Browsing by Subject "MINERAL DENSITY"

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  • Pirila, Satu; Taskinen, Mervi; Turanlahti, Maila; Kajosaari, Merja; Makitie, Outi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M.; Viljakainen, Heli (2014)
  • Engberg, Elina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Huvinen, Emilia; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2020)
    Introduction Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. However, bone health of women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) has received little attention. This cross-sectional study compares bone health between premenopausal women with and without a history of GDM, and examines factors associated with bone health in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Material and methods We measured areal bone mineral density for total hip, lumbar spine and whole body, and total body fat percentage (fat%) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 224 women. In addition, we measured bone characteristics of radius and tibia with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Results When compared with women without a history of GDM (mean age 39 years [SD 5], body mass index [BMI] 35 kg/m(2) [SD 6], fat% 48 [SD 7]), women with a history of GDM (age 41 years [SD 4], BMI 31 kg/m(2) [SD 7], fat% 43 [SD 10]) had lower hip and whole body bone mineral densities, and inferior tibia outcomes. However, the differences in bone characteristics disappeared after controlling for age, height, BMI and fat%. After controlling for age, height, BMI and smoking, physical activity and healthier diet were positively associated with bone outcomes, whereas fat%, HbA(1c) and screen time were negatively associated with bone outcomes. Particularly, fat% showed independent negative associations with whole body bone mineral density and several tibia and radius characteristics. Conclusions Fat% is associated with adverse bone health, independently of BMI, in women with a history of GDM or obesity. Promoting healthy lifestyle and reducing fat% in high-risk women could improve bone health and prevent future fractures.
  • Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Sabin, Matthew A.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Impivaara, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Magnussen, Costan G.; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Context: Passive smoke exposure has been linked to the risk of osteoporosis in adults. Objective: We examined the independent effects of childhood passive smoke exposure on adult bone health. Design/Setting: Longitudinal, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants: The study cohort included 1422 individuals followed for 28 years since baseline in 1980 (age 3 to 18 years). Exposure to passive smoking was determined in childhood. In adulthood, peripheral bone traits were assessed with peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) at the tibia and radius, and calcaneal mineral density was estimated with quantitative ultrasound. Fracture data were gathered by questionnaires. Results: Parental smoking in childhood was associated with lower pQCT-derived bone sum index in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.064 +/- 0.023 per smoking parent; P= 0.004) in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, active smoking, body mass index, serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, physical activity, and parental socioeconomic position. Similarly, parental smoking was associated with lower heel ultrasound estimated bone mineral density in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.097 +/- 0.041 per smoking parent; P = 0.02). Parental smoking was also associated with the incidence of low-energy fractures (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.62). Individuals with elevated cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) in childhood had lower bone sum index with pQCT (beta +/- SE, -0.206 +/- 0.057; P = 0.0003). Children whose parents smoked and had high cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) had significantly lower pQCT-derived bone sum index compared with those with smoking parents but had low cotinine levels ( Conclusions and Relevance: Children of parents who smoke have evidence of impaired bone health in adulthood.
  • Laakso, Saila; Valta, Helena; Verkasalo, Matti; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Makitie, Outi (2014)
  • Itkonen, Suvi T.; Rita, Hannu J.; Saarnio, Elisa M.; Kemi, Virpi E.; Karp, Heini J.; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Pekkinen, Minna H.; Laitinen, E. Kalevi; Risteli, Juha; Koivula, Marja-Kaisa; Sievanen, Harri; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J. E. (2017)
    High dietary phosphorus (P) intake has acute negative effects on calcium (Ca) and bone metabolism, but long-term clinical data are contradictory. We hypothesized that high P intake is associated with impaired bone health as suggested by earlier short-term studies on bone metabolism. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated associations between dietary P intake, bone traits in the radius and tibia, and bone turnover in a population-based sample of 37- to 47-year-old Caucasian premenopausal women (n = 333) and men (n = 179) living in Southern Finland (60 degrees N). We used various regression models in an "elaboration approach" to elucidate the role of P intake in bone traits and turnover. The addition of relevant covariates to the models mainly removed the significance of P intake as a determinant of bone traits. In the final regression model (P intake, weight, height, age, Ca intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, physical activity, smoking, contraceptive use in women), P intake was slightly positively associated only with bone mineral content and cross-sectional cortical bone area in the tibia of men. Among women, inclusion of Ca removed all existing significance in the crude models for any bone trait. In women P intake was negatively associated with the bone formation marker serum intact pro-collagen type I amino-terminal propeptide, whereas no association was present between P intake and bone turnover in men. In conclusion, these findings disagree with the hypothesis; P intake was not deleteriously associated with bone traits; however, P intake may negatively contribute to bone formation among women. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kemp, John P.; Sayers, Adrian; Paternoster, Lavinia; Evans, David M.; Deere, Kevin; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Ring, Susan M.; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lehtimaki, Terho; Eriksson, Joel; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievanen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Smith, George Davey; Fraser, William D.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Ohlsson, Claes; Tobias, Jon H. (2014)
  • Winzenberg, Tania; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Fuleihan, Ghada Ei-Hajj; Molgaard, Christian; Zhu, Kun; Wu, Feitong; Riley, Richard D. (2018)
    Introduction Our previous study-level (aggregate data) meta-analysis suggested that vitamin D supplements may be beneficial for bone density specifically in children with vitamin D deficiency. However, the misclassification of vitamin D status inherent in study-level data means that the results are not definitive and cannot provide an accurate assessment of the size of any effect. Therefore, we propose to undertake an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine whether the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone density in children differs according to baseline vitamin D status, and to specifically estimate the effect of vitamin D in children who are vitamin D deficient. Methods and analysis This study has been designed to adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of IPD statement. We will include randomised placebo-controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation reporting hone density outcomes at least 6 months after the study commenced in children and adolescents (aged Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval will not be required as the data are to be used for the primary purpose for which they were collected and all original individual studies had ethics approval. Results of the IPD meta-analysis will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
  • Huovinen, Ville; Bucci, Marco; Lipponen, Heta; Kiviranta, Riku; Sandboge, Samuel; Raiko, Juho; Koskinen, Suvi; Koskensalo, Kalle; Eriksson, Johan G.; Parkkola, Riitta; Iozzo, Patricia; Nuutila, Pirjo (2016)
    Bone marrow insulin sensitivity may be an important factor for bone health in addition to bone mineral density especially in insulin resistant conditions. First we aimed to study if prenatal maternal obesity plays a role in determining bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring. Secondly we studied if a four-month individualized resistance training intervention increases bone marrow insulin sensitivity in elderly female offspring and whether this possible positive outcome is regulated by the offspring's mother's obesity status. 37 frail elderly females (mean age 71.9 +/- 3.1 years) of which 20 were offspring of lean/normal-weight mothers (OLM, maternal BMI = 28.1 kg/m(2)) were studied before and after a four-month individualized resistance training intervention. Nine age-and sex-matched non-frail controls (maternal BMI
  • Tolonen, Sanna; Sievänen, Harri; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Laaksonen, Marika; Mikkilä, Vera; Palve, Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika (2018)
    In this cross-sectional study, peripheral bone traits were examined relative to total daily steps measured with pedometer. Higher number of steps was associated with greater bone values at the calcaneus and tibia in women, but not in men. In women, dose-dependent associations at the radius were congruent with the weight-bearing bones. Introduction Habitual physical activity measured as daily steps may contribute to bone density and strength at the calcaneus and other weight-bearing bones. Methods Subgroups of 705-837 women and 480-615 men aged 31-46 years from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study participated in the present study. Participants were instructed to use pedometer for 1 week, and the total daily steps, divided into tertiles, were evaluated relative to quantitative ultrasound-measured bone traits at the calcaneus and peripheral quantitative computed tomography-measured bone traits at the tibia and radius. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the between-group differences. Results In women, significant dose-dependent between-group differences were found in the weight-bearing bones and in non-weight-bearing radius. The differences in broadband ultrasound attenuation and speed of sound at the calcaneus were 3.8 and 0.5% greater in women within the highest tertile of daily steps compared to the lowest tertile (p values for trend 8765 steps/day) had on average 1-5.4% greater bone cross-sectional area, bone mineral content (BMC), trabecular density, and bone strength index at the distal site and 1.6-2.7% greater bone areas, BMC and strength strain index (SSI) at the shaft compared to women with less daily steps (p values for trend Conclusion Observed significant positive associations between daily steps and various bone traits at the calcaneus, tibia, and radius in women suggest that habitual physical activity may benefit skeletal health in adulthood.
  • Laakso, Saila; Valta, Helena; Verkasalo, Matti; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna-Maria; Viljakainen, Heli; Mäkitie, Outi (2012)
  • Lingaiah, Shilpa; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Risteli, Juha; Tapanainen, Juha S. (2019)
    Objective: To study the effects of metformin treatment on bone turnover in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as measured by serum concentrations of bone turnover markers. Design: Post hoc study of a previously conducted prospective multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Setting: University clinic. Patient(s): The study cohort consisted of 74 non-obese women (body mass index <27 kg/m(2)) and 44 obese women (body mass index >= 27 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with PCOS, with a mean age of 27.6 +/- 4.0 (SD) years. Intervention(s): Randomization to receive metformin or placebo for 3 months. Main Outcome Measure(s): Serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP) and bone resorption marker carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) at baseline and after metformin/placebo treatment. Result(s): Serum levels of PINP and CTX were similar between the metformin and placebo groups at baseline in the whole study population. Obese women, when compared with non-obese, had lower baseline levels of PINP and CTX. Levels of PINP and CTX were significantly reduced in the whole study population, as well as in both non-obese and obese women after 3 months of metformin treatment, whereas no significant changes were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion(s): Metformin treatment, when compared with placebo, was associated with reduced bone turnover, as suggested by reductions in markers of bone formation and resorption, leading to slower bone remodeling in premenopausal women with PCOS. ((C) 2019 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.)
  • Laakso, Saila; Viljakainen, Heli; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Turpeinen, Ursula; Ivaska, Kaisa K.; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Ivell, Richard; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    Background: Previous studies suggest increased risk for hypoandrogenism and fractures in men with obesity. We aimed to describe the effects of severe childhood-onset obesity on the cross talk between metabolic state, testes, and skeleton at late puberty. Methods: A cohort of adolescent and young adult males with severe childhood-onset obesity (n = 21, mean age 18.5 years) and an age-matched control group were assessed for testicular hormones and X-ray absorptiometry-derived bone mass. Results: Current median body mass indexes for the obese and control subjects were 37.4 and 22.9. Severe early-onset obesity manifested with lower free testosterone (median [interquartile range] 244 [194-332] vs. 403 [293-463] pmol/L, p = 0.002). Lower insulin-like 3 (1.02 [0.82-1.23] vs. 1.22 [1.01-1.46] ng/mL, p = 0.045) and lower ratio of testosterone to luteinizing hormone (2.81 [1.96-3.98] vs. 4.10 [3.03-5.83] nmol/IU, p = 0.008) suggested disrupted Leydig cell function. The degree of current obesity inversely correlated with free testosterone (t = -0.516, p = 0.003), which in turn correlated positively with bone area at all measurement sites in males with childhood-onset obesity. Conclusions: Severe childhood-onset obesity is associated with impaired Leydig cell function in young men and lower free testosterone may contribute to impaired skeletal characteristics. (C) 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Mäkitaipale, Johanna; Sievänen, Harri; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2018)
    Rabbit bones are brittle and prone to fissure formation. Radiographs of very young and old rabbits are often indicative of decreased bone density. The aim of this study was to investigate the tibial bone parameters in pet rabbits, and their association with age, sex, castration and dental disease. Eighty-seven (43 female/5 spayed, 44 male/19 castrated) pet rabbits (mean age 2.6 years, range 0.3-9.3 years) of various breeds were studied, of which 37 had dental disease. Right tibiae were scanned with peripheral quantitative CT at the distal (4percent) and mid-shaft sites (50percent of the tibial length). Analysed bone parameters included the total cross-sectional area, cortical bone area and density, trabecular bone density and strength-strain index. The mean diaphyseal cortical density was high (about 1400 mg/cm(3)) in comparison to many other species. Within the studied age range, age was weakly but positively associated with diaphyseal cortical density, with the juvenile rabbits clearly showing the lowest values. There was no tendency for age-related decrease in trabecular or cortical bone density at least up to six years of age. Neither were sex, castration nor dental disease associated with decreased tibial bone density.
  • Pekkinen, Minna; Saarnio, Elisa; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Kokkonen, Elina; Jakobsen, Jette; Cashman, Kevin; Mäkitie, Outi; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel (2014)