Browsing by Subject "MILKY-WAY"

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  • Feher, O.; Juvela, M.; Lunttila, T.; Montillaud, J.; Ristorcelli, I.; Zahorecz, S.; Toth, L. V. (2017)
    Context. The physical state of cold cloud clumps has a great impact on the process and efficiency of star formation and the masses of the forming stars inside these objects. The sub-millimetre survey of the Planck space observatory and the far-infrared follow-up mapping of the Herschel space telescope provide an unbiased, large sample of these cold objects. Aims. We have observed (CO)-C-12(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(1-0) emission in 35 high-density clumps in 26 Herschel fields sampling different environments in the Galaxy. Here, we aim to derive the physical properties of the objects and estimate their gravitational stability. Methods. The densities and temperatures of the clumps were calculated from both the dust continuum and the molecular line data. Kinematic distances were derived using (CO)-C-13(1-0) line velocities to verify previous distance estimates and the sizes and masses of the objects were calculated by fitting 2D Gaussian functions to their optical depth distribution maps on 250 mu m. The masses and virial masses were estimated assuming an upper and lower limit on the kinetic temperatures and considering uncertainties due to distance limitations. Results. The derived excitation temperatures are between 8.5-19.5 K, and for most clumps between 10 15 K, while the Herschel-derived dust colour temperatures are more uniform, between 12 16 K. The sizes (0.1-3 pc), (CO)-C-13 column densities (0.5-44 x 10(15) cm(-2)) and masses (from less than 0.1 M-circle dot to more than 1500 M-circle dot) of the objects all span broad ranges. We provide new kinematic distance estimates, identify gravitationally bound or unbound structures and discuss their nature. Conclusions. The sample contains objects on a wide scale of temperatures, densities and sizes. Eleven gravitationally unbound clumps were found, many of them smaller than 0.3 pc, but large, parsec-scale clouds with a few hundred solar masses appear as well. Colder clumps have generally high column densities but warmer objects appear at both low and higher column densities. The clump column densities derived from the line and dust observations correlate well, but are heavily affected by uncertainties of the dust properties, varying molecular abundances and optical depth effects.
  • Liu, Tie; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Qizhou; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Juvela, Mika; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Garay, Guido; Hirota, Tomoya; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kang, Sung-Ju; Li, Di; Li, Pak-Shing; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Tej, Anandmayee; Toth, L. Viktor; Wu, Jing-Wen; Wu, Yue-Fang; Yi, Hee-weon; Yun, Hyeong-Sik; Liu, Hong-Li; Peng, Ya-Ping; Li, Juan; Li, Shang-Huo; Lee, Chang Won; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Baug, Tapas; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Yong; Issac, Namitha; Zhu, Feng-Yao; Luo, Qiu-Yi; Soam, Archana; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Xu, Feng-Wei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Chao (2020)
    The ATOMS, standing for ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions, survey has observed 146 active star-forming regions with ALMA band 3, aiming to systematically investigate the spatial distribution of various dense gas tracers in a large sample of Galactic massive clumps, to study the roles of stellar feedback in star formation, and to characterize filamentary structures inside massive clumps. In this work, the observations, data analysis, and example science of the ATOMS survey are presented, using a case study for the G9.62+0.19 complex. Toward this source, some transitions, commonly assumed to trace dense gas, including CS J = 2-1, HCO+ J = 1-0, and HCN J = 1-0, are found to show extended gas emission in low-density regions within the clump; less than 25 per cent of their emission is from dense cores. SO, CH3OH, (HCN)-C-13, and HC3N show similar morphologies in their spatial distributions and reveal well the dense cores. Widespread narrow SiO emission is present (over similar to 1 pc), which may be caused by slow shocks from large-scale colliding flows or HII regions. Stellar feedback from an expanding HII region has greatly reshaped the natal clump, significantly changed the spatial distribution of gas, and may also account for the sequential high-mass star formation in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The ATOMS survey data can be jointly analysed with other survey data, e.g. MALT90, Orion B, EMPIRE, ALMA IMF, and ALMAGAL, to deepen our understandings of 'dense gas' star formation scaling relations and massive protocluster formation.
  • Liu, Tie; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Qizhou; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Juvela, Mika; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Garay, Guido; Hirota, Tomoya; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kang, Sung-Ju; Li, Di; Li, Pak-Shing; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Tej, Anandmayee; Toth, L. Viktor; Wu, Jing-Wen; Wu, Yue-Fang; Yi, Hee-weon; Yun, Hyeong-Sik; Liu, Hong-Li; Peng, Ya-Ping; Li, Juan; Li, Shang Huo; Lee, Chang Won; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Baug, Tapas; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Yong; Issac, Namitha; Zhu, Feng-Yao; Luo, Qiu-Yi; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Xu, Feng-Wei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Chao (2020)
    We report studies of the relationships between the total bolometric luminosity (L-bol or L-TIR) and the molecular line luminosities of J = 1 - 0 transitions of (HCN)-C-13, (HCO+)-C-13, HCN, and HCO+ with data obtained from ACA observations in the 'ATOMS' survey of 146 active Galactic star-forming regions. The correlations between L-bol and molecular line luminosities L-mol' of the four transitions all appear to be approximately linear. Line emission of isotopologues shows as large scatters in L-bol-L-mol' relations as their main line emission. The log(L-bol/L-mol') for different molecular line tracers have similar distributions. The L-bol-to-L-mol' ratios do not change with galactocentric distances (R-GC) and clump masses (M-clump). The molecular line luminosity ratios (HCN-to-HCO+, (HCN)-C-13-to-(HCO+)-C-13, HCN-to-(HCN)-C-13, and HCO+-to-(HCO+)-C-13) all appear constant against L-bol, dust temperature (T-d), M-clump, and R-GC. Our studies suggest that both the main lines and isotopologue lines are good tracers of the total masses of dense gas in Galactic molecular clumps. The large optical depths of main lines do not affect the interpretation of the slopes in star formation relations. We find that the mean star formation efficiency (SFE) of massive Galactic clumps in the 'ATOMS' survey is reasonably consistent with other measures of the SFE for dense gas, even those using very different tracers or examining very different spatial scales.
  • Saajasto, M.; Juvela, M.; Dobashi, K.; Shimoikura, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Montillaud, J.; Marshall, D. J.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Feher, O.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Toth, L. V.; Montier, L.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Onishi, T. (2017)
    Context. The combination of line and continuum observations can provide vital insight into the formation and fragmentation of filaments and the initial conditions for star formation. We have carried out line observations to map the kinematics of an evolved, actively star forming filament G82.65-2.00. The filament was first identified from the Planck data as a region of particularly cold dust emission and was mapped at 100-500 mu m as a part of the Herschel key program Galactic Cold Cores. The Herschel observations cover the central part of the filament, corresponding to a filament length of similar to 12 pc at the assumed distance of 620 pc.& para;& para;Aims. CO observations show that the filament has an intriguing velocity field with several velocity components around the filament. In this paper, we study the velocity structure in detail, to quantify possible mass accretion rate onto the filament, and study the masses of the cold cores located in the filament.& para;& para;Methods. We have carried out line observations of several molecules, including CO isotopologues, HCO+, HCN, and CS with the Osaka 1.85 m telescope and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral line data are used to derive velocity and column density information.& para;& para;Results. The observations reveal several velocity components in the field, with strongest line emission concentrated to velocity range similar to[3,5] km s(-1). The column density of molecular hydrogen along the filament varies from 1.0 to 2.3 x 10(22) cm(2). We have examined six cold clumps from the central part of the filament. The clumps have masses in the range 10-20 M circle dot (similar to 70 M circle dot in total) and are close to or above the virial mass. Furthermore, the main filament is heavily fragmented and most of the substructures have a mass lower than or close to the virial mass, suggesting that the filament is dispersing as a whole. Position-velocity maps of (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 lines indicate that at least one of the striations is kinematically connected to two of the clumps, potentially indicating mass accretion from the striation onto the main filament. We tentatively estimate the accretion rate to be M = 2.23 x 10(-6) M circle dot/yr.& para;& para;Conclusions. Our line observations have revealed two or possibly three velocity components connected to the filament G82.65-2.00 and putative signs of mass accretion onto the filament. The line observations combined with Herschel and WISE maps suggest a possible collision between two cloud components.
  • Campbell, David J. R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Eke, Vincent R.; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A.; Theuns, Tom (2017)
    The observed stellar kinematics of dispersion-supported galaxies are often used to measure dynamical masses. Recently, several analytical relationships between the stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion, the projected (2D) or deprojected (3D) half-light radius and the total mass enclosed within the half-light radius, relying on the spherical Jeans equation, have been proposed. Here, we use the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group to test the validity and accuracy of such mass estimators for both dispersion and rotation-supported galaxies, for field and satellite galaxies, and for galaxies of varying masses, shapes and velocity dispersion anisotropies. We find that the mass estimators of Walker et al. and Wolf et al. are able to recover the masses of dispersion-dominated systems with little systematic bias, but with a 1 sigma scatter of 25 and 23 per cent, respectively. The error on the estimated mass is dominated by the impact of the 3D shape of the stellar mass distribution, which is difficult to constrain observationally. This intrinsic scatter becomes the dominant source of uncertainty in the masses estimated for galaxies like the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the Milky Way, where the observational errors in their sizes and velocity dispersions are small. Such scatter may also affect the inner density slopes of dSphs derived from multiple stellar populations, relaxing the significance with which Navarro-Frenk-White profiles may be excluded, depending on the degree to which the relevant properties of the different stellar populations are correlated. Finally, we derive a new optimal mass estimator that removes the residual biases and achieves a statistically significant reduction in the scatter to 20 per cent overall for dispersion-dominated galaxies, allowing more precise and accurate mass estimates.
  • Gaia Collaboration; Babusiaux, C.; Muinonen, K.; Fedorets, G.; Granvik, M.; Siltala, L. (2018)
    Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. Aims. We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. Methods. We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. Results. The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardos, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L. -Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J. -M.; Dempsey, J. T.; Desert, F. -X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Fukui, Y.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Handa, T.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hily-Blant, P.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J. -M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Maffein, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M. -A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moore, T. J. T.; Morgante, G.; Morino, J.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Nakajima, T.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviellon, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Okuda, T.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J. -L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J. -L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Sygnet, J. -F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Thomas, H. S.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torii, K.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Yamamoto, H.; Yoda, T.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A. (2014)
  • Abergel, A.; Juvela, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Suur-Uski, A-S.; Valiviita, J. (2015)
    Planck data when combined with ancillary data provide a unique opportunity to separate the diffuse emission components of the inner Galaxy. The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the morphology of the various emission components in the strong star-formation region lying inside the solar radius and to clarify the relationship between the various components. The region of the Galactic plane covered is 1 = 300 degrees -> 0 degrees -> 60 degrees where star-formation is highest and the emission is strong enough to make meaningful component separation. The latitude widths in this longitude range lie between 1 and 2, which correspond to FWHM z-widths of 100-200 pc at a typical distance of 6 kpc. The four emission components studied here are synchrotron, free-free, anomalous microwave emission (AME), and thermal (vibrational) dust emission. These components are identified by constructing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) at positions along the Galactic plane using the wide frequency coverage of Planck (28.4-857 GHz) in combination with low-frequency radio data at 0.408-2.3 GHz plus WMAP data at 23-94 GHz, along with far-infrared (FIR) data from COBE-DIRBE and IRAS. The free-free component is determined from radio recombination line (RRL) data. AME is found to be comparable in brightness to the free-free emission on the Galactic plane in the frequency range 20-40 GHz with a width in latitude similar to that of the thermal dust; it comprises 45 +/- 1% of the total 28.4 GHz emission in the longitude range 1 = 300 degrees -> 0 degrees -> 60 degrees. The free-free component is the narrowest, reflecting the fact that it is produced by current star-formation as traced by the narrow distribution of OB stars. It is the dominant emission on the plane between 60 and 100 GHz. RRLs from this ionized gas are used to assess its distance, leading to a free-free z-width of FWHM approximate to 100 pc. The narrow synchrotron component has a low-frequency brightness spectral index beta(synch) approximate to -2.7 that is similar to the broad synchrotron component indicating that they are both populated by the cosmic ray electrons of the same spectral index. The width of this narrow synchrotron component is significantly larger than that of the other three components, suggesting that it is generated in an assembly of older supernova remnants that have expanded to sizes of order 150 pc in 3 x 10(5) yr; pulsars of a similar age have a similar spread in latitude. The thermal dust is identified in the SEDs with average parameters of T-dust = 20.4 +/- 0.4 K, beta(FIR) = 1.94 +/- 0.03 (>353 GHz), and beta(mm) = 1.67 +/- 0.02 (
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration (2015)
    The nearby Chamaeleon clouds have been observed in gamma rays by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and in thermal dust emission by Planck and IRAS. Cosmic rays and large dust grains, if smoothly mixed with gas, can jointly serve with the Hi and (CO)-C-12 radio data to (i) map the hydrogen column densities, N-H, in the different gas phases, in particular at the dark neutral medium (DNM) transition between the H I-bright and CO-bright media; (ii) constrain the CO-to-H-2 conversion factor, X-CO; and (iii) probe the dust properties per gas nucleon in each phase and map their spatial variations across the clouds. We have separated clouds at local, intermediate, and Galactic velocities in H i and (1)2CO line emission to model in parallel the gamma-ray intensity recorded between 0.4 and 100 GeV; the dust optical depth at 353 GHz, tau(353); the thermal radiance of the large grains; and an estimate of the dust extinction, A(VQ), empirically corrected for the starlight intensity. The dust and gamma-models have been coupled to account for the DNM gas. The consistent gamma-emissivity spectra recorded in the different phases confirm that the GeV-TeV cosmic rays probed by the LAT uniformly permeate all gas phases up to the (CO)-C-12 cores. The dust and cosmic rays both reveal large amounts of DNM gas, with comparable spatial distributions and twice as much mass as in the CO-bright clouds. We give constraints on the H I-DNM-CO transitions for five separate clouds. CO-dark H-2 dominates the molecular columns up to A(V) similar or equal to 0.9 and its mass often exceeds the one-third of the molecular mass expected by theory. The corrected A(VQ) extinction largely provides the best fit to the total gas traced by the gamma rays. Nevertheless, we find evidence for a marked rise in A(VQ)/N-H with increasing N-H and molecular fraction, and with decreasing dust temperature. The rise in tau(353)/N-H is even steeper. We observe variations of lesser amplitude and orderliness for the specific power of the grains, except for a coherent decline by half in the CO cores. This combined information suggests grain evolution. We provide average values for the dust properties per gas nucleon in the different phases. The gamma rays and dust radiance yield consistent X-CO estimates near 0.7 x 10(20) cm(-2) K-1 km(-1) s. The A(VQ) and tau(353) tracers yield biased values because of the large rise in grain opacity in the CO clouds. These results clarify a recurrent disparity in the gamma-versus dust calibration of X-CO, but they confirm the factor of 2 difference found between the X-CO estimates in nearby clouds and in the neighbouring spiral arms.
  • Annila, Arto (2016)
    Rotation of galaxies is examined by the general principle of least action. This law of nature describes a system in its surroundings, here specifically a galaxy in the surrounding Universe. According to this holistic theory the gravitational potential due to all matter in the expanding Universe relates to the universal curvature which, in turn, manifests itself as the universal acceleration. Then the orbital velocities from the central bulge to distant perimeters are understood to balance both the galactic and universal acceleration. Since the galactic acceleration decreases with distance from the galaxy's center to its luminous edge, the orbital velocities of ever more distant stars and gas clouds tend toward a value that tallies the universal acceleration. This tiny term has been acknowledged earlier by including it as a parameter in the modified gravitational law, but here the tiny acceleration is understood to result from the gravitational potential that spans across the expanding Universe. This resolution of the galaxy rotation problem is compared with observations and contrasted with models of dark matter. Also, other astronomical observations that have been interpreted as evidence for dark matter are discussed in light of the least-action principle.
  • Eden, D. J.; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, M.; Liu, S. -Y.; Tatematsu, K.; Di Francesco, J.; Wang, K.; Wu, Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Fuller, G. A.; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Hirano, N.; Johnstone, D.; Lin, Y.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, S. -L.; Zhang, Q.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Evans, N. J.; Yuan, J.; Zhang, C. -P.; White, G. J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, S.; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, M.; Soam, A.; Peretto, N.; Samal, M. R.; Fich, M.; Parsons, H.; Malinen, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, H. -L.; Wouterloot, J.; Li, P. S.; Qian, L.; Rawlings, J.; Rawlings, M. G.; Feng, S.; Wang, B.; Li, Dalei; Liu, M.; Luo, G.; Marston, A. P.; Pattle, K. M.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Rigby, A. J.; Zahorecz, S.; Zhang, G.; Bogner, R.; Aikawa, Y.; Akhter, S.; Alina, D.; Bell, G.; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, A.; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, S.; Chen, H. -R.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. -P.; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Chu, Y. -H.; Chung, E. J.; Cornu, D.; Cosentino, G.; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Doi, Y.; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, E.; Feher, O.; Fraser, H.; Friberg, P.; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, J.; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hasegawa, T.; He, Y.; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, T. -G.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Kang, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, S.; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Y. -J.; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, S. -P.; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, H.; Lo, N.; Lopez, J. A. P.; Lu, X.; Lyo, A. -R.; Mardones, D.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, S.; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pech, G.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Z. -Y.; Richer, J.; Sakai, T.; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, H.; Stamatellos, D.; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, A.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Walsh, A.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A.; Wilson, C. D.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Yuan, Y. -L.; Yuan, L.; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, L.; Zuo, P. (2019)
    We present the first release of the data and compact-source catalogue for the JCMT Large Program SCUBA-2 Continuum Observations of Pre-protostellar Evolution (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of 850 mu m continuum observations of 1235 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) made with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. These data are at an angular resolution of 14.4 arcsec, significantly improving upon the 353 GHz resolution of Planck at 5 arcmin, and allowing for a catalogue of 3528 compact sources in 558 PGCCs. We find that the detected PGCCs have significant sub-structure, with 61 per cent of detected PGCCs having three or more compact sources, with filamentary structure also prevalent within the sample. A detection rate of 45 per cent is found across the survey, which is 95 per cent complete to Planck column densities of N-H2 > 5 x10(21) cm(-2). By positionally associating the SCOPE compact sources with young stellar objects, the star formation efficiency, as measured by the ratio of luminosity to mass, in nearby clouds is found to be similar to that in the more distant Galactic Plane, with the column density distributions also indistinguishable from each other.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Toth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott (2016)
    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of similar to 100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L-TIR) and molecular line luminosities (L-mol') of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L-TIR similar to 10(3) L-circle dot. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L-TIR-L-mol' correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and sigma(line)/sigma(vir). Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L-TIR-L-mol' correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L-TIR larger than L-TIR similar to 10(4.5) L-circle dot. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M-clump-L-mol' and L-TIR-L-mol' relations.
  • Cautun, Marius; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.; McAlpine, Stuart (2019)
    The Milky Way (MW) offers a uniquely detailed view of galactic structure and is often regarded as a prototypical spiral galaxy. But recent observations indicate that the MW is atypical: it has an undersized supermassive black hole at its centre; it is surrounded by a very low mass, excessively metal-poor stellar halo; and it has an unusually large nearby satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here, we show that the LMC is on a collision course with the MW with which it will merge in 2.4(-0.8)(+1.2) Gyr (68 per cent confidence level). This catastrophic and long-overdue event will restore the MW to normality. Using the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation, we show that, as a result of the merger, the central supermassive black hole will increase in mass by up to a factor of 8. The Galactic stellar halo will undergo an equally impressive transformation, becoming 5 times more massive. The additional stars will come predominantly from the disrupted LMC, but a sizeable number will be ejected on to the halo from the stellar disc. The post-merger stellar halo will have the median metallicity of the LMC, [Fe/H] = -0.5 dex, which is typical of other galaxies of similar mass to the MW. At the end of this exceptional event, the MW will become a true benchmark for spiral galaxies, at least temporarily.
  • Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian (2016)
    We use a large sample of isolated dark matter halo pairs drawn from cosmological N-body simulations to identify candidate systems whose kinematics match that of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies. We find, in agreement with the 'timing argument' and earlier work, that the separation and approach velocity of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies favour a total mass for the pair of similar to 5 x 10(12) M-circle dot. A mass this large, however, is difficult to reconcile with the small relative tangential velocity of the pair, as well as with the small deceleration from the Hubble flow observed for the most distant LG members. Halo pairs that match these three criteria have average masses a factor of similar to 2 times smaller than suggested by the timing argument, but with large dispersion. Guided by these results, we have selected 12 halo pairs with total mass in the range 1.6-3.6 x 10(12) M-circle dot for the APOSTLE project (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of hydrodynamical resimulations at various numerical resolution levels (reaching up to similar to 10(4) M-circle dot per gas particle) that use the subgrid physics developed for the EAGLE project. These simulations reproduce, by construction, the main kinematics of the MW-M31 pair, and produce satellite populations whose overall number, luminosities, and kinematics are in good agreement with observations of the MW and M31 companions. The APOSTLE candidate systems thus provide an excellent testbed to confront directly many of the predictions of the Lambda cold dark matter cosmology with observations of our local Universe.
  • Bernal, Nicolas; Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo; Vaskonen, Ville (2017)
    We present an overview of scenarios where the observed Dark Matter (DM) abundance consists of Feebly Interacting Massive Particles (FIMPs), produced nonthermally by the so-called freeze-in mechanism. In contrast to the usual freeze-out scenario, frozen-in FIMP DM interacts very weakly with the particles in the visible sector and never attained thermal equilibrium with the baryon-photon fluid in the early Universe. Instead of being determined by its annihilation strength, the DM abundance depends on the decay and annihilation strengths of particles in equilibrium with the baryon-photon fluid, as well as couplings in the DM sector. This makes frozen-in DM very difficult but not impossible to test. In this review, we present the freeze-in mechanism and its variations considered in the literature (dark freeze-out and reannihilation), compare them to the standard DM freeze-out scenario, discuss several aspects of model building, and pay particular attention to observational properties and general testability of such feebly interacting DM.
  • Starkenburg, Else; Oman, Kyle A.; Navarro, Julio F.; Crain, Robert A.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Frenk, Carlos S.; Sawala, Till; Schaye, Joop (2017)
    We examine the spatial distribution of the oldest and most metal-poor stellar populations of Milky Way-sized galaxies using the A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment (APOSTLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group. In agreement with earlier work, we find strong radial gradients in the fraction of the oldest (t(form) <0.8 Gyr) and most metal-poor ([Fe/H] <-2.5) stars, both of which increase outwards. The most metal-poor stars form over an extended period of time; half of them form after z = 5.3, and the last 10 per cent after z = 2.8. The age of the metal-poor stellar population also shows significant variation with environment; a high fraction of them are old in the galaxy's central regions and an even higher fraction in some individual dwarf galaxies, with substantial scatter from dwarf to dwarf. We investigate the dependence of these results on the assumptions made for metal mixing. Overall, over half of the stars that belong to both the oldest and most metal-poor population are found outside the solar circle. Somewhat counter-intuitively, we find that dwarf galaxies with a large fraction of metal-poor stars that are very old are systems where metal-poor stars are relatively rare, but where a substantial old population is present. Our results provide guidance for interpreting the results of surveys designed to hunt for the earliest and most pristine stellar component of our Milky Way.
  • Käpylä, M. J.; Gent, F. A.; Väisälä, M. S.; Sarson, G. R. (2018)
    Context. The forcing of interstellar turbulence, driven mainly by supernova (SN) explosions, is irrotational in nature, but the development of significant amounts of vorticity and helicity, accompanied by large-scale dynamo action, has been reported. Aims. Several earlier investigations examined vorticity production in simpler systems; here all the relevant processes can be considered simultaneously. We also investigate the mechanisms for the generation of net helicity and large-scale flow in the system. Methods. We use a three-dimensional, stratified, rotating and shearing local simulation domain of the size 1 x 1 x 2 kpc(3), forced with SN explosions occurring at a rate typical of the solar neighbourhood in the MilkyWay. In addition to the nominal simulation run with realistic Milky Way parameters, we vary the rotation and shear rates, but keep the absolute value of their ratio fixed. Reversing the sign of shear vs. rotation allows us to separate the rotation-and shear-generated contributions. Results. As in earlier studies, we find the generation of significant amounts of vorticity, the rotational flow comprising on average 65% of the total flow. The vorticity production can be related to the baroclinicity of the flow, especially in the regions of hot, dilute clustered supernova bubbles. In these regions, the vortex stretching acts as a sink of vorticity. In denser, compressed regions, the vortex stretching amplifies vorticity, but remains sub-dominant to baroclinicity. The net helicities produced by rotation and shear are of opposite signs for physically motivated rotation laws, with the solar neighbourhood parameters resulting in the near cancellation of the total net helicity. We also find the excitation of oscillatory mean flows, the strength and oscillation period of which depend on the Coriolis and shear parameters; we interpret these as signatures of the anisotropic-kinetic-alpha (AKA) effect. We use the method of moments to fit for the turbulent transport coefficients, and find alpha(AKA) values of the order 3-5 km s(-1). Conclusions. Even in a weakly rotationally and shear-influenced system, small-scale anisotropies can lead to significant effects at large scales. Here we report on two consequences of such effects, namely on the generation of net helicity and on the emergence of large-scale flows by the AKA effect, the latter detected for the first time in a direct numerical simulation of a realistic astrophysical system.
  • Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu (2018)
    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turn into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax <20-30 km s(-1). Dark-matter-dominated dwarfs should therefore have characteristic velocities of about that value, unless they are small enough to probe only the rising part of the halo circular velocity curve (i.e. half-mass radii, r(1/2)