Browsing by Subject "MILK-PRODUCTION"

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  • Väärikkälä, Sofia Susanna; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki; Nevas, Mari Anne (2019)
    Simple Summary Official on-farm inspections are carried out throughout the European Union every year to ensure farm compliance with animal welfare standards. The aim of this study was to analyze Finnish inspection data in order to find out how well cattle and pig farms comply with animal welfare standards, to reveal the most common non-compliances and to identify possible farm risk factors. About every fourth inspected Finnish cattle and pig farm did not comply with the animal welfare standards. Examples of factors that increased the risk of non-compliance were small herd size, tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing. Inadequate lying area in cattle farms and a lack of enrichment material in pig farms were the most common non-compliances. The regional differences found may indicate differences in inspectors' interpretations or ways in conducting inspections. As the official inspection reports contain valuable information about the welfare problems on farms, the reports should be better utilized in risk analysis, in targeting farmer education, and in making the inspections more uniform. Abstract The competent authorities of the Member States of the European Union are required to perform animal welfare inspections on livestock farms. The data obtained from these official inspections performed in Finnish cattle and pig farms in 2010-2015 were used with the aim of estimating the prevalence of the most common non-compliances and identifying underlying risk factors. The prevalence of non-compliant cattle and pig farms was 24.2% and 27.9%, respectively. In cattle, the most common problem was an inadequate lying area followed by deficient housing conditions for calves; in pigs, it was a lack of enrichment material. The non-compliances concerning cattle were most frequently detected in autumn and in farms with small herd size, with tie-stall housing and outdoor rearing year-round. The pig farms with a farrow-to-finish unit had a higher prevalence of non-compliances than other production types. The prevalence of the non-compliant farms differed notably between the regions. It can be concluded that the cattle welfare inspections should be performed with a focus on the cold and rainy seasons and at small farms, whereas the pig welfare inspections should mainly focus on farrow-to-finish units. The data received from official inspections should be efficiently utilized in the development of animal welfare inspection system, with the aim of risk-based, consistent and uniform inspections. In addition, the data should be utilized in targeting information for farmers.
  • Seleiman, Mahmoud F.; Selim, Shaimaa; Jaakkola, Seija; Makela, Pirjo S. A. (2017)
    Maize cultivation for silage could be a sustainable option in Boreal conditions, especially when combined with nutrient recycling. Effects of digestate (sludge from biogas of domestic origin) application in comparison with synthetic fertilizer and two maturity stages on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of whole-crop maize were investigated. Starch, neutral detergent fiber, water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and digestible organic matter (DOM) contents of maize did not differ in response to the two fertilizer treatments. However, starch, DOM and metabolizable energy of maize increased, while ash, crude protein and WSC contents decreased with increasing maize maturity. Heavy metals in maize fertilized with digestate remained low. The results indicate that whole-crop maize fertilized with digestate and harvested at 150 days after sowing is a promising feed and has good nutritive value, even in Boreal conditions.
  • Lamminen, Marjukka Elina; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, Anni Ilona Karoliina; Kokkonen, Tuomo Juhani; Jaakkola, Seija Liisa; Vanhatalo, Aila Orvokki (2019)
    This experiment was conducted to evaluate different microalgae species as protein supplements in the nutrition of lactating dairy cows in comparison to soya bean meal. Four multiparous lactating Finnish Ayrshire cows (112 days in milk) were used in a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square study. Cows were fed separately fixed amount of cereal-sugar beet pulp based concentrate (12.5 kg/d) and grass silage ad libitum. Experimental treatments consisted of four isonitrogenous protein supplements: soya bean meal (SOY), Spirulina platensis (SPI), Chlorella vulgaris (CHL) and a mixture of C. vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana (1:1 on dry matter (DM) basis; CHL-NAN). The substitution of soya bean meal by microalgae did not affect the quantity of total DM intake (DMI), but changed the composition of DMI by decreasing the concentrate:forage ratio of the diet (P=0.054) owing to the poorer palatability of microalgae. Intake of methionine was increased (P<0.01) and that of histidine decreased (P<0.01) with microalgae diets compared to SOY, but no significant changes in arterial concentrations were observed. The digestibility of nutrients, milk or energy corrected milk (ECM) yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Though, owing to SPI, algae diets resulted in numerically +2.2 kg/d higher ECM yield than SOY. Microalgae diets tended to result in higher milk fat (P=0.073), arterial acetic acid (P=0.055) and non-esterified fatty acid (P=0.060) concentrations than SOY. Milk fat (P<0.05) and arterial acetic acid (P=0.010) concentrations were increased and milk fat yield tended to increase (P=0.098) on SPI compared to CHL and CHL-NAN. Urinary nitrogen excretion was also lower (P<0.05) for microalgae diets than for SOY. Microalgae diets resulted in higher secretion of Δ16:2 (P<0.05), cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 (α-linoleic acid; ALA) (P<0.05), cis-6, cis-9, cis-12 18:3 (P<0.05) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (P<0.05) in milk than SOY. Secretion of cis-5, cis-8, cis-11, cis-14, cis-17 20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA) in milk tended to be higher on CHL and CHL-NAN than on SPI (P=0.060), and was higher on CHL-NAN than on CHL (P<0.05). Also the omega-6:omega-3 ratio was lower (P<0.05) for CHL-NAN than for CHL. The results suggest that microalgae are likely comparable protein feed to soya bean meal in dairy cow nutrition, especially if palatability of microalgae can be improved.
  • Martins, L. F.; Oh, J.; Harper, M.; Melgar, A.; Räisänen, S. E.; Chen, X.; Nedelkov, K.; Karnezos, T. P.; Hristov, A. N. (2022)
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an exogenous enzyme preparation from As-pergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger on lactational performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight Holstein cows (32 primiparous and 16 multiparous) averaging (+/- SD) 36.3 +/- 8.7 kg/d milk yield and 141 +/- 52 d in milk were enrolled in a 10-wk randomized complete block design experiment (total of 24 blocks) and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: basal diet, no enzyme supplementation (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 4.2 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) of an exogenous enzyme prep-aration containing amylolytic and fibrolytic activities (ENZ). After a 2-wk covariate period, premixes with the enzyme preparation or control were top-dressed daily by mixing with approximately 500 g of total mixed ra-tion. Production data were collected daily and averaged by week. Milk samples were collected every other week, and milk composition was averaged by week. Blood, fe-cal, and urine samples were collected over 2 consecutive days at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 36 h after feeding during the last week of the experiment. Compared with CON, cows fed ENZ tended to increase DMI and had increased milk concentrations of true protein, lactose, and other solids. Milk fat content tended to be higher in CON cows. A treatment x parity interaction was found for some of the production variables. Primiparous cows receiv-ing ENZ had greater yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, milk true protein, and lactose compared with CON primiparous cows; these production variables did not differ between treatments for multiparous cows. Intake and total-tract digestibility of nutrients did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of blood glucose and total fatty acids were not affected by ENZ supplementation, but 0-hydroxybutyrate concentration tended to be greater in ENZ cows. Overall, the exog-enous enzyme preparation used in this study increased milk protein and lactose concentrations in all cows, and milk production in primiparous but not multiparous cows. The differential production response between pri-miparous and multiparous cows was likely a result of a greater increase in DMI with ENZ supplementation in the younger animals.
  • Salin, S.; Vanhatalo, A.; Jaakkola, S.; Elo, K.; Taponen, J.; Boston, R. C.; Kokkonen, T. (2018)
    High energy intake in the dry period has reportedly had adverse effects on mobilization of body reserves, dry matter intake, and productivity of dairy cows. We investigated whether grass silage (GS) fed ad libitum (high energy intake, HEI; 141% of daily metabolizable energy requirements) in an 8-wk dry period affects metabolic adaptation-specifically, peripheral insulin resistance-compared with a total mixed ration consisting of GS, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal (55/40/5%; controlled energy intake, CEI; 108% of metabolizable energy/d) fed ad libitum. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design until 8 wk after parturition. Commercial concentrates were fed 1 and 2 kg/d during the last 10 to 6 and 5 to 0 d before the expected calving date, respectively. Postpartum, a similar lactation diet with ad libitum access to GS and increasing concentrate allowance (maximum of 16 kg/d) was offered to all. The HEI group gained more body weight and had higher plasma insulin, glucose, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than the CEI group prepartum. Postpartal plasma glucose tended to be higher and milk yield was greater from wk 5 onward for HEI compared with CEI cows. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed at -13 +/- 5 d and 9 +/- 1 d relative to calving. The HEI cows had greater insulin response to glucose load and smaller area under the response curve for glucose than CEI cows in prepartal IVGTT. Thus, compensatory insulin secretion adapted to changes in insulin sensitivity of the peripheral tissues, preserving glucose tolerance of HEI cows. Higher insulin levels were needed in HEI cows than in CEI cows to elicit a similar decrement of nonesterified fatty acid concentration in prepartal wurr, suggesting reduced inhibition of lipolysis by insulin in HEI cows before parturition. In conclusion, high energy intake of moderately digestible GS with low concentrate feeding in the close-up dry period did not have adverse effects on metabolic adaptation, insulin sensitivity, and body mobilization after parturition. Instead, this feeding regimen was more beneficial to early-lactation performance than GS-based total mixed ration diluted with wheat straw.
  • Kuoppala, K.; Jaakkola, S.; Garry, B.; Ahvenjarvi, S.; Rinne, M. (2021)
    There is increasing interest in using locally produced protein supplements in dairy cow feeding. The objective of this experiment was to compare rapeseed meal (RSM), faba beans (FBs) and blue lupin seeds (BL) at isonitrogenous amounts as supplements of grass silage and cereal based diets. A control diet (CON) without protein supplement was included in the experiment. Four lactating Nordic Red cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design with four 21 d periods. The milk production increased with protein supplementation but when expressed as energy corrected milk, the response disappeared due to substantially higher milk fat concentration with CON compared to protein supplemented diets. Milk protein output increased by 8.5, 4.4 and 2.7% when RSM, FB and BL were compared to CON. The main changes in rumen fermentation were the higher propionate and lower butyrate proportion of total rumen volatile fatty acids when the protein supplemented diets were compared to CON. Protein supplementation also clearly increased the ruminal ammonia N concentration. Protein supplementation improved diet organic matter and NDF digestibility but efficiency of microbial protein synthesis per kg organic matter truly digested was not affected. Flow of microbial N was greater when FB compared to BL was fed. All protein supplements decreased the efficiency of nitrogen use in milk production. The marginal efficiency (amount of additional feed protein captured in milk protein) was 0.110, 0.062 and 0.045 for RSM, FB and BL, respectively. The current study supports the evidence that RSM is a good protein supplement for dairy cows, and this effect was at least partly mediated by the lower rumen degradability of RSM protein compared to FB and BL. The relatively small production responses to protein supplementation with simultaneous decrease in nitrogen use efficiency in milk production suggest that economic and environmental consequences of protein feeding need to be carefully considered. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of The Animal Consortium. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Konig, Walter; Konig, Emilia; Elo, Kari; Vanhatalo, Aila; Jaakkola, Seija (2019)
    Legumes are particularly susceptible to clostridial fermentation when ensiled because of their high buffering capacity and water-soluble carbohydrate contents. The aim of the study was to investigate if a sodium nitrite treatment (900 g t(-1) herbage in fresh matter [FM]) impairs butyric acid fermentation of red clover-timothy-meadow fescue silage compared with formic acid-treated (4 l t(-1) FM) and untreated silage. The sward was harvested after wilting at low dry matter (DM) (LDM, 194 g kg(-1)) and high DM (HDM, 314 g kg(-1)) concentrations and half of the herbage batches were inoculated with Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores before additive treatments. No butyric acid fermentation was observed in HDM silages probably because of the relatively high DM and nitrate contents of the herbage mixture. In LDM silage butyric acid was detected only in formic acid-treated silage, and the number of clostridia copies was higher in formic acid-treated than in sodium nitrite treated silage. Sodium nitrite treatment was superior to FA treatment in suppressing clostridial fermentation in the LDM silages.
  • Marshall, Karen; Salmon, G.R.; Tebug, Stanly; Juga, Jarmo; MacLeod, M.; Poole, Elizabeth Jane; Baltenweck, I.; Missohou, Ayao (2020)
    Senegal, located in West Africa, is an example of a low-to middle-income country where the govern-ment has prioritized improving livestock production self-sufficiency, with a strong focus on dairy. Among other initiatives, the use of exotic dairy cattle has been promoted, despite no evidence for the potential liveli-hood benefits (or otherwise) to smallholder farmers on adopting the new genetics. The current work fills this evidence gap by performing a farm-level economic study comparing the keeping of different breed and cross-breed types of dairy cattle under different management levels. Data for the study were obtained by monitoring 220 smallholder dairy cattle farms, with a combined cattle population of about 3,000 animals, over an almost 2-yr period. Findings of the study suggest that the most net-beneficial and cost-beneficial dairy cattle enterprise that could be used by the smallholder farmers was to keep crossbred indigenous zebu by exotic Bos taurus animals under management standards that are consid-ered good compared with local standards. This dairy enterprise type was 7.4-fold more net beneficial and had a 1.4-fold more favorable cost-benefit ratio than the traditional system of keeping indigenous zebu animals under poor (low-input) management. Interestingly, the keeping of (near) pure B. taurus dairy cattle resulted in the highest milk yields and thus benefit from milk, but was not the most net beneficial due to the high costs of keeping these animals, particularly in terms of feed. We also found that increasing the managementlevel of any of the breed or cross-breed types under consideration, including the indigenous zebu animals, resulted in an increased net benefit of 2.2-to 2.9-fold. Results of this economic analysis are discussed as part of a broader trade-off analysis, resulting in recommendations to strengthen the Senegal dairy sector. The combined intervention of improved dairy cattle genetics and management is considered a promising intervention to improve livelihoods of the rural poor as well as livestock production self-sufficiency for Senegal; some other system constraints are addressed.
  • Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A.; Rinne, M.; Lamminen, M.; Mapato, C.; Ampapon, T.; Wanapat, M.; Vanhatalo, A. (2018)
    Ruminant-based food production faces currently multiple challenges such as environmental emissions, climate change and accelerating food-feed-fuel competition for arable land. Therefore, more sustainable feed production is needed together with the exploitation of novel resources. In addition to numerous food industry (milling, sugar, starch, alcohol or plant oil) side streams already in use, new ones such as vegetable and fruit residues are explored, but their conservation is challenging and production often seasonal. In the temperate zones, lipid-rich camelina (Camelina sativa) expeller as an example of oilseed by-products has potential to enrich ruminant milk and meat fat with bioactive trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 18:2 fatty acids and mitigate methane emissions. Regardless of the lower methionine content of alternative grain legume protein relative to soya bean meal (Glycine max), the lactation performance or the growth of ruminants fed faba beans (Vicia faba), peas (Pisum sativum) and lupins (Lupinus sp.) are comparable. Wood is the most abundant carbohydrate worldwide, but agroforestry approaches in ruminant nutrition are not common in the temperate areas. Untreated wood is poorly utilised by ruminants because of linkages between cellulose and lignin, but the utilisability can be improved by various processing methods. In the tropics, the leaves of fodder trees and shrubs (e.g. cassava (Manihot esculenta), Leucaena sp., Flemingia sp.) are good protein supplements for ruminants. A food-feed production system integrates the leaves and the by-products of on-farm food production to grass production in ruminant feeding. It can improve animal performance sustainably at smallholder farms. For larger-scale animal production, detoxified jatropha (Jatropha sp.) meal is a noteworthy alternative protein source. Globally, the advantages of single-cell protein (bacteria, yeast, fungi, microalgae) and aquatic biomass (seaweed, duckweed) over land crops are the independence of production from arable land and weather. The chemical composition of these feeds varies widely depending on the species and growth conditions. Microalgae have shown good potential both as lipid (e.g. Schizochytrium sp.) and protein supplements (e.g. Spirulina platensis) for ruminants. To conclude, various novel or underexploited feeds have potential to replace or supplement the traditional crops in ruminant rations. In the short-term, N-fixing grain legumes, oilseeds such as camelina and increased use of food and/or fuel industry by-products have the greatest potential to replace or supplement the traditional crops especially in the temperate zones. In the long-term, microalgae and duckweed of high-yield potential as well as wood industry by-products may become economically competitive feed options worldwide.