Browsing by Subject "MIND"

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  • Smith, Martine M.; Batorowicz, Beata; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Murray, Janice; Stadskleiv, Kristine; van Balkom, Hans; Neuvonen, Kirsi; von Tetzchner, Stephen (2018)
    Narratives are a pervasive form of discourse and a rich source for exploring a range of language and cognitive skills. The limited research base to date suggests that narratives generated using aided communication may be structurally simple, and that features of cohesion and reference may be lacking. This study reports on the analysis of narratives generated in interactions involving aided communication in response to short, silent, video vignettes depicting events with unintended or unexpected consequences. Two measures were applied to the data: the Narrative Scoring Scheme and the Narrative Analysis Profile. A total of 15 participants who used aided communication interacted with three different communication partners (peers, parents, professionals) relaying narratives about three video events. Their narratives were evaluated with reference to narratives of 15 peers with typical development in response to the same short videos and to the narratives that were interpreted by their communication partners. Overall, the narratives generated using aided communication were shorter and less complete than those of the speaking peers, but they incorporated many similar elements. Topic maintenance and inclusion of scene-setting elements were consistent strengths. Communication partners offered rich interpretations of aided narratives. Relative to the aided narratives, these interpreted narratives were typically structurally more complete and cohesive and many incorporated more elaborated semantic content. The data reinforce the robust value of narratives in interaction and their potential for showcasing language and communication achievements in aided communication.
  • Kujala, Miiamaaria; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnove; Hari, Riitta (2012)
  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Tikka, Pia; Kauttonen, Janne; Hlushchuk, Yevhen (2018)
    Narratives surround us in our everyday life in different forms. In the sensory brain areas, the processing of narratives is dependent on the media of presentation, be that in audiovisual or written form. However, little is known of the brain areas that process complex narrative content mediated by various forms. To isolate these regions, we looked for the functional networks reacting in a similar manner to the same narrative content despite different media of presentation. We collected 3-T fMRI whole brain data from 31 healthy human adults during two separate runs when they were either viewing a movie or reading its screenplay text. The independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate 40 components. By correlating the components' time-courses between the two different media conditions, we could isolate 5 functional networks that particularly related to the same narrative content. These TOP-5 components with the highest correlation covered fronto-temporal, parietal, and occipital areas with no major involvement of primary visual or auditory cortices. Interestingly, the top-ranked network with highest modality-invariance also correlated negatively with the dialogue predictor, thus pinpointing that narrative comprehension entails processes that are not language-reliant. In summary, our novel experiment design provided new insight into narrative comprehension networks across modalities.
  • Sakai, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yuji; Shin, Duk; Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Sadato, Norihiro (2013)
  • Salo, Saara Johanna; Lipsanen, Jari; Sourander, Johanna; Pajulo, Marjukka; Kalland, Mirjam (2022)
    Parent relationship satisfaction and parental reflective functioning (PRF) are significant factors in the transition to first-time parenting and are likely to affect a child's later wellbeing. However, little is known about their joint longitudinal effects from pregnancy onward. Starting in the prenatal period, this follow-up study of 1016 Finnish first-time parents (358 fathers and 658 mothers at baseline) examined the stability and the reciprocal associations between relationship satisfaction and PRF in predicting child behavioral problems (CBCL) at age 2. First, the results of the random-intercept cross-lagged panel models showed that both relationship satisfaction and PRF were stable from pregnancy onward for both mothers and fathers, with the exception of mothers' prenatal PRF. Second, there were significant reciprocal associations between low prenatal PRF and low relationship satisfaction at age 1, and vice versa. Third, for both mothers and fathers, a low level of relationship satisfaction, but not PRF, predicted consistently higher levels of child behavioral problems at age 2. These results suggest that parent relationship satisfaction and PRF are stable but largely independent parental factors during the transition to parenthood. In addition, our results highlight the significant role of parent relationship satisfaction in predicting toddler behavior problems, which indicates the relevance of early relationship-orientated help for first-time parents.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Laakso, Minna (2019)
    This study describes the role of ungrammatical utterances and disfluent speech in the creation of comprehension problems between the participants in group therapy sessions of preadolescents with autism. The speech of the autistic preadolescents included frequent disfluencies and morpho-syntactic problems, such as wrong case endings, ambiguous pronominal references, grammatically incoherent syntactic structures and inaccurate tenses, which caused problems of comprehension. Three different interactional trajectories occurred when solving the potential problems of comprehension following the morpho-syntactically disfluent turns. First, the disfluent turn sometimes led to a clarification request by a co-participant, either a therapist or another participant with ASD. The preadolescents with ASD showed interactional skilfulness in requesting clarification when faced with comprehension problems. Second, in contrast, other occurrences included one or several self-repairs by the speaker with ASD. In these cases, the other group participants either did not react or they encouraged the speaker to continue using discourse particles. If the self-repairing disfluencies led to a persisting problem of comprehension, the therapists sometimes intervened and resolved the problem. However, direct interventions by the therapists were infrequent because the participants with ASD were mostly able to resolve the comprehension problems by themselves. Third, some disfluent and/or grammatically incorrect turns were not treated as problematic by the co-participants nor by the speaker himself.