C.; Pedersen, Karl (2019)
    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization timeof-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast and reliable method to identify the most common pathogenic bacteria in humans and animals. The goals of this study were to amend a commercial database with additional species, evaluate the amended database for identification of bacterial genera and species causing bovine mastitis, and describe the plethora of species involved. In total, 500 udder pathogenic isolates were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS using bacterial or fungal colony material; 93.5% could be identified to the species level, and 6.5% were identified only to the genus level. Isolates identified to the genus level required further identification to the species level by conventional methods or 16S rDNA sequencing. Mass spectra from verified species were used to expand the MALDI-TOF MS database to improve future identification ability. A total of 24 genera and 61 species were identified in this study. Identified isolates were mainly staphylococci, streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and coryneforme bacteria. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful, rapid, and reliable technique to identify the most common microorganisms causing bovine mastitis, and the database can be continuously expanded and improved with additional species.
  • Siltari, Aino; Korpela, R.; Vapaatalo, H. (2016)
    Bradykinin exerts its vascular actions via two types of receptors, the non-constitutively expressed bradykinin receptor type 1 (BR1) and the constitutive type 2 receptor (BR2). Bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is age-dependent, a phenomenon related to the varying amounts of BR1 and BR2 in the vasculature. Isoleucine-proline-proline (Ile-Pro-Pro), a bioactive tripeptide, lowers elevated blood pressure and improves impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hypertensive rats. It inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1). Other mechanisms of action have also been postulated. The aims of the study were to clarify the underlying mechanisms of the age-dependency of bradykinin-induced vasodilatation such as the roles of the two bradykinin receptors, themas-receptor and synergism with Ile-Pro-Pro. The vascular response studies were conducted using mesenteric artery and aorta rings from normotensive 6 wk. (young) and 22 wk. (old) Wistar rats. Cumulative dosing of acetylcholine, bradykinin and angiotensin(1-7) (Ang(1-7))were tested in phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction with or without 10 min pre-incubation with antagonists against BR1-, BR2- or mas-receptors,Ang(1-7) or ACE1-inhibitors captopril and Ile-Pro-Pro. The bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in vitro was age-dependent and it was improved by pre incubation with Ile-Pro-Pro, especially in old rats with endothelial dysfunction. The mas-receptor antagonist, D-Pro7-Ang(1-7) abolished bradykinin-induced relaxation totally. Interestingly, BR1 and BR2 antagonists only slightly reduced bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation, as an evidence for the involvement of other mechanisms in addition to receptor activation. In conclusion, bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation was age -dependent and He-Pro-Pro improved it. Mas receptor antagonist abolished relaxation while bradykinin receptor antagonist only slightly reduced it, suggesting that bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation is regulated also by other mechanisms than the classical BR1/BR2 pathway. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc: All rights reserved.
  • Huilaja, Laura; Makikallio, Kaarin; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Vakeva, Liisa; Hook-Nikanne, Johanna; Tasanen, Kaisa (2015)
    Gestational pemphigoid, a rare autoimmune skin disease typically occurring during pregnancy, is caused by autoantibodies against collagen XVII. Clinically it is characterised by severe itching followed by erythematous and bullous lesions of the skin. Topical or oral glucocorticoids usually relieve symptoms, but in more severe cases systemic immunosuppressive treatments are needed. Data on immunosuppressive medication controlling gestational pemphigoid are sparse. We report 3 intractable cases of gestational pemphigoid treated with cyclosporine.
  • CHARGE Consortium; Ding, Ming (2017)
    OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. DESIGN Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable. SETTING CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. PARTICIPANTS Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized. RESULTS Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P CONCLUSION The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.
  • Mora, Diego; Filardi, Rossella; Arioli, Stefania; Boeren, Sjef; Aalvink, Steven; de Vos, Willem M. (2019)
    The growing commercial interest in multi-strain formulations marketed as probiotics has not been accompanied by an equal increase in the evaluation of quality levels of these biotechnological products. The multi-strain product VSL#3 was used as a model to setup a microbiological characterization that could be extended to other formulations with high complexity. Shotgun metagenomics by deep Illumina sequencing was applied to DNA isolated from the commercial VSL#3 product to confirm strains identity safety and composition. Single-cell analysis was used to evaluate the cell viability, and beta-galactosidase and urease activity have been used as marker to monitor the reproducibility of the production process. Similarly, these lots were characterized in detail by a metaproteomics approach for which a robust protein extraction protocol was combined with advanced mass spectrometry. The results identified over 1600 protein groups belonging to all strains present in the VSL#3 formulation. Of interest, only 3.2 % proteins showed significant differences mainly related to small variations in strain abundance. The protocols developed in this study addressed several quality criteria that are relevant for marketed multi-strain products and these represent the first efforts to define the quality of complex probiotic formulations such as VSL#3.
  • Moosmang, Simon; Siltari, Aino; Bolzer, Marie-Theres; Kiechl, Stefan; Sturm, Sonja; Stuppner, Hermann (2019)
    Dairy products are an important part of a nutritionally balanced diet as their constituents can affect the human state of health. By inhibiting the angiotensin I-converting enzyme, the tripeptides Val-Pro-Pro, Ile-Pro-Pro, and Leu-Pro-Pro can lower blood pressure. As these peptides are produced during fermentation, they are found in various dairy products like cheese, yoghurt, etc., but except for cheese only little is known about their content. To investigate how other dairy products contribute to a supply of these antihypertensive peptides, we developed and validated a fast and sensitive assay for quantification of the three tripeptides with LC-MS/MS combined with a simple protocol for extraction and SPE-purification from yoghurt, curd, or other products. Finally, the entire method was successfully applied to survey peptide concentrations in samples from local dairies and thus expands our awareness on the content of antihypertensive peptides in our food. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Parnanen, Katariina M. M.; Hultman, Jenni; Markkanen, Melina; Satokari, Reetta; Rautava, Samuli; Lamendella, Regina; Wright, Justin; McLimans, Christopher J.; Kelleher, Shannon L.; Virta, Marko P. (2022)
    Background Infants are at a high risk of acquiring fatal infections, and their treatment relies on functioning antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are present in high numbers in antibiotic-naive infants' gut microbiomes, and infant mortality caused by resistant infections is high. The role of antibiotics in shaping the infant resistome has been studied, but there is limited knowledge on other factors that affect the antibiotic resistance burden of the infant gut. Objectives Our objectives were to determine the impact of early exposure to formula on the ARG load in neonates and infants born either preterm or full term. Our hypotheses were that diet causes a selective pressure that influences the microbial community of the infant gut, and formula exposure would increase the abundance of taxa that carry ARGs. Methods Cross-sectionally sampled gut metagenomes of 46 neonates were used to build a generalized linear model to determine the impact of diet on ARG loads in neonates. The model was cross-validated using neonate metagenomes gathered from public databases using our custom statistical pipeline for cross-validation. Results Formula-fed neonates had higher relative abundances of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Clostridioides difficile. The relative abundance of ARGs carried by gut bacteria was 69% higher in the formula-receiving group (fold change, 1.69; 95% CI: 1.12-2.55; P = 0.013; n = 180) compared to exclusively human milk-fed infants. The formula-fed infants also had significantly less typical infant bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria, that have potential health benefits. Conclusions The novel finding that formula exposure is correlated with a higher neonatal ARG burden lays the foundation that clinicians should consider feeding mode in addition to antibiotic use during the first months of life to minimize the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant gut bacteria in infants.
  • Korpela, Bei; Pitkänen, Leena; Heinonen, Marina (2022)
    The effect of enzyme treatment on protein-tannin interactions was investigated using up-to-date analytical approaches for improving their physical properties. The formation of ligands between procyanidin B2 and native oat globulin (OG) was observed to be affected by the ratio of procyanidin B2 to OG and the availability of tryptophan. For the transglutaminase-treated OG, the results obtained from circular dichroism (CD) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) revealed that procyanidin B2 acted as an acyl acceptor in the process of OG deamidation. Procyanidin B2 also inhibited the non-covalent protein-protein interactions occurring between the aromatic side-chains or sedimentation of tryptophan aggregates. For trypsin-treated OG, procyanidin B2 interacted with phenylalanine and the tryptophan side-chain of OG. The inhibition of procyanidin B2 towards protein-protein aggregation was proved by the observation of CD, SEC and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation.
  • PASTURE Study Grp; Hose, Alexander J.; Pagani, Giulia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Pekkanen, Juha; Ege, Markus J. (2021)
    A higher diversity of food items introduced in the first year of life has been inversely related to subsequent development of asthma. In the current analysis, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to systematically assess feeding patterns and to relate them to asthma risk at school age. PASTURE (N=1133) and LUKAS2 (N=228) are prospective birth cohort studies designed to evaluate protective and risk factors for atopic diseases, including dietary patterns. Feeding practices were reported by parents in monthly diaries between the 4(th) and 12(th) month of life. For 17 common food items parents indicated frequency of feeding during the last 4 weeks in 4 categories. The resulting 153 ordinal variables were entered in a LCA. The intestinal microbiome was assessed at the age of 12 months by 16S rRNA sequencing. Data on feeding practice with at least one reported time point was available in 1042 of the 1133 recruited children. Best LCA model fit was achieved by the 4-class solution. One class showed an elevated risk of asthma at age 6 as compared to the other classes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 8.47, 95% CI 2.52-28.56, p = 0.001) and was characterized by daily meat consumption and rare consumption of milk and yoghurt. A refined LCA restricted to meat, milk, and yoghurt confirmed the asthma risk effect of a particular class in PASTURE and independently in LUKAS2, which we thus termed unbalanced meat consumption (UMC). The effect of UMC was particularly strong for non-atopic asthma and asthma irrespectively of early bronchitis (aOR: 17.0, 95% CI 5.2-56.1, p < 0.001). UMC fostered growth of iron scavenging bacteria such as Acinetobacter (aOR: 1.28, 95% CI 1.00-1.63, p = 0.048), which was also related to asthma (aOR: 1.55, 95% CI 1.18-2.03, p = 0.001). When reconstructing bacterial metabolic pathways from 16S rRNA sequencing data, biosynthesis of siderophore group nonribosomal peptides emerged as top hit (aOR: 1.58, 95% CI 1.13-2.19, p = 0.007). By a data-driven approach we found a pattern of overly meat consumption at the expense of other protein sources to confer risk of asthma. Microbiome analysis of fecal samples pointed towards overgrowth of iron-dependent bacteria and bacterial iron metabolism as a potential explanation.
  • Hussain, Nazar; Ran, Li; Takala, Timo; Tariq, Muhammad; Zaidi, Arsalan; Saris, Per (2021)
    Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is the most studied probiotic bacterium in the world. It is used as a probiotic supplement in many foods, including various dairy products. However, LGG grows poorly in milk, as it neither metabolizes the main milk carbohydrate lactose nor degrades the major milk protein casein effectively. In this study, we made L rhamnosus GG lactose and protease positive by conjugation with the dairy Lactococcus lactis strain NCDO 712 carrying the lactose-protease plasmid pLP712. A lactose-hydrolyzing transconjugant colony was obtained on agar containing lactose as the sole source of carbohydrates. By microscopic analysis and PCR with LGG- and pLP712-specific primers, the transconjugant was confirmed to have originated from LGG and to carry the plasmid pLP712. The transconjugant was named L. rhamnosus LAB49. The isolation of plasmids revealed that not only pLP712 but also other plasmids had been transferred from L lactis into LGG during conjugation. With plasmid-specific PCR primers, four additional lactococcal plasmids were detected in LAB49. Proteolytic activity assay and SDS-PAGE analysis verified that L rhamnosus LAB49 effectively degraded beta-casein. In contrast to its parental strain, LGG, the ability of LAB49 to metabolize lactose and degrade casein enabled strong and fast growth in milk. As strains with new properties made by conjugation are not regarded as genetically modified organisms (GM05), L. rhamnosus LAB49 could be beneficial in dairy fermentations as a probiotic starter culture. IMPORTANCE Probiotic strain Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is widely sold on the market as a probiotic or added as a supplement in dairy foods because of its benefits in human health. However, due to the deficiency of lactose and casein utilization, LGG does not grow well in milk. On the other hand, lactose intolerance and cow's milk protein allergy are the two major problems related to milk consumption. One option to help with these two conditions is the use of probiotic or lactose- and casein-hydrolyzing bacteria in dairy products. The purpose of this study was to equip LGG with lactose/casein-hydrolyzing ability by bacterial conjugation. As a result, we generated a non-GMO LGG derivative with improved properties and better growth in milk.
  • Lamichhane, Santosh; Siljander, Heli; Salonen, Marja; Ruohtula, Terhi; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Knip, Mikael; Oresic, Matej (2022)
    Background: Current evidence suggests that the composition of infant formula (IF) affects the gut microbiome, intestinal function, and immune responses during infancy. However, the impact of IF on circulating lipid profiles in infants is still poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how extensively hydrolyzed IF impacts serum lipidome compared to conventional formula and (2) to associate changes in circulatory lipids with gastrointestinal biomarkers including intestinal permeability. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind controlled nutritional intervention study (n = 73), we applied mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to analyze serum lipids in infants who were fed extensively hydrolyzed formula (HF) or conventional, regular formula (RF). Serum samples were collected at 3, 9, and 12 months of age. Child's growth (weight and length) and intestinal functional markers, including lactulose mannitol (LM) ratio, fecal calprotectin, and fecal beta-defensin, were also measured at given time points. At 3 months of age, stool samples were analyzed by shotgun metagenomics. Results: Concentrations of sphingomyelins were higher in the HF group as compared to the RF group. Triacylglycerols (TGs) containing saturated and monounsaturated fatty acyl chains were found in higher levels in the HF group at 3 months, but downregulated at 9 and 12 months of age. LM ratio was lower in the HF group at 9 months of age. In the RF group, the LM ratio was positively associated with ether-linked lipids. Such an association was, however, not observed in the HF group. Conclusion: Our study suggests that HF intervention changes the circulating lipidome, including those lipids previously found to be associated with progression to islet autoimmunity or overt T1D.
  • Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M. (2022)
    The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. Recent years have witnessed an accumulation of understanding of the process of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in infants. The natural gut microbiota colonization during birth is frequently disrupted due to C-section birth or intrapartum or postpartum antibiotic exposure, and consequently aberrant gut microbiota development is common. On a positive note, research has shown that restoration of normal gut microbiota development is feasible. We discuss here the current understanding of the infant microbiota, provide an overview of the sources of disturbances, and critically evaluate the evidence on early life gut microbiota restoration for improved health outcomes by analyzing published data from infant gut microbiota restoration studies.
  • Karisola, Piia; Palosuo, Kati; Hinkkanen, Victoria; Wisgrill, Lukas; Savinko, Terhi; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Alenius, Harri; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2021)
    We previously reported the results of a randomized, open-label trial of egg oral immunotherapy (OIT) in 50 children where 44% were desensitized and 46% were partially desensitized after 8 months of treatment. Here we focus on cell-mediated molecular mechanisms driving desensitization during egg OIT. We sought to determine whether changes in genome-wide gene expression in blood cells during egg OIT correlate with humoral responses and the clinical outcome. The blood cell transcriptome of 50 children receiving egg OIT was profiled using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained at baseline and after 3 and 8 months of OIT. We identified 467 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) after 3 or 8 months of egg OIT. At 8 months, 86% of the DEGs were downregulated and played a role in the signaling of TREM1, IL-6, and IL-17. In correlation analyses, Gal d 1-4-specific IgG4 antibodies associated positively with DEGs playing a role in pathogen recognition and antigen presentation and negatively with DEGs playing a role in the signaling of IL-10, IL-6, and IL-17. Desensitized and partially desensitized patients had differences in their antibody responses, and although most of the transcriptomic changes were shared, both groups had also specific patterns, which suggest slower changes in partially desensitized and activation of NK cells in the desensitized group. OIT for egg allergy in children inhibits inflammation and activates innate immune responses regardless of the clinical outcome at 8 months. Changes in gene expression patterns first appear as posttranslational protein modifications, followed by more sustained epigenetic gene regulatory functions related to successful desensitization.
  • Yousefvand, Amin; Huang, Xin; Zarei, Mehdi; Saris, Per Erik Joakim (2022)
    The study aimed to determine the effect of starter cultures (kefir grains and natural kefir starter culture without grains) on Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) survival and on the quality characteristics of kefir. To this end, the viability of probiotic L. rhamnosus GG strain and the rheological properties and quality parameters of kefir beverages were tested during storage over 21 days at 4 degrees C. The final LGG counts were 7.71 and 7.55 log cfu/mL in natural kefir starter culture and kefir grain, respectively. When prepared with probiotic bacteria, the syneresis values of kefir prepared using natural kefir starter culture was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of kefir made using grains. However, the viscosity indices, hysteresis loop, and dynamic moduli were similar between kefir made with natural kefir starter culture and other kefir formulations (p > 0.05). Moreover, all samples showed shear-thinning behavior. The flavor scores for kefir prepared using natural kefir starter culture were significantly higher than for the other samples (p < 0.05), but overall acceptability was similar at the 10-day assessment across both starters (with and without grain) after the addition of probiotic bacteria (p > 0.05). Overall, the results indicate that natural kefir starter culture could be a potential probiotic carrier.
  • Forsgård, Richard A. (2019)
    Globally, similar to 70% of adults are deficient in intestinal lactase, the enzyme required for the digestion of lactose. In these individuals, the consumption of lactose-containing milk and dairy products can lead to the development of various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The primary solution to lactose intolerance is withdrawing lactose from the diet either by eliminating dairy products altogether or substituting lactose-free alternatives. However, studies have shown that certain individuals erroneously attribute their GI symptoms to lactose and thus prefer to consume lactose-free products. This has raised the question whether consuming lactose-free products reduces an individual's ability to absorb dietary lactose and if lactose-absorbers should thus avoid these products. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the acclimatization of lactose processing in humans. Human studies that have attempted to induce intestinal lactase expression with different lactose feeding protocols have consistently shown lack of enzyme induction. Similarly, withdrawing lactose from the diet does not reduce intestinal lactase expression. Evidence from cross-sectional studies shows that milk or dairy consumption is a poor indicator of lactase status, corroborating the results of intervention studies. However, in lactase-deficient individuals, lactose feeding supports the growth of lactose-digesting bacteria in the colon, which enhances colonic lactose processing and possibly results in the reduction of intolerance symptoms. This process is referred to as colonic adaptation. In conclusion, endogenous lactase expression does not depend on the presence of dietary lactose, but in susceptible individuals, dietary lactose might improve intolerance symptoms via colonic adaptation. For these individuals, lactose withdrawal results in the loss of colonic adaptation, which might lower the threshold for intolerance symptoms if lactose is reintroduced into the diet.
  • Paasela, Monika; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno (2014)
  • Koskela, Jaana; Sutton, Joshua J.; Lipiäinen, Tiina; Gordon, Keith C.; Strachan, Clare J.; Fraser-Miller, Sara J. (2022)
    Slurry studies are useful for exhaustive polymorph and solid-state stability screening of drug compounds. Raman spectroscopy is convenient for monitoring crystallization in such slurries, as the measurements can be performed in situ even in aqueous environments. While the mid-frequency region (400-4000 cm(-1)) is dominated by intramolecular vibrations and has traditionally been used for such studies, the low-frequency spectral region (
  • Jokela, Roosa; Korpela, Katri; Jian, Ching; Dikareva, Evgenia; Nikkonen, Anne; Saisto, Terhi; Skogberg, Kirsi; de Vos, Willem M.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Salonen, Anne (2022)
    Birth mode and maternal intrapartum (IP) antibiotics affect infants' gut microbiota development, but their relative contribution to absolute bacterial abundances and infant health has not been studied. We compared the effects of Cesarean section (CS) delivery and IP antibiotics on infant gut microbiota development and well-being over the first year. We focused on 92 healthy infants born between gestational weeks 37-42 vaginally without antibiotics (N = 26), with IP penicillin (N = 13) or cephalosporin (N = 7) or by CS with IP cephalosporin (N = 33) or other antibiotics (N = 13). Composition and temporal development analysis of the gut microbiota concentrated on 5 time points during the first year of life using 165 rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, integrated with qPCR to obtain absolute abundance estimates. A mediation analysis was carried out to identify taxa linked to gastrointestinal function and discomfort (crying, defecation frequency, and signs of gastrointestinal symptoms), and birth interventions. Based on absolute abundance estimates, the depletion of Bacteroides spp. was found specifically in CS birth, while decreased bifidobacteria and increased Bacilli were common in CS birth and exposure to IP antibiotics in vaginal delivery. The abundances of numerous taxa differed between the birth modes among cephalosporin-exposed infants. Penicillin had a milder impact on the infant gut microbiota than cephalosporin. CS birth and maternal IP antibiotics had both specific and overlapping effects on infants' gut microbiota development. The resulting deviations in the gut microbiota are associated with increased defecation rate, flatulence, perceived stomach pain, and intensity of crying in infancy.